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iliiUmUUi: 



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TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1900-1901 



J. ^^. POW^ELL 

DIRECTOR 



IIsT TWO I^ARTS— PART 2 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
19 0rt 



ACCOMPAXYING PAPERS 

( coisr'ri:^!-!-",!) i 



THE HAKO: A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



ALICE O. FLETCHER 

HiiLDKK 111'' Thaw Feli.owshji-, Pkah(ii>y Museum, Hakvaki> Univkhsity 

ASSISTED BY 
MUSIC TKAXSl'IilBEl) HY 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Preface - - --- ^^ 

Intrndnction -- 1''' 

Name of the ceremony 17 

Personnel of the ceremony - - - 18 

Requisites of the ceremony and their symbolism _ _ _ 19 

Time of the ceremony .._._- 23 

Scheme of the ceremony _ . . _ _ . - 24 

TheHako_.. ..- 26 

The preparation - 26 

First cIi^^sion. Initial rites ... 27 

First ritnal. Making the Hako 37 

Part I. Invoking the powers ... - - - 27 

Part II. Preparing the feathered stems. . 37 

Part III. Painting the ear of corn and preparing the other 

sacred objects.. 42 

Part IV. Offering of smoke 48 

Second ritual. Prefiguring the journey to the Son 49 

Third ritual. Sending the messengers 56 

Fourth ritual 58 

Part I. Vi-safjing the sacred objects 58 

Part II. Mother Cora assumes leadership . 59 

Part III. The Hako party presented to the powers 63 

Second division. The joiirney 68 

Fifth ritual 68 

Part I. Mother Corn asserts authority 68 

Part II. Songs and ceremonie.s of the way . 73 

Part III. Mother Corn reasserts leadership 85 

Third division. Entering the village of the Son and consecrating 

his lodge .-- • 89 

Sixth ritual 89 

Part, I. The Son's messenger received 89 

Part II. The Hako party enter the village 93 

Seventh ritual 93 

Part I. Touching and crossing the threshold 93 

Part II. Consecrating the lodge 97 

Part III. Clothing the Son and offering smoke 101 

The ceremony -. . .., . 105 

First di^-ision. The public ceremony 105 

Eighth ritnal (first day). The Fathers feed the children 105 

Ninth ritual (first night). Invoking the visions 117 

Tenthritual. The Dawn 123 

Parti. The birth of Dawn ... 123 

Part II. The Morning Star and the new-bom Dawn. 1 28 

7 



8 CONTENTS 

The Hako— continued. Page 
The ceremony — continued. 
First division — continued. 
Tenth ritual — continued. 

Partlll. Daylight _. 131 

Part IV. The Children behold the day 132 

Eleventh ritual (second day). The male element invoked 134 

Parti. Chant to the Sim 134 

Partll. Daysongs 140 

Twelfth ritual (second night). The rites came by a vision 147 

Thirteenth ritual (third day ) . The female element Invoked. . . IGl 

Part I. The sacred feast of Com Kil 

Part II. Song to the Earth . Uil 

Part III. Offering of smoke I (i8 

Part IV. Songs of the birds 108 

Fourteenth ritiral (third night). Invoking the visions of the 

ancients 1 78 

Second division. The secret ceremonies . 18:! 

Fifteenth ritual (fourth night) 183 

Part I. The flocking of the birds 1 83 

Part II. The sixteen circuits of the lodge . : . 1 87 

Sixteenth ritual (fifth day. dawn) ... ','01 

Parti. Seeking the child.. '.'01 

Part II. Symbolic inception i()4 

Part III. Acti<m symbolizing lif ■^ 209 

Seventeenth ritual 213 

Part I. Touching the child 213 

Part II. Anointing the child 222 

Part III. Painting the child 227 

Part IV. Putting on the .symbols . 23.") 

Eighteenth ritual. Fulfilment prefigured 242 

Part I. Making the nest 242 

Part II. Symbolic fulfilment 214 

Part III. Thank offering ... 240 

Third division. The dance of thanks 247 

Nineteenth ritual 247 

Part I. The call to the Children 247 

Part II. The dance and reception of gifts 2.")2 

Fourth division. The presentation of the Hako 250 

Twentieth ritual •.'■"lO 

Part I. Blessing the child 2.">6 

Part II. Presenting the Hako to tlie Sou and thanks to the 

Children 2.-)!) 

Incidental ceremonies . . . . . 2(i0 

Comforting the child. . 2(iO 

Prayer to avert storms 2(1.") 

Prayer for the gift of children . . 2()7 

Changing a man's name 272 

Analytical recapitulation 270 

Origin and geographic distribution of the ceremony 27!) 

Purpose of the ceremony . . 2.m() 

Structure of the ceremony 2S 1 

Rhythmic expression in the ceremony . 283 



CONTENTS 9 

Analytical recapitulation— continued. P^^e 

The piviiaration _ _ 2g3 

First ilivision. Initial rites 283 

First ritual. Maki^,^' the Hako 283 

Part I. Invoking the powers, 283 

Part II. Preparing the feathered stems . 287 

Part III. Painting the ear of com and preparing the other 

sacred objects 039 

Second ritual. Prefiguring the journey to the Son 293 

Third ritual. Sending the messengers . . 294 

Fourth ritual . . . . 095 

Part I. Vivifying tlie sacred objects _ _ . 2i).-( 

Part II. Mother Corn assumes leadership 290 

Part III. The Hako party presented to the powers 297 

Second division. The journey.. 299 

Fifth ritual ■_ o()9 

Part I. Mother Corn asserts authority . . '^99 

Part II. Songs and ceremonies of the way ___ :ioi 

Part III. Mother Corn reasserts leadership -.mi 

Third division. Entering the village of the Son and consecrating 

his lodge 3(),H 

Sixth ritual . _ _ ;iOH 

Part I. The Son's mes.senger received. :!(18 

Part II. The Hako party enter the village _ _ ;!()« 

Seventh ritual ;j09 

Part I. Touching and crossing the threshold. :!()9 

Part II. Consecrating the lodge. :U0 

Part HI. Clothing the Son and offering smoke ;!12 

The ceremony :; I ;j 

First division. The public ceremony 313 

Eighth ritual (first day). The Fathers feed the Children ... 313 

Ninth ritual (first night). Invoking the visions . . 317 

Tenth ritual— The Dawn 309 

Part I. The birth of Dawn 300 

Part II. The Morning Star and the new-born Dawn . 3. '3 

Part III. Daylight 304 

Part IV. The Children behold the day 324 

Eleventh ritual (second day). The male element invoked . . . 32.5 

Part I. Chant to the Sun . . 305 

Part II. Day songs 32e 

Twelfth ritual (second night). The rites came by a vision.. 328 

Thirteenth ritual (third day). The female element invoked. . . 333 

Part I. Sacred feast of Corn . 333 

Part II. Song to the Earth 333 

Part HI. OiTering of smoke 33G 

Part IV. Songs of the birds . . 330 

Fourteenth ritual (third night). Invoking the visions of the 

ancients _. ;j37 

Second division. The secret ceremonies 339 

Fifteenth ritual (fourth night) 339 

Part I. The flockiiig of birds . 339 

Part II. The si.xteeii circuits of the lodge . 310 



10 CONTENTS 

Analytical recapitulation — continued. Page 
The ceremony — continued. 

Second division — continued. 

Sixteenth ritual ( fifth day, dawn) ,.., 345 

Parti. Seeking the child.. 345 

Part II. Symbolic inception 346 

Part III. Actiim symbolizing life ■'•i'^ 

Seventeenth ritual S.jO 

Part I. Touching the child 350 

Part II. Anointing the child. 353 

Part III. Painting the child 3.53 

Part IV. Putting on the symbols - . _ - 355 

Eighteenth ritual. Fulfilment prefigured - . . _ 357 

Part I. Making the nest 357 

Part 11. Symbolic fulfilment 358 

Partlll. Thank offering . 3.58 

Third division. The dance of thanks .... 359 

Nineteenth ritual 359 

Part I. The call to the Children . . 359 

Part II. The dance and reception of gifts 360 

Fourth division. The presentation of the Hako 361 

Twentieth ritual 361 

Part I. Blessing the child . _ 361 

Part II. Presenting the Hako to the Son and thanks to the 

Children , --_ . 361 

Incidental rituals . . 363 

Comforting the child - 363 

Prayer to avert storms 364 

Prayer for the gift of Children . 364 

Changing a man's name ... 364 

Index - 369 



I L L U S T R A T I N S 



Page 

Platij LXXXIII. James R. Mnrie. 14 

LXXXIV. The Ku rahiis in ceremonial dress (front view) _ 20 

LXXXV. The Kn'rahus in ceremonial dress (profile view) 36 

LXXXVI. ■■ Kawas," the brown feathered stem (female) 38 

LXXXVII. The white feathered stem (male) 40 

LXXXVIII. •■MotherCom" 44 

LXXXIX. The rattles _. 46 

XC. The wildcat skin and crotched stick 48 

XCI. The feather symbol of Tira'wa _ _ 58 

Figure 171. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the decoration of the 

feathered stems o6 

173. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the second ritual 49 

173. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the singing of the first 

stanza of the song of the foiirth ritual, part ii . •")0 

174. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the singing of the sec- 

ond stanza of the song of the fourth ritual, part ii ........ . 63 

17.~). Diagram showing the movements of the principal members of 

the Father's party during the presentation to the powers ... 67 

176. Diagram of the Son's lodge at the beginning of the public cere- 

mony _ ; lO.j 

177. Diagram of the Son's lodge <luring the sixteenth ritual, part iii. 310 

178. Diagi'am of the Son's lodge during the seventeenth ritual, part i - 314 

179. The symbol of Tirawa 233 

180. Diagram showing the positions of the participants in the dance 

of thanks ' 248 

181. Diagram of the Son's lodge during the presentation of the 

Hako 357 

11 



THE HAKO: A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



Bv Alice V. Fletcher 



PREFACE 



In the early eighties uf the last centuiy, while pursuing my study 
of the Omaha tribe, I several times witnessed the ceremonj' described 
in the following pages. Owing to the death of the only man who knew 
all the rituals, it became impossible to secure a complete lecord, but 
as the ceremony was an intertribal one I hoped to make good the loss 
in some other tribe. From statements made by the Omahas, the 
Ponkas, and the Dakotas I was led to believe that among the Pawnees 
this ceremonj' could be found still preserved in its entirety. I need 
not recount the failure of efforts made during some fifteen years to gain 
the desired information, since at last, in 1898, T found the long-.sought 
opportunity. Afterfour years of work, I am able to present the entire 
ceremony, as observed in the C'haui band of the Pawnee tribe. 

The difficulty of obtaining accurate first-hand information in 
regard to religious rites and Ijeliefs is so well known that it seems 
proper to state briefly howl came bj' mj' opportunities. An extended 
and intimate acquaintance in one tribe opens the way in another. The 
warm friendship of old and leading men of the Omahas became mj' 
credentials to other tribes where these leaders were influential; and 
witli the further assistance of Mr Francis LaFlesche, the son of the 
former head chief of the Omahas, I was able to establish relations of 
confidence with some of the old and j)rominent men of the Pawnees. 

My experience has shown that no linguistic training will enable a 
student by himself to accomplish successfuUj^ the difficult task of 
recording and interpreting the rituals of a religious ceremony. lie must 
have a native collaborator, one with a good knowledge of English and 
well versed in the intricacies of his ow n tongue, able to explain its 
"sacred language " and possessing those gifts of mind and character 
whicli (it liim not only to grasp the ideals of his race but to commend 
liimself to the keepers of the ancient rites. Such a collaborator makes 
a clear vision of the native mind possible to a student of another race. 

13 



14 THE HAKO, A I'AWNEE CEKEMONY [eth. ann. 22 

My colliihorjitor in tlic present work liu.s been Mr James R Murie, 
an educated Pawnee whom I have known since lie was a school- 
boy, twenty years af^o. jV[r Murie lias taken up the task of preserving 
the ancient lore of his people, and he has not spared himself in his 
labor. How difficult liis undertaking has been, and still is, can only 
bo ajjjjreciated by those wlio have attempted to accomplish a similar 
work. 1 lis patience, tact-, and unfailing courtesy and kindness have 
soothed tlu* pr(>judice and allayed the feai's of the old men wlio hold 
fast t(i the failli of their fathci's and are the repositories of all that 
remains of the ancient rites of the tribe. 

Tahii-rissawielii, a full-blood Pawnee, who is the authority for the 
text and explanation of the ceremony whicli forms the subject of this 
paper, officially accompanied the Ilako when it was carried by his 
people to tli(» Omalias. He thus became a(M[uaiiit('d with the leading 
men of that tribe, who were my friends, and this circumstance has 
favored the successful prosecution of this work. During tlio fall of 
180S and again in 1900 he and ]Mr Murie were my guests in Wash- 
ington; then, and also dui'ing my visits to the Pawnees in 181)1) and 
1001, we were engaged upon the rituals of this ceremony. A final 
review of the manuscrii)t was made with Mr Murie in the spring of 1002. 

'rahiriissawichi is a nuMuber of the Chaui band of the Pawnee tribe 
and about 70 years of age. Tie is tall ami well made, and preserves 
much of tile vigor of his earliei' days, lie is mentally alert, ([iiick to 
observe, possessed of a tenacious memory, and gifted with a genial 
nature, lie enjoys a joke and is always ready with good-felk)wship, 
but he ncN'er forgets the dignity of his calling, or fails to observe the 
conduct b(>litting his position as the guardian of sacred rites. 
Althoui;h lie is childlike and trusting, lie has a keen discernment of 
character and a shi'ewd common-sense way of looking at men and 
thin.n's. While he is not. indilfei'(>nt to th(> gi'eat changes which have 
overtaken his peo]»le, new conditions have failed to disturb in any 
way tlie convictions of his early i-eligions training. 

lie has st ruggh'd to avoid li\ iiig in a house, and has held to an earth 
lodge until it has droj)i)e(l toijieces about him. He said:" "I can not 
live in a white man's house of any kind. The sacred articles com- 
mitted to inv care niu.st bo kept in an earth lodge, and in order that 
1 may fulfill my duties toward thcTii and my people, I must live there 
also, so that as I sit I can stretch out my luiiid and lay it on Mother 
Ea)'th." T.astr fall (1001) I saw how he had propped up a part of the 
i-uins of his lodge so that he miijlit still keep the sacred objects in a 
primitive dwelling. 

When h(> was in W.ishington in 1808 he was taken to the Capitol 
and t lie Library of C'oni;ress. \Vhile the vaslness and beauty of these 
St rncl uii's gave him pleasure, Ihey did not appeal to him, for such 



n See A Piiwnep Ritual Used WLen Changing a Man's Name, American Anthropologist, n. s., 
V. 1, January, 1899. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXXXIII 




JAMES R. MURIE 



FLETCHER] HOW THE RECORD WAS OBTAINED 15 

biiildiiigjs lie said were unfitted to contain the saci-ed sj'mljols of the 
religion of his ancestors, in the service of which he had spent his 
long life. He admired at a distance the Washington Monnment, and 
when he visited it he measured the base, pacing and counting his 
steps. Then he stood close to the white shaft and looked up, noting 
its great height. After going inside, he was asked which he would 
take, the elevator or the stairs, and replied: "I will not go up. The 
white man likes to pile up stones, and he may go to the top of them; 
I will not. I have ascended the mountains made by Tira'wa." 
Equally characteristic was his interview with the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs. When introduced, he said: "lam glad to see you 
and to take you by the hand. Many chiefs of my tribe have done so. 
I never expected to do it. I came here to talk of the religion of ray 
fathers, which I follow. You can ask my sister (referring to me) 
what I have said." 

Tahirussawichi had never been east of the Mississippi river until 
he came to Washington to engage in the x>reservation of this rite. 
Of the genuineness of his statements there can be no doubt. Ilis 
position in the Pawnee tribe is that of a man worthj^ of respect— one 
versed in a knowledge of serious things, whose life has been devoted 
to the acquisition and maintenance of cei'tain sacred rites. He is 
esteemed as a man of truth — one wlio has the favor of Tira'wa. He 
pos.sesses a knowledge of curative roots, and often attends the sick, 
using herbs as medicine. He is the keeper of certain old and sacred 
ob.jects, and leads in their attendant cei'emonies. His great care in 
observing all the details of the intricate ceremony of the Hako is well 
known in the tribe, and much good fortune is believed to follow his 
leadership in this ceremony. His title is Ku'rahus. This term is 
applied to a man of j'ears who has been instructed in the meaning 
and use of sacred objects as well as their cei'emonies. The word is 
sometimes employed as a synonym for a venerable man, one who 
commands i-espect, but throughout this paper it is used in its official 
sense — the leader of the ceremony. 

It has taken four years of close friendlj- relations with my kind old 
friend to obtain this ceremonj- in its entirety. Many of its rituals 
deal with very sacred subjects, and it has required much patience 
in the iiresentation of reasons why thej' should be explained to over- 
come the scruples born of the early training of the Ku'rahus. That 
he has flnall.v made this record complete, so that the ceremony as 
known among his people can be preserved, is worthy of commenda- 
tion. His work as it now stands shows Tahiriissawichi to be broad- 
minded as well as thoughtful, reverent, and sincere. 

Graphophone records wei-e taken of all the songs belonging to tliis 
ceremony. The music as here printed has been transcribed from the 
cylinders l>y Mr Edwin S. Tracy and each transcription has been 
verified by him from the singing of the Ku'rahus. It is to l)e regi-etted 



IT) THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEEEMONT [eth. axx, 32 

that the exactions of Mr Tracy's professional work in tlie field of music 
make it impossible for him to prepare an essay upon tlie cliHracter of 
these songs and the light they tlirow upon the evolution of musical 
expression. His familiarity with native songs, growing out of several 
years of first-hand research, would render liiui peculinrlv fitted to 
sjieak concerning tliem. 

The songs are commended to tlie general student of music and 
particularly to the young composers of our country as offering native 
themes worthy of musical treatment. 

In arranging the material for this paper it has seemed best to group 
it into two i:)arts. The first contains such introductory explanations 
as are essential to the understanding of the ceremony, which is given 
without comment in the words of the Ku'rahus, together with his inter- 
pretation of the songs and accompanying rites. The second part 
consists of an analysis of the ceremony and treats of its structure, 
purpose, and teaching. The translations of the songs aim to convey 
to the English reader something of their native spirit and meaning. 

As the purpose of this record is not primarily linguistic, it lias been 
judged best not to oljserve the finer phonetic distinctions in recording 
native words. The vowels have their continental values, as in are, 
they, pjque, go, rule; ow is used as in how; and li rejjresents oo in 
good. The ctmsonants p, b, t, d, k, g (always hard), j, s, z, f, v, m, 
1, r, w, y, h are used approximately as in English, but k and t have 
been allowed to represent the semLsonants (medial between k and g, t 
and d) as well, and the r has a slight trill. Dh represents th in the, 
h a guttural breathing (German ch, Spanisli j) and ]\r a surd or 
breathed r; th is used as in thorn, wh and ch as in which, x as in box, 
sh as in shall; n indicates that the preceding vowel is nasalized; and 
h at the end of a syllable indicates that the breath must be heard. 
When a consonant is doubled it is heard twice or distinctly prolonged. 
An accent mark is used to indicate stress where it seems necessary. 



INTRODUCTION 

Namp: ok the Ceremony 

The ceremony is called Skari by tlie Ku'rahns and by all who have 
been taught its rites and sacred songs. This word is from ska, hand, 
ri, manj', and refers not merely to the many hands required for the 
preiiaration of the sacred articles used in the rites, but also to the 
culminating ceremony of touching the little child with the hand, which 
occurs on the morning of the flftli day (sixteenth and seventeenth 
rituals). 

A peculiar expression is used to characterize the consultation which 
a man who desires to inaugurate this ceremony has with his kindred 
in reference to their assistance in the undertaking. This consultation 
is called "touching them." The Ku'rahns explained this expression 
as being connected with the meaning of the word Skari, many hands, 
in its double significauce already noted. 

Although the term Skari is said to be old, its descriptive char- 
acter seems to be against its acceptance as the original name of the 
ceremony. 

Among the people at large of the Pawnee tribe the ceremony is 
spoken of as Ruktaraiwariiis. This composite word can be analyzed 
as follows: ruk, from rukkis, wood, or a stick of wood; ta, from tita, 
hung upon; ra, coming; iwariiis, shaking or waving. This descriptive 
term refers to the two objects peculiar to this ceremony, the two 
feathered stems which are waved to the rhythm of the songs. The 
Pawnees who receive those who bring the sacred articles call the cere- 
mony Haktara. The word is composed of hak, from hakkow, trans- 
lated below; ta, have; ra, coming: haktara, they who have the 
bi-eathing mouth of wood are coming. The Osages speak of it as 
" Bringing the drum," and the Omahas as " To sing with." 

Ilako is a comprehensive term used to designate all the articles 
which belong to the ceremony. The term is derived from the com- 
posite word hakkowpirus, meaning drum. Ilakkow is from akow, 
mouth, with the aspirate prefix h, signifying breath, and the k added 
to the first syllable represents the word rukkis, wood. Hakkow may 
then be said to mean a breathing mouth of wood. Pirus means to 
whip or beat. 

Tliree customs among the Indians can he traced in the composition 
of this word: first, the peculiarity of pulsating the voice on a note 
that is sustained over more than one count of the measure, by wliich 
22 ETH— IT 2—04 2 17 



18 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

a beatiiiif effect is x^roduced ; second, the (uistum of waving tlie liand 
to and from the mouth or beating the lips, so as to lireak a continu- 
ous note or call into a series of sounds or beats; third, the making of 
the drum from a section of a tree, hollowed otit, with a skin stretched 
over the open end. From this analysis of the word hakkowpirus we 
discern that the pulsating voice and the beaten lips were the first 
means employed to produce an effect which was afterward empha- 
sized in an instrument, the drum (hakkowpirus, the jireathing mouth 
of wood), which was made to give forth a series of sounds by the 
same device of whipping by the hand. 

In Indian music the rhythm of tlie drum always folloMS closely the 
emotion expressed in the song; it is like a great pulsating voice. 

In the term Hako the k of the first syllable in hakkow is dropped 
for the sake of euphony, and for the same reason the roiigh sound ow 
is clianged to o. The word llako carries the idea of the breath- 
ing, vibrating tones from the wooden mouth. It is applied to all the 
articles used in the ceremony, because, according to the explanations 
of the Ku'rahus, "everj'thing speaks; the eagle, Kawas, speaks; 
the corn speaks; so we say Hako — the voice of all these things." 

In the preparation of the record of the different rites, rituals, and 
songs of this ceremony it became necessarj' to adopt a convenient 
term which should apply to the ceremony as a wliole, including the 
party inaugurating the ceremony, the rites, the rituals, and the arti- 
cles used. The term "Hako" has been chosen as best fitted for the 
purpose. Three considerations influenced the choice: first, the 
fact that Hako is the native name bj^ which the articles used in the 
ceremony are spoken of collectively; second, the meaning of the term 
Hako, as revealed by an analysis of the word and by the explana- 
tion given by the Ku'rahus; third, the ease with wliich this word can 
be spoken and remembered by the English reader. 

Personnel of the Ceremony 

Two distinct groups of persons were essential to the performance of 
this ceremony. These two groups could not belong to tlie same clan 
or gens of a tribe, and they were often of different tribes. One group, 
called the Fathers, was composed of the kindred of the man who had 
taken the initiative in organizing a party for the performance of the 
ceremony. This man was called the Father. His party comprised 
from 20 to 100 persons, and rej)resented the well-to-do class in the 
tribe, the reqiiisites for the ceremony lieing of such a character that 
only skillful liunters and thrifty households could supply them. The 
second group, called the Children, was made up of the relatives of the 
man chosen by the Father to receive the visiting party of the Fathers. 
The leader of this group of Children was called the Son. Eacli of 
the two groups, as well as the leaders of each group, had peculiar 



FLETCHER] PERSONNEL OF THE CEREMONY 19 

duties throughout the ceremouy. Each had a special place iii tlie 
lodge, and was the reciiiient of peculiar benetits supposed to be derived 
from the ceremouy. 

The Father was usually a chief, or a man prominent in the tribe, 
who not only had accumulated property, but had a large following of 
relatives who could contribute to the store of articles required for 
these rites. The tribal standing of the Son was always equal to that 
of the Father. 

The Father selected a man from among those who had been taught 
the rites and ritual songs to take charge of the ceremony from begin- 
ning to end. Such a man was called Ku'rahus, and to him the entire 
party was ivquired to jield obedience in every particular. The 
Ku'rahus chose an assistant, and also took with him a third person, 
a soi't of acolj'te, to whom he was teaching the rites. 

If the Father was a chief, then he had to invite one other chief 
to be of his party, to act as substitute whenever he was obliged to be 
absent from his post of duty. If, however, the Father was uot him- 
self a chief, then it became necessary for him to secure the attend- 
ance of two chiefs, one to act as substitute for the other, as the 
constant i^resence of a chief was recpiired throughout the ceremony. 

The priest who had charge of the shrine sacred to rain was also of 
the Father's party. It was his duty to furnish the pipe and conduct 
the ceremony of offering smoke to Tira'wa. The Father's party also 
included two doctors, meu who had received a knowledge of healing 
plants, either directly through visions or by initiation into certain 
rites by which this knowledge was communicated. Each was I'equired 
to bring an eagle's wing, one the right wing and the other the left. 
The wing of the eagle is the oflicial mark of a doctor. The Father 
must also secure a number of singers, whose duty it was to carry the 
drum and act as a choir to accompany the Ku'i'ahus, who alwaj's led 
the singing. The rest of the party of the P'ather was made up of his 
kindred, with such of his friends as might desire to contribute to the 
required food and gifts and thus to become entitled to share in the 
return gifts made to the Fathers Ijy the Children. 

The preliminary ceremonies (the first three rituals) took place at 
the lodge of the Father, and from it the party of the Fathers sta7'ted 
on its journey. 

Requisites of the Ceremony and their Symbolism 

The objects peculiar to this ceremony were two feathered stems 
about a meter in length, made of ash wood. They were rounded and 
smoothed, and the pith was burned out to leave an oisening for the 
breath to pass, as through a pipestem. One of these stems was 
named Raha'katittu, from ra, the, this one; ha=hak, a part of the 
word hakkow, breathing mouth of wood, the k being dropped for 
euphony (see translatio7i of hawkowpirus, drum, page 17) ; katit, dark. 



20 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 33 

brown, or black; tn=ruru, moving, the change of the r to t being for 
enpliony. The translation of the whole word would be, the breath- 
ing mouth of wood with the dark moving feathers. The other stem 
was named Rahak'takaru, from ra, the, this one; hak, from liakkow, 
breathing mouth of wood; taka, white; ru, fi-om ruru, moving or 
swaying. The translation of lh(^ whole word wonld be, the bi-eath- 
ing mouth of wood with the Mhite moving or waving feathers. 

Associated with these two feathered stems, and sharing with them 
the prominent place in the rites, was an ear of white corn. In addi- 
tion there were required two small, round, straight sticks from the 
plum ti'ee; a crotched stick, also of t,he plum tree; feathers from the 
tail of an owl and from the wings and tail of an eagle; two entire wings 
of an eagle; the heads of two woodpeckers; the head, neck, and breast 
of two ducks; a wildcat skin; a shell; two wooden bowls; a braid of 
buffalo hair; a braid of sweet grass; blue, green, and red clay; fat 
from a deer or buffalo, the animal having been consecrated; the 
nest of an oi'iole. 

The clays, the fat, and the oriole's nest were furnished by the 
Ku'rahus. The nest was kept in secret and not allowed to be seen. 
All the articles except those furnished Ijy the Ku'rahus were provided 
by the Father. Besides these he had to secure robes, ornamented 
garments, and regalia for the ceremonial clothing of the Son, his mes- 
senger, and his little child ; also gifts tf) be l)estowed on the entire partj' 
of the Children. He was assisted by contributions from the relatives 
and friends who had agreed to share with him the responsibilities and 
the rewards attending this ceremony. Food for the entertainment of 
tile Children ;is well as for the maintenance of the Fathers during 
their absence from home had also to be ijrovided. 

It was the dnty of the Son, the leader of the group called the Chil- 
dren, to provide a spacious lodge wherein the ceremony could take 
place, and also a proper camping site for all who accompanied the 
Fathers. He had also to secure the requisite return gifts to be made 
to the Fathers. 

Each of the articles nsed in the ceremony had a general symbolism 
well known to the people, but their special significance was peculiar 
to these rites. 

The feathered stem Rahakatittu (plate Lxxxvi, page ;>S) was painted 
blue to symbolize the sky, the abode of Tira'wahut, the circle of the 
lesser powers. A long straight groove running its length was painted 
red, the symbol of life. The red groove was the path along which 
the siDirits of the various birds traveled on their way to bring help. 

Three split featliers from an eagle's wing were fastened to the stem 
as to an arrow, to give sure flight to the symbol-freighted stem. On 
it was tied the fan-shaped pendant of ten feathers fi-ora the mature 
l)rown or golden eagle. This eagle was called Kawas in the Hako 
ceremony. It represented the mother and led in certain of the rites. 
It is this feathered stem that was carried bv the Ku'rahus. This eagle 



FLETCHBR] THE FEATHERED STEMS 21 

is consecrated to the powers; it soars near their abode and is a medium 
of communication between them and man. 

The woodjieeker's head was fastened near the mouthi^iece end of the 
featliered stem, the upper mandible turned bacli over tlie i-ed crest 
and painted blue. This treatment of the upper mandible had a double 
significance. The red crest, which rises when the bird is angrj", was 
here held down; it must not rise. The blue paint represented the 
clear, cloudless sky. The woodpecker has the favor of the storm gods 
and can avert from man the disaster of tempest and of lightning. 
The owl feathers were tied near the middle of the feathered stem. 
This bird has power to help and protect during the night. Soft blue 
feathers were fastened around the niouthj)iece end. These blue 
feathers sj'mbolized the clear sky, and it is this end which was always 
upward toward tlie abode of the jjowers. 

The other end of the stem was thrust through the breast, neck, and 
mandibles of the duck. It was b.y this end that the feathered stem 
was held. The duck is familiar with the pathless air and water and 
is also at home on the land, knowing its streams and springs. It is 
the unerring guide. 

The red and white streamers represented the sun and the moon, 
day and night. These were made of red cloth and dyed horsehaii;and 
white cotton cord, but it is said that formerlj- soft deerskin strips 
painted red and twisted hair from the white rabbit were used. 

The other feathered stem, Rahak'takaru (plate Lxxxvii, page 4(i), 
differed from the first feathered stem already described in two par- 
ticulars, namely, it was painted green, to symbolize the earth, and 
the fan-shaped pendant was made of seven tail feathers from the 
white eagle (the young brown or golden eagle; see page 288). This 
eagle was not consecrated. It represented the male, the father, the 
warrior, and the defender. This feathered stem was carried by the 
Ku'rahus's assistant, and it was never allowed to be next to the Chil- 
dren; its i^lace was always on the outside. There, it was explained, 
it could do no harm, could rouse no contention, but would serve to 
protect and defend. 

I have many times remarked tlie reverence felt toward the feathered 
stems. Their sacred character seemed always to be remembered and 
they were never handled carelessly. During the entire time that I 
was engaged with Tahiriissawichi on this ceremony he never allowed 
the feathered stems to be placed on tlie floor or laid on a chair; thej' 
were always carefully deposited on the wildcat skin with a decorum 
that was not once abated. I have seen manifested among the tribes 
not only reverence toward these sacred symbols, but an affection that 
was not displaj^ed toward any other objects. Few persons ever spoke 
to me of them without a brightening of the eyes. "They make us 
hapijy," was a common saying. 

They were jjreserved intact and passed from tribe to tribe as long 
as they held together, and they were sometimes freshened and 



22 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

repaireil. This transfer of tlie featliered stems from tribe to tribe 
tended to preserve tlie model unchanged. Sometimes tlie Sou did not 
care to pai-t with the feathered stems left wit li him, so when he inaug- 
urated a party and was to be the Fatlier he had a new set made. It 
was a matter of pride with some not to use again feathered stems 
that had once seen service. 

The ear of white corn (plate Lxxxviii, page -t-t), called Atira, 
Mother," represented the fruitfulness of the earth. The tip end was 
painted bhie to represent the dome of the skj-, the dwelling place of the 
powers, and four blue eqiudistant lines, running halfwaj' down the 
ear, were the fourpaths along which the powers descended to minister 
to man. 

The two straight sticks cut from the plum tree were bound to the 
ear of corn by a braid of buffalo hair. One stick projected above the 
tip of the ear al)out a hand's breadth, and the other extended about 
the same length belowthe butt; the lower end of this stick was pointed 
so that it could be thrust into the ground to hold the ear of corn in 
an upright position. To the other stick was tied a white, downy eagle 
feather. This feather had a double significance: It represented the 
high, white clouds tliat float near the dome of the sky wliere the powers 
dwell, thus indicating their presence with the corn. It also stood for 
the tassel of tlu; cornstalk. The feather here refers to the nuile ijrin- 
cii^le, the corn to the female. The plum-tree wood was chosen for the 
sticks because the tree is prolitic of fruit. It symbolized a prayer for 
abuudanci'. 

The braid of l)ulfalo hair represented the animal wliicli suppHed 
food and clothing for the people. 

The two gourd rattles (plate Lxxxix, page 40) represented the gift 
of tlie squash to man and the breast of the mother. Around the mid- 
dle of eacli a blue circle was painted from which depended four equi- 
distant lines of the same color. The circle represeiited the base of 
the dome of the sky, and the four lines the four paths descending 
therefrom to earth. 

Tlie crotched stick (jjlate xc, page 48) used to support one end of 
the feathered stems when they were laid at ceremonial rest was sig- 
nilicant of the fork in tlie tree wlu're the eagle builds its nest. The 
use of the plum tree for this ci-olclied stick expressed the <lesire for 
many young in the nest. 

The sacred ointment witli which the plum-tree sticks were anointed 
was made from the fat of the deer or butfalo mixed with red clay. 
I'lie fat was taken from an animal that had 1)eeu consecrated through 
certain prescribed rites wliich recognized man's dependence upon tlie 
powers for the gift of food. Fat symbolized plenty. Ritual songs 
speak of paths dropping fatness, referring to the trails made by those 
who carried thedrevSsed meat from the hunting fields to the camp; su(;h 

"Tlie common term fi>r corn, naksu, was not used in the ceremony. 



FLETCHER] SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WILDCAT SKIN 23 

a path would be strewn with di-ops of fat. Red is the color typical of 
life. The ointment signified a prayer for abundance and life. 

The wildcat skin (plate XC, page -18) served as a covering for these 
objects when they were to be wrapped up and it was always spread 
on the ground for them to rest on. 

The significance of the wildcat in this ceremony is of peculiar inter- 
est. This animal, we are told, never misses his prey, never fails to 
attain the object of his pursuit, and accomplishes this end quietly, 
tactfully, without arousing antagonism. From conversations with the 
Ku'i'ahus it became clear that it was these qualities and not the 
savageness and stealthly cruelty of the animal that were to be kept 
in mind. To be able to accomplish a purpose without offending, with- 
out raising opposition, seems to have been regarded as the special 
attribute vouchsafed by Tira'wa to the wildcat. It is because of this 
attribute that it was chosen to be always with the sacred objects during 
this ceremony. The sacred objects symbolized not only an appeal from 
man to certain powers, but the pi-esence of the powers themselves, while 
the nature of the appeal, a desire for children, long life, and plenty, was 
such that the enjoyment of the benefits craved must depend largely 
on the successful exercise by man of those qualities which were 
regarded as characteristic of the wildcat. So the skin of the wildcat 
was the cover of the sacred objects when they were wrapped up ; it 
was spread on the gi-ound as their guard and support when tliej' were 
laid at ceremonial rest, and when they were carried about the lodge 
dui'ing the ceremony it was borne by the chief, who walked between 
the Kurahus and his assistant, each of whom held a feathered stem. 

Only a chief could carry the wildcat skin and the ear of corn. There- 
fore, if the Father was not himself a chief he had to secure the service 
of one in order that the wildcat could be borne by a man possessing 
the autliority of a ruler in the tribe. As the wildcat stood for the 
ability to accomplish a purpose with tact and without exciting opposi- 
tion, qualities essential to the successful ruler, it would seem that the 
imperative association of the wildcat with a chief was intended to con- 
vey the idea that onlv under the administration of such a man could 
the tribe have internal peace and enjoy the abundance and prosperity 
represented bj^ Mother Corn. 

As every article belonging to the ceremony and the position and 
movements of those who conducted the rites had a special signifi- 
cance, the position given to the wildcat, as explained by the Kurahus, 
reveals the mind of the native in regard to this animal, whicli figures 
conspicuously in other rites and ceremonies, and which controls one 
of the sacred shrines of the Chaui l)aud of the Pawnee tribe. 

Time of the Ceremony 

There was no stated time for the performance of the Hako ceremony. 
It was not connected with planting or harvesting, hunting, or war, or 
any tribal festival. The Kurahus said, "We take up t lie Hako in 



24 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth Ann. ;>2 

the siJi'ijig wlien the birds are mating, or iu the suiiimer when the 
birds are nesting and caring for their young, or in the fall when the 
birds are flooking, but not in the winter when all tilings are asleep. 
With the Hako we are praying for the gift of life, of strength, of 
plenty, and of peace, so we must pray when life is stirring everywhere." 

Scheme of the C'eremony 

According to the Ku'rahus, no change in the order of rites or songs 
was permitted. The reason for this requirement becomes clear when 
we study the ceremon}' itself. Its fundamental ideas and teachings, 
which are among the most important for the welfare of the x>eoi)le, are 
steadily unfolded from the initial rite to the final act through a long 
series of observances which are replete with detail and accompanied 
by nearly one hundred songs, yet all these dilTerent parts are so closel.v 
articulated that any variation of relationship or any omission would 
be disastrous to the sti"ucture. 

The Hako consists of the Preparation and the Ceremony. 

Tlie Preparation 
First division. Initial rites. 

First ritual. Making the Hako: 

Part I. Invoking the powers. 

Part II. Preparing the feathered stems. 

Part III. Painting the ear of corn and preparing the other sacred ob.iects. 

Part IV. Offering of smoke. 
Second ritual. Prefiguring the journey to the Son. 
Third ritual. Sending the messenger.s. 
Fourth ritual: 

Part I. Vivifying the sacred objects. 

Part II. Mother Corn assumes leadership. 

Part III. The Hako party pre.sentt d to the Powe'rs. 
Second division. The journey. 
Fifth ritual: 

Part I. Mother Corn asserts authority. 

Part II. Songs and ceremonies f)f the way. 

Part III. Mother Corn reasserts leadf rship. 
Third divisirm. Entering the village of the Son and consecrating his lodge. 
Sixth ritual: 

Part I. The Son's messenger received. 

Part II. Tlie Hako party enter the village. 
Seventh ritual; 

Part I. Touching and crossing the tlireshold. 

Part II. Consecrating the lodge. 

Part III. Clothing the Son and offering smoke. 

The CcreinoHij 

First division. The public ceremony. 

Eighth ritual (first day). The Fathers feed the Children. 
Ninth ritual (first night). Invoking the visions. 
Tenth ritual. The Dawn: 

Part I. The birth of Dawn. 

Part II. The Morning Star and the new-l)orn Dawn. 



FLETCHER] SCHEME OF THE CEREMONY 25 

First division — continuefl. 

Tenth ritual. The Dawn— continued. 

Part III. Daylight. 

Part IV. The Children behold the day. 
Eleventh ritual (.second day). The male element invoked: 

Part I. Chant to the Sun. 

Part II. Day songs. 
Tv^elfth ritual (second night). The rites came by a vision. 
(Tenth ritual. The Dawn. Repeated.) 
Thirteenth ritual (third day). The female element i.ivoked; 

Part I. The sacred feast of Corn. 

Part II. Song to the Earth. 

Part III. Offering of smoke. 

Part IV. Songs of the birds. 
Fourteenth ritual (third night). Invoking the visions of the ancients. 
Second division. The secret ceremonies. 
Fifteenth ritual (fourth night): 

Part I. The flocking of the birds. 

Part II. The sixteen circuits of the lodge. 
Sixteenth ritual (fifth day, dawn i : 

Part I. Seeking the child. 

Part II. Symbolic inception. 

Part III. Action symbolizing life. 
Seventeenth ritual: 

Part I. Touching the child. 

Part II. Anointing the child. 

Part III. Painting the child. 

Part IV. Putting on the symlxils. 
Eighteenth ritual. Fulfilment prefigured. 

Part I. Making the nest. 

Part II. Symbolic fulfilment. 

Part III. Thank offering. 
Third division. The dance of thanks. 
Nineteenth ritual: 

Part I. The call to the Children. 

Part II. The dance and reception of gifts. 
Fourth division. The presentation of the Hako. 
Twentieth ritual: 

Part I. Blessing the child. 

Part II. Presenting the Hako to the Son and thanks to the Children. 

There are four rituals which t-aii be interpolated dui-iug the prog- 
ress of the piil)lip ceremony, namely: 

Incidental Rituals 
Comforting the child. 
Prayer to avert storms. 
Prayer ; or the gift of children. 
Changing a man's name. 

In tlie following pages tlie rituals and the explanations are presented 
as they were given by Tahirussawichi. His descriptions are full of 
detail, with frequent repetitions, but as every article is symbolic and 
everj^ movement has a meaning, this repetition is essential to an 
understanding of the ceremony as it appeals to the Pawnee, and it has 
been deemed best not to change his method or introduce comments. 



THE HAKO 
THE PREPAKATIOX 

Exphirintiiiii hi/ tliir Kii' nihus 

'J^lie ceremony of the Hako is a prayer for children, in order that 
the tribe may increase and he stroni>;; and also that the people may 
have long life, enjoy plenty, and he happy and at peace. 

The articles that are used in the ceremony can be prepared only 
under the direction and supervision of a man who has been taught 
the sacred songs in their setpienee and instructed as to their meaning. 
Such a man is called Ku'rahus, which means a man of years, vene- 
rated for his knowledge and experience. 

When a man intends to inaugurate a party for the performance of 
this ceremony, he selects a Ku'rahus to have complete charge of it, 
and fixes a day when the preliminary rites are to be j)erforraed. On 
that day the Ku'rahus goes into the sweat lodge and there purifies 
himself. When he has come out of the sweat bath and has cooled off 
a little, he places sweet grass on a small x^ile of coals. Then he sits 
down (on his heels) and draws a robe about himself and the coals, so 
that the smoke of the sweet grass may reach every part of his body. 
He then takes a bit of fat which has been preserved from a deer or 
buffalo consecrated to Tira'wa, and mixes it with red paint and anoints 
himself. Then he puts on his leggings and moccasins, and a buffalo 
robe, with the hair outside, tying it about the waist with a rope made 
of buffalo hair. He fastens a white, downy eagle feather in his scalp 
lock and goes to the lodge of the man who has inaugurated the party. 
He takes with him a man as assistant; he is also accompanied by 
another man, who is learning the songs and the details of the cere- 
mony, preparatory to Itecoming himself able to conduct this rite, but 
whose present duty is to minister to the wants of the Ku'rahus. 

At the lodge the chiefs and leading men of the village have been 
assemble<l, with those who have agreed to be of the party and have 
contrilnit('(l the requisite gifts. This lodge has been swept clean and 
put in order for the occasion. The Ku'rahus takes his seat at the 
west end of the lodge, facing the east, and before him, spread out on 
a mat, are the materials for the preparation of the ceremonial articles. 

After the Kti'i-ahus has begu7i to sing the songs belonging to the act 
of preparing these articles thei-e must be no coming in or going out 
of the lodge, and no one can move froni his place until this (the first 
ritual) has been comijleted An exception is made in the case of two 
men who are sent out by the Ku'rahus to cut and bring in two sticks 
of ash. They go out during the singing of a certain stanza of the first 
song and must return while another particular stanza of the same 
song is being sung. 
26 



UREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXXXIV 




THE KURAHUS IN CEREMONIAL DRESS 
(TO ILLUSTRATE "HAKO.A PAWNEE ceremony; BY A C FLETCHER ) 



■ tAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL LXXXV 




'WW 



THE KURAHUS IN CEREMONIAL DRESS 
(TO ILLUSTRATE"HAKO,A PAWNEE ceremony; BY AC FLETCHER ) 



FLKTCHER] 



FIRST KITUAL, PART 1 



27 



First Diviskix. Initial Rites 

first kitual. makix(; the hako 

Part I. Invokini; the Powers 

Explaiiittiiin III/ file Kii'rahiis 

At the creation of the workl it \v;is arranged that there shoukl be 
lesser powers. Tira'wa atius, tlie mighty power, coukl not come near 
to man, could not be seen or felt by him, therefoi-e lesser powers were 
permitted. They were to mediate between man and Tira'wa. The 
first song mentions some of these lesser powers in the order in which 
they come near to man, in the order of their creation. 



SONG 

If'ords 1111(1 Jfiisir 



M. JI. s-ns. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



mrzm--g=:)- 



mm 



Ho-o-o! I' - ha-re, 'ha - re, 

Drum, f ' f ^ I* f f * 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



- he!... 

« « • 



r 



- iia-re, Mia - re, 

O ^ o 



he! 



^eSIeI^S 



=:r 



5iBraz=s,^ 



He-ru! A-wa 



hok-sliu. He! 

m » m » 



I 

1 Ho-o-o! 

2 I hare, "hare, "ahe! 

3 I hare, "hare, "ahe! 

4 Hern! Awahokshn. He! 

5 I'hare. "hare, 'ahe! 

II 

6 Ho-o-o! 

T I'hare, "hare, "ahe! 

8 I'hare. 'hare, 'ahe! 

9 Heru! Hotoru. He! 

10 I hare. 'hare, 'ahe! 

Ill 

11 Ho-o-o! 

12 I'hare, 'hare, "ahe! 

13 I hare, "hare, 'ahe! 

14 Heru! Shakuru. He! 
1.5 I'hare, "hare, "ahe! 



=.-*=»5.-r*zBi4= 



3^F 



11 



lia-re, ' 


ha - re, 'a - lie! 


• 


• • i -^ I I 




IV 


10 


Ho-o-o! 


17 


I'hare, "hare, "ahe! 


18 


I'hare, "hare, "ahe! 


19 


Heru! H"Urarn. He! 


■M 


I'hare. "hare, "ahe! 




Y 


21 


Ho-o-o! 


oo 


I hare, "hare, 'ahe! 


23 


I'hare, "hare, "ahe! 


24 


Hern! Toharu. He! 


25 


I'hare, "hare, 'ahe! 




VI 


26 


Ho-o-o! 


27 


I'hare, "hare, "ahe! 


28 


Ihare, "hare, 'ahe! 


29 


Heru! Chaharu. He! 


30 


Ihare. "hare, "ahe! 



28 





VII 


31 


Ho-o-o! 


32 


I'hare, 'hare, ahel 


33 


I'hare, 'hare, "ahe! 


34 


Hern! Kusharu. He! 


33 


I'hare, "hare, 'ahe! 




VIII 


36 


Ho-o-o! 


37 


I'hare, "hare, "ahe! 


38 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 


39 


Hera! H'Akaru. He! 


40 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 




IX 


41 


Ho-o-o! 


42 


I'hare, "hare, 'ahe! 


43 


I hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 


44 


Hem! Keharu. He! 


4r) 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 



HA 


KO, A 


PAW 


NEI 


i CEKEMONY [eth. ank. 22 










X 










46 


Ho-o-o! 










47 


I'hare. 'hare, ahe! 










48 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 




He! 






49 

50 

51 
52 
53 


Heru! Kataharu. He! 
I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

XI 

Ho-o-o! 

I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 




He! 
le! 




XIII 


54 
55 

56 
57 
58 
59 
60 


Heru! Kekaru. He! 
I'hare. 'hare, 'ahe! 

XII 

Ho-o-o! 

Ihare, 'hare, 'ahe! 
I hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 
Heru! Koritu. He! 
I'hare, hare, 'ahe! 




61 


Ho-o-o 


: 








63 


I'hare, 


'hare, 


'ahe 


.! 




63 


I'hare, 


'hare. 


"ahe 


,t 




64 


Heru! 


Hiwaturu 


. He! 




65 


I'hare, 


'hare. 


'ahe 


.t 





Trdn.sldl ion of First Sicuiza 

1 Ho-o-o! An exclamation inti-oductory to tlic Hoiig. 
L* riiaie, 'hare, 'ahe! 

i'liare! an exclamation that conveys the intimation that some- 
thing i.s presented to the mind on which one nui.st reflect, 
7nust consider its significanee and its teaching-, 
'hare! an abbreviation of the woi'd i'hare. 

'ahe! an abbreviation of the word i'hare. The change of the r 
to h is for greater ease in singing. 

3 See line 2. 

4 Hern! Awahokshu. He! 

hern! an e.xclamation of reverent feeling, as when one is 

approaching something sacred. 
Awahokshu, a coinposite word; awa is a part of Tira'wa, the 

snpernatnral powers, and hokshu means sacred, holy ; thus 

the woi'd Awahokshu means the abode of the supernatural 

powers, the holj' place where they dwell, 
he! a part of the cxchiniation i'hai'c, the change of the )• \o an h 

being for the same reason as the similar change in 'ahe. 

See line 2. 

5 See line 2. 



FLETCHER] FIRST RITUAL, PART I 29 

Explanaiion hij the Ku'ralnis 

I'hare is an exclamation, as when one suddenly remembers some- 
thing of which he lias been nnmin<lful, because other things demanded 
his attention. The mind liaving been recalled to the subject, now 
appreciates its importance, gives it complete attention, and becomes 
absorbed by it. The word means, I remember, I perceive, I give heed. 

The repetition of tlie word as we sing "I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe!" indi- 
cates that 0111- minds arc dwelling upon tlie sub.jeet brought to our 
attention. 

lleru is an exclamation of reverence, in recognition of a phicc wliere 
prayers can be sent and whence help can come to us. 

Awahokshu is tiiat place — the place wliere Tira'wa atius, the miglity 
power, dwells. Below are the lesser powers, to whom man can appeal 
directly, whom he can see and liear and feel, and who can come near 
him. Tira'wahut is the great (urcle in the slvy wliere tliese lesser 
powers dwell. They are like deputies or attributes of Tira'wa atius. 
Tiie North Star and tlie Brown Eagle are among these lesser powers. 
A number of them are mentioned in this song and in the order in 
which they come near to man. We begin bj^ calling upon Tira'wa 
atius, the father of all, but we do not address the power directly; we 
mention the holy place wliere the power dwells, Awahokshu, and send 
onr thoughts and our voice there, that our cry may reach those wlio 
have the ability to come to us and to help ns. 

I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe means tha,t our minds are dwelling on our appeal 
to the powers. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

6, 7, 8 See the first stanza, lines 1, 2, '■]. 

9 Heru! Hotoru. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See the first stanza, line 4. 

Hotoru, the Winds, those that stand at the four cardinal points. 
This term is not used in ordinary speech. It refers to the 
supernatural powers, the Winds. The common word for wind 
is utawiu; windy, tihota. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See the first stanza, line 4. 

10 See the first stanza, line 2. 

E.r;plan.atio)i hy the Ku'rahus 

riiare I have explained already. It always means tlie same, the 
arresting and fixing of the mind upon a subject of import ancc. 

Heru! Hoturu. He! we exclaim, as we call on Hotoru. Hotoru, the 
Winds, were the first of the lesser powers to come near to man, so 
they are the first to be mentioned in this appeal. They are invisi- 
ble, but they are very strong (efficient) ; they are from the breath of 
Tira'wa and they give life to man. They stand at the four directions 
(cardinal points) and guard the paths that are there, the paths down 



30 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

which the lesser powers must travel when they descend to bring help 
to man. 

In this stanza, we remember the j)ower given by Tira'wa to the 
Winds, and we cry to Hotoru to come and give their help to ns at this 
tira(>, to give life to tlie sacred articles about to be prepared for the 
ceremony of the Hako. 

Iharc, 'liare 'ahe means, as we sing it this time, that we are reflect- 
ing upon Hotorn, we are thinking of all that they bring to man, the 
breath by which he lives. 

The Winds are always nc-ar us by night and by day. 

TratisJation of Third Sfansa 

11, 12, 13 See the first stanza, lines 1, 2, :5. 

14 TIeru! Shakuru. He! 

heru! an exclamation of revei-ence. See the first stanza, line 4. 

Sliaknru, the Sun. This word is not used in ordinary speech; 
it refers to the supernatural i>ower, the Sun, in its relation to 
man. The common term for sun is ti'rasakariki, sun stand- 
ing. 

he! part of ihare! give heed! See the first stanza, line 4. 

15 See the first stanza, line 2. The words in this line have special 

reference to the mind ilwelling seriouslj' upon Shakuru. 

■ Explanididii htj the Ku'rahiis 

Shakuru, the Sun, is the first of the visible jiowers to be mentioned. 
It is verj^ potent; it gives man health, vitality, and strength. Because 
of its power to make things grow, Shakuru is sometimes spoken of 
as atius, father. The Sun comes direct from the miglity power above; 
that gives it its great i)otency. 

As we sing this stanza, we think of all that the Sun can do for us 
and we cry to it, to come now and give potentiality to the sacred 
articles about to be 7nade ready for iise in tliis ceremony. 

Traiislii/io/i of Fourth Stdiiza 

113, 17, 18 See the first stanza, lines 1, 2, o. 

19 Ileru! H'Uraru. He! 

heru! an exclamation of reverence. See the first stanza, line 4. 

h', the sign of lireath; "breathing life." 

Uraru, the Earth. This term is not used in ordinary speech; 
the common name for the earth is kahoraru. H'Uraru refers 
to the supernatui'al power that belongs to the earth, tlie 
power to bring forth. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See the first stanza, line 4. 

20 See the first stanza, line 2. In the last line of the stanza the 

word i'hare implies refiection: " We reflect on HTraru! " 



FLETCHER] FIRST RITUAL, PART I 31 

Explanation hij tlie Ku' rahus 

H'Uraru, the Earth, is the lesser power we cry to next. The Earth is 
very near to man ; we speak of her as Atira, Mother, because she brings 
forth. From tlie Earth we get our food; we lie down on her; we live 
and walk on her ; we could not exist without her, as we could not breathe 
without Hotoru (the Winds) or grow without Shakuru (the Sun). 

Mother Earth is very potent to help man and now we cry to 1km- to 
come near and give potentiality to the sacred articles we are about to 
prepare. 

We reverently reflect upon all that Mother Earth does for us. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

21, 22, 23 See the first stanza, lines 1, 2, 3. 

24 Heru! Toharu. He! 

heru I an exclamation of reverence. See the first stanza, line 4. 

Toharu, the living covering of the earth, no special form lieing 
indicated; a general term for vegetation, but imxjlying the 
supei-natural power manifested therein. Katoha'ru, trees. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See the first stanza, line -4. 

25 See lines 2 and 20. " We reflect on Toharu! " 

Explanation Inj the Ku'rahns 

Toharu means all the things that Mother Earth brings forth (all 
forms of vegetation) ; these are many. They are very necessary t(j 
man and they bring him much help. They too are lesser powei-s, 
though not so potent as some of the others. From them we get our 
food; from them comes the grass upon which the animals feed — the 
animals which supply clothing ami food; from them come the trees 
which are very necessary to u.s. They have a part in this eeremonj-. 

As we sing we think iipon all that Toharu gives us and we cry to 
this power to come near, for without the help of Toharu some of the 
sacred articles required for this ceremony could not be obtained. 

At this stanza the two men who have been selected to cut the two 
sticks of ash arise and go out of the lodge to perform this duty. The 
ash tree has been chosen beforehand, b\it the two men must cut the 
sticks when they go out at this time. 

We stop between the stanzas of tlie song that this act may be 
performed. 



32 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 23 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

26, 27, 28 See Hues 1, 2, 3. 

29 Heru! Chahaiu. He! 

heru! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Chahaiu, Water. This term applies to the supernatural power 

of the water; it is not used i7i ordinary speech; the common 

word for water is kii'tzu. 
he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

30 See lines 3 and 20. "We reflect on Chaharu." 

ExjjJanatioit tnj the Kii'raliun 

Chaharu, Water, is one of the lesser powers. Water is very neces- 
sarj' to the life of man and all living things. The Winds, the Sun, 
tlie Eartli, the Vegetation, and the Water are the five lesser powers 
through which tlie life of our bodies is maintained. We cry to Cha- 
haru to come near and give life to tlie sacred articles about to be 
prepared. 

I told you that these stanzas are in the order of creation. The 
powers are mentioned in the order in which they come near to man 
and enable him to live and to keep alive. As we sing we reflect upon 
our dependence on these lesser powers. 

Water is employed only for sacred purposes in this ceremony. It 
can not be used in any ordinary way from the time we begin the 
singing of these songs to the end of tlie entire ceremonj-. A man can 
drink water to sustain his life, but he can not touch it for any other 
purpose. He can not go swimming, nor can he step into water with- 
out first performing certain rites. It is difficult to abstain so long 
from the use of water, but it must be done or we shall suffer punish- 
ment for our profanation. We shall have storms, the sky will be 
filled with clouds, there will be obstructions between us and the 
place where the powers above dwell — those whom we invoke in this 
ceremony. 

I have known of instances where some of the men of tlie party 
sneaked out of the camp during this ceremony, went to a stream and 
washed, or jumped in and took a swim, and the result was a storm 
that brouglit great distress upon the jieople. 

Translation, of Seventh Stanza 

31, 32, 33 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

34 Heru! Kusharu. He! 

heru! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Kusharu, a place set apart for sacred purposes and made holy. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

35 See lines 2 and 20. "We reflect on Kusharu!" 



FLETCHER) FIRST KITtTAL, PART I 33 

Explanuliou hi/ flie Kif'riiliu.s 

The first act of a man must lie to set apart a i>lafe that can be 
made sacred and holy, that can be consecrated to Tira'wa; a place 
wliere a man can be quiet and think — think about the miglity power 
and the ijlace where tlie lesser powers dwell; a place where a man 
can put his sacred articles, those objects whicli enable him to approach 
the powers. Kusharu means sucli a place. 

In this stanza we are taught that before a man can build a dwelling 
' he must select a spot and make it sacred and then, about that conse- 
crated spot, he can erect a dwelling where his family can live peace- 
ably. Kusharu represents tlu^ plac(- where a man can seek the powers 
■ and where the powers can come near to man. Such a place is neces- 
sarj' for all ceremonies. 

We are no\\' to set aside a iilace where we shall put tlie sacred arti- 
cles we are to prepare and make it holy. We are not only thinking 
of the holy place where we sliall lay the sacred articles, but we think 
of all that holy place will mean. It will represent the place where 
new life will be given. 

Translation of Eighth. Stanza. 
3G, 37, 38 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

39 Ileru! H' Akaru. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

h', the sign of breath, the giving of life. 

Akaru , a modified form of akaro, a dwelling place ; the earth lodge 
with its dome-shaped roof is likened to the stretch of land 
bounded by the horizon and roofed by the dome of the sky. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

40 See Hues 2 and 2(1. " We reflect on H' Akaru! " 

Explanation htj tlie Kii'ralius 
In this stanza we are told to think of the dwelling place Tira'wa has 
given to man. Upon this place man must build a lodge in accordance 
with the rites given to our fathers. It is by the observance of lliese 
rites in the bviilding of a lodge tliat life is given to the dwelling and 
it is made a place where the lesser powei-s can come to those who dwell 
therein. H' Akaru means the giving of life to the dwelling place. 

Translation of Ninth Stanza 
41, 42, 43 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

44 Heru! Keharu. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Keharu, an enclosure, as a room, having walls and i-oof, like 

an earth lodge. The word does not refer lo any enclosure 

or lodge, but is typical in its meaning, 
he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

45 See lines 2 and 20. " We reflect on Keharu! " 

22 ETH— PT 2—04 3 



34 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. akn.33 

K.vpUniiiiidn Jiij flu Kn'rultiis 

As we sing- this stanza we think of the lodge erected aboiit the holy 
l)laee in accordance with the rites given to our fathers upon the earth, 
which Tirawci made to 1)e our dwelling place. 

In such a lodge this ceremony must take place, and as we sing we 
ask that the lodge in which we are assembled to prepare the sacred 
articles may l)e kept free from all hurtful influences and that the lesser 
powers whicli bringlife and strength may come near us as we sit within. 

We also think of the lodge to which we will go for the further ])er- 
formance of this ceremony, for we desire that tlie pi-esence of tlie lesser 
powers may be there also. 

In this ceremouy the lodge represents the uest, tlie i)lacc where the 
young are enclosed. Tliey are ^jrotected l)y the male; the male eagle 
guards his nest; witliin its walls there is safety. 

Tmnsldtiuii (if Teiiflt Sfanzu 

4ii, 47, 48 See lines 1, 2, 3. 
4'J Ileru! Kataliaru. He! 

heru! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 
Katahara, jjart of the word itkataharu, fireplace. The droj)ping 
of the initial syllable, it, changes the meaning; the word here 
refers to the place where fire is to be kindled iu the .sacred 
manner for the performance of sacred rites, 
he! i)art of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 
50 See lines 2 and 20. "AVe reflect on Kataharu!" 

Explaiiatiiin hi/ the Ku' riihiis 

As we sing this stanza we think of the place set apart for the kin- 
dling of fire after the manner taught our fathers, by rubbing two 
sticks together. Fire kindled in this way is sacred; it comes direct 
from the power gi-anted to Toharu (Vegetation), in answer to man's 
appeal as he rubs the sticks. The sticks used to make this fire are 
kept in a shrine. 

The sacred fire must come iu a place set apart for it. All sacred 
things must have their place. Kataharu is the place set apart for the 
sacred fire, where it can come and bring good to man; without it he 
could haidly live. We make the fire in the center of the lodge, where 
all wilViin can share in its benefits. 

As I told you, the lodge in this ceremony represents the nest where 
the young are cared for and jjrotected. The male eagle pi-otects the 
nest, the female eagle broods over it, and ther(> she nourishes her 
young. As we are asking for the gift of children to bind the people 
together as one family, so we sing about the fireplace, that fire maj' 
come as we prej)are the sacred articles. 



FLETCHER] 



FIRST RITUAL, PART I 85 



When we sing this stauza, the two men wlio were sent out to I'ut 
the sticks of ash iiiiast return. After they enter the^' are told to sit 
on the east side of tlie fireplace. There tliey must sit, each man 
holding his stick. 

Trfinslufion of Eh- re i if h Slonza 

51, 52, 53 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

54 Heru! Kekaru. He! 

heru! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Kekaru, glowing coals; that is, the glow of the igniting wood 

before it bursts into flames, 
liel part of i'hare! give heed I See line 4. 

55 See lines 2 and 20. "We reflect on Keharu! " 

E.vphniatidii III/ fill- Kii raliiis 

As we sing this stanza we ml) the sticks to make the sacred tire 
come, and we think of the lesser power that is making itself seen in 
the glowing wood. 

Translafiou (if Twelffh Sfduza 

5G, 57, 58 See lines 1, 2, 3. 
59 Hern! Koritu. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Koritu, flames. 

he! part of i'hare! give Ireed! See line 4. 
GO See lines 2 and 20. ''"We reflect on Koritu!" 

Explanaildii hij the Kii' niJuis 

When the flame leaps from the glowing wood it is the word of tlie 
fire. The power has come near. 

As we sing we think upon Koritu, the wor<l of the fii-e, ami we ask 
it to enter into and remain with the sacred articles we are about to 
prepare, for they are to speak. 

While we are singing the two men with the two ash sticks liold 
them over the fli-e, to warm ami straighten them. Then they cut 
them to the required length, four spans from the thumb to tlie third 
(inger. Next they peel and scrape the sticks, and remove the pith by 
boring them tlirough from end to end, so that the breath can pass unob- 
structed (the boring used to be done with a reed, but now the x)itli is 
burned out with a wire). The men next cut a straight groove the 
entire lengtli of each stick. When all this has been done, the scrap- 
ings and every particle of the ash wood arc (carefully placed on the fire, 
and as the flames arise the two sticks are passed through the. blaze, 
that the word of the fire may enter and be with theni. 

The two men, each with a stick, pass from tlie east, where they 
have been standing, and take their places one on tlie nortli and the 



3() 



THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[eth. axk. 22 



otlici- on the soutli of the Ku'ralius, where lie sil.s in tlie west, and 
there these stems are decorated in the manner t.mulit by'onr fathers 
(figure 171). 



EAST 
1 




Fio. 171. Diagram of the Father's lodjie during the deeuratiou of the feathered stems. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof: 
4, the holy place; 5, the Ku'rahus; 0, his assistant; 7, the man "vvith the blue feathered stem; 
8. the man with the green feathered stem; 9. the server; KK niemViers of the Hako party. 



Tr<iiisl(tti(>n of Thirteenth Stanza 

61, 62, 63 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

64 Hem! Hiwaturu. He! 

herti! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Hiwaturn, the entranceway to the lodge. Hiwatiiru is com- 
posed of a part of the words hnttnraru, a I'oad, and hiwa, a 
hollow oi- depression. The word hiwatnru implies a sunken 
pathwaj-. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

65 See lines 2 and 2(». " We reflect on Iliwaturu." 



FLETCHEHl 



FIRST RITUAL, PART II 



37 



Exj)}(ni(tlioii III/ thr Kii'nilms 

We slug of the eutraiiceway of the lodge ])ecause it is tlaough this 
way tliat man goes to and fro. It is tlie place made for all to enter 
into the lodge; througli it come those powers which are reiiresented 
on the sacred articles a])oiit to be prepared for the ceremony of the 
Hako. Through it come the promises of the Hako, and through it 
the visions come. 

The long passageway represents the days of man's life. 

Part II. Preparixi} thf. Feathered Stems 
Explanation hy ihe Kii'rahus 

Before the next song is sung the Kn'rahus i)repares the l)lue paint 
which is to be put on one of the sticks of ash. The water with which 
the blue clay is mixed must be taken from a running stream. Water 
from a spring or well can not be vised. Running water represents 
the continuity of life from one generation tt> another. 

The paint is mixed in a white shell. The shell must be white; it 
is used because it was once a living thing. It lived in the water; it 
had no di.sease or sickness. As we use the shell we ask that disease 
and sickness maj' be kept from us and that our life may be long. 

Before the jaeople knew anything about vessels they used shells as 
spoons and to i^ut their food in. Tira'wa gave tis the shells and gave 
them long life and the jiower to keep away disease and sickness. 

When the Ku'rahus has mixed the blue paint in the shell, he hands 
it to the man at his left, who is sitting toward the north. This man 
applies the mixture with his finger to the stick of ash, sijreading the 
paint over its entire length, l)ut being verj- particular not to let any 
of it get into the straight groove that runs from one end of the .stick 
to the other, while the following song is sung. 

FIRST SONG 



TT'o/v/.s mid ^fiisir 



M. M. *\ = 126. 



— Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracr. 



Ho-o-o-o! Ha - 1 
Drum, rr r,' * * 



li'a-re-ri. Hel 

f r r • 



H' a -re 



h'a-re-ri, Ira-re- 




re-ri, h'a - re - ri, 're-ri, h'a-re-ri. 



He! 



H' a -re - ri, li'a-re-ri. He! 

t r :^ P ■> 1 



38 THE HAKO, A I'AWNKE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 2a 

66 Ho-o-o-o! 

67 H'areri, h"areri. Hel 

68 H'areri. h'areri. h'areri. 'reri. h'areri. He! 

69 H'areri. h'areri. Hel 

70 'Reri. li'areri. h'areri. 'reri. h'areri. Hel 

71 H'areri. h'areri. Hel 

Trdiishilioii 

66 Ho-o-d-o! An iuti-odiirtury cxclaiiiat ion. 
07 H'areri, h'areri. Tie I 

h', an aspiration, synibolic ol' a bi'cathin.ii' fortli, a,s the siiving 

of breath so that a thing may live, 
areri, a part of tlie word irarilii, a particular ]3lace. The 
change of the h in Ihe final syllable of the word to r wlieu 
the abbreviation arci'i is sung is foi' ease of utterance and 
euphony, 
h'areri. Translated above. 

hel a part of the exclamation i'hare! meaning I thinlc upon, I 
give heed to the significance of the act wliicli accompanies 
this song. Tlie change of tlie initial r in the last syllable 
of the word to an li, making it he, is for eui^liony. 
(kS IFarcii, h'areri, h'areri, "i-eri, h'areri. lie! 
H'areri, h'areri, h'areri. See line 07. 
'reri, a part of the abbreviation areri, translated above, 
h'areri. He! See line 07. 
61) See line 07. 

70 'Reri, h'areri, h'areri, 'rei'i, h'arei'i. He! See lines 07 and 08. 

71 See line 67. 

Explanafioii hi/ flu Kii'niJiiis 

Blue is tlie color of the skj', the dwelling jjlace of Tira'wahut, that 
great circle of the jiowers which watch over man. As the man paints 
the stick Ijlue we sing. IVe ask as we sing that life be given to this 
syml)ol of the dwelling place of Tira'wa. 

When the num has completed the painting of tlie sficlv lie hands it 
to the Ku'rahus, who has already mixed red clay with water from a 
running stream in a shell, an<l he paints tlie straight groove red. 
Tills groove is the path along whicli the spirits of all the things that 
are to be put upon this stick of ash may travel as they go forth to 
give their help during this ceremony. " H'ai-eri " is a prayer that the 
symbol may have life. 

We paint the groove red l)ecause the passageway is red througli 
wliich man's breath comes and goes to give him life. The sun, too, is 
red, and the groove represents the straight path whereon the sun 
shines, the path wliicli man must ti-avel if he would live in peace and 
])i-osper. The teachings of this ceremony make a straight path, along 
which if a man walks he will receive help from the powers. 




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FLETCHEn] 



FIRST EITUAL, PART II 



39 



Wheu the Ku'rahus lias tiiiislieil painting the groove, he hands tlie 
lilue stem back to the man on his left, toward the north, who holds it. 

Before singing the second song the Kn'rahus prepares the green 
paint to be used on tlie other stick of ash by the man on his right, 
toward the south. The clay is mixed in a sliell with water taken from 
a running stream. AVlien it is ready for use tlie Kn'rahus hands it to 
the man on his right, who, with his fingei-, I'ubs the paint over the 
ash stick, being very careful not to get any of the green color into 
the groove that runs the length of the stick. 

When tlie man begins to paint the stick green this song is sung. 



SECOND SONG 



71 

M. M. J = 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



o/-(/.s iini 



I 3L, 



Transcribed liy Edwin S. Tracy. 




H' a-re- ri, 'ha - re! I' 



lia-re re! II' a 



? 



Hu - re - e! 



U is Li i - I 



72 H'areri. li'areri; 

73 H'areri. 'hare! I hare re! 

74 H'areri. 'hare! Iliare re! H'areri: 
7.5 Hure-e ! 

76 H'areri, 'hare! I hare re! H'areri: 

77 Hiire-e! 

TranaJuiiori 
H'areri, h'ai-eri. 

h", an aspiration, a breathing forth. See the second song, line 07. 

areri, an abbreviation of the word irarihi, a particular or sj^ecial 

place. The change in the last syllable from hi to ri is for 

euphony. 
H'areri, 'hare! I'hare re! 
h'areri. See lines 72 and 07. 
'hare, a part of the word i'hare; an exclamation used to indicate 

that something of serions import has been presented to the 

mind and is I)eing retlected upon. See line -2. 
i'hare re. Translated above. The (hinbling of the last syllable 

is to meet the requirements of tlie rhythm of the mnsic. 



40 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 23 

74 IPai't'i-i, 'liai-t'! Iliaiv re! iraivri. All the words are trans- 

lated a1)ove. See lines 72 and 7:!. 

75 llure-e! An abbreviation of the woi'd haurae, coming from above. 

The vowel changes and prolongation are for greater ease in 
singing and also for euphony. 
70, 77 See lines 74, 7-5. 

Explundiloii liij till Kn'raluis 

The color green represents Toharu (Vegetation), the covering of 
H'Urarii, Mother Earth. As we sing, we ask that life be breathed 
into the symbol, that it may have powei' as we use these sacred arti- 
cles. " IFareri " is a prajer that living power may be where we place 
this symbol of the covering of Mother Earth. We rememljer as we 
sing that the power of Mother Earth to bring forth comes from above, 
"Hiire-e." 

The Kn'rahus paints the groove red in the same way, for the same 
reason as on the other ash stick, and when he has finished he hands 
the green stem back to the man on his right, toward the south, who 
holds it. 

The Ku'rahus rubs upon iiis hands the sacred ointment which lias 
been made by mixing red clay with fat from a deer or buffalo that 
has been consecrated to Tira'wa. lie is now ready to tie the symbolic 
articles upon the two painted stems. 

He splits long feathers, taken from the wings of an eagle, and glnes 
them to each stem as feathers are glued upon the shaft of an arrow. 
He uses for tliis purpose pitch from the ]3ine tree. These wing feath- 
ers are to remind us that tlie eagle flies near to Tira'wa. 

About one end of the stem (the mouthpiece) he fastens soft blue 
feathers, in color like the sky where the powers dwell. He ties a 
woodpecker's head on the stem near the mouthpiece and turns the 
uppei' mandible ))ack upon the red crest. Tlie nian<lible covers the red 
crest and keeps it from rising. This shows tlial the bii-d may not be 
angrj'. The inner side of the mandible, which is exposed by being 
turned back uixni the crest, is painted l)lue, to siiow that Tirawa is 
looking down upon the open bill as the spirit of the bird travels along 
the red groove to reach the people. 

About the middle of the stem the Ku'rahus binds feathei's from tlie 
owl. The other end of the stem he thrusts through the breast, neck, 
and mandibles of the duck, the breast reaching to the owl feathers. 
The end of the stem protrudes a veiy little through the bill of the 
duck, so that the bowl of a pipe could be fitted to it. The duck's 
head, therefore, is always downward, looking toward the earth and 
the water. 

All the birds on the stems ai'e leaders: the eagle is chief of the day; 
the owl is chief of the night; the woodpecker is chief of the trees; 
the duck is chief of the water. 




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Q 
LJ 

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Ld 
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Ld 

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FLETCHER] 



FIRST RITUAL, PART II 



41 



The Kii ralius lakes ten IValhcrs from llie tail of tlie brown ('a,tj;U^ 
and prejiarcs them so tlial they can be tied upon one of the stems. A 
buckskin thong is lun througli a hole punctured near the end of 
the quills and jinolher is threaded through the quills, about the middle 
of their lengtli, so tliat upon tliese two tliongs the feathers can be 
spread like a fan. To the end of the thongs ai-e fasteniMl litll(> balls 
of white down, laken from inside the thigh of the white male eagle. 
These balls of down represent the reproductive power. \\'li(>n the 
fan-like appendage is completed it is tied to the side of the blue- 
painted stem, so that, it can swing when the stem is waved, to simulate 
the nuivements of an eagle. 

Wlien the Ku'rahus takes from lh<' man on his left, towai'd tlui 
north, the blue-painted stem and attaches to it the fan-like pendant 
made of the feathers of the brown eagle, we give thanks in our hearts 
as the following song is sung. 

THIRD SONG 

II ^(inJs (I III! ^Ilisic 
M. M. ^ = V2(i. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed br Edwin S. Tracy. 

— ^-g ^ ■-- — c =»•-•;:* -»^^—«r—^i :^ai — m • m-' 

Ha-a-a-a-al Ka - was we-rit-ta we - re rit- la we -re; Ka - was wc- rit- 

i.™7u.|s» • p •_: j r t r t r Lj t ' Lj '. ' 



=qsi?-S= 



Cjj—^ -;; 9—^0 W-^0—m 



ta we- re rit- ta we -re; 

U 1-! Lj L. 



Ka - was we - rit - ta we • 

' LJ t-! LJ 



re rit - ta we - re. 



t I - I 



78 Ha-a-a-a-rt! 

79 Kawas weritta'were ritta were: 
SO Kawa.s weritta were ritta were; 
81 Kawas weritta were ritta were. 



Tni iishtl ion 

78 Ha-a-a-a-a! -Vn inlroductoiy exclamation to the song. 
70 Kawas weritta were ritta wci-e. 

Kawas, the name given to lhi> lirown eagle in this ceremony. The 
common luinie for this bii-d is letahkots katlt; letahkots, 
eagle; katit, dai-k or brown. 

weritta, now hung. 

were, ati this or llial panicular lime. 

ritta, an abbreviated fi)rni of weritta, now hung. 

were, at this time. 
80, 81 See line 7'.i. 



42 THE HAKO, A PAWNf^E CEREMONT [eth. asx. 22 

Exphututinu III/ till Kii'rdhus 

In this ceremony the In-own eatfle is called Kawas. This eagle has 
been made holy Ijy being sacrificed to Tira'wa. Its feathers are tied 
upon the stem that has been painted blue to represent the sky. 

This stem w;is the first one painted and decorated, because it is 
female and the leader. It represents tlie night, the moon, the north, 
and stands for kindness and helpfulness. It will take care of the 
people. It is the mother. 

Thi-oughout the ceremony the Ku'ralius carries this feathered stem. 

After tlie Kawas stem is prepared tlie Ku'ralius hands it back to 
the man on his left, toward the north, to hold while he prepares a 
pendant of seven tail feathers from the white eagle. Then he takes 
from the man on his right, toward the south, the stem wdiich had been 
painted green and ties on it this Mdiite-eagle pendant. 

No song is sung while this is being done. The white eagle is not 
holy; it- has not been sacrificed to Tira'wa. It has less power than 
Kawas; it is inclined to war, to hurt some one. It can not lead; it 
must follow. So tlie green stem is painted last, and all the decora- 
tions are jiut upon it after the othei' stem is completed. 

This feathered green stem represents the male, the day, the sun, 
and the south. During the ceremony it is carried by the assistant 
of the Ku'i-ahus, whose jilace is on the right of the Ku'rahus, toward 
the south. 

When we move ab(5ut the lodge waving the two feathered stems to 
the rhythm of the song we are singing, Kawas, the brown eagle, is 
carried next the people, and the white-eagle stem on the farther side, 
away from the people, where it can do good by defending them and 
keeping away all harm. If it were carried next the Children it would 
bring them war and trouble. It is the brown eagle that is alwaj's 
kept near the people and is w-aved' over their heads to bring them the 
gifts of plenty and of peace. 

The red and white streamers tied upon the two stems represent the 
sun and 1 he moon. 

While the Ku'ralius still has the sacred ointment upon his hands 
he anoints a crotched stick and two straight sticks, all three of which 
have been carefully scraped and smoothed. These sticks were cut 
from a plum tree, because this tree is prolific in bearing fruit. 

Part III. P.\ixtin« thk Eah of Corn and Pkeparincj the Other S.^-CRED 

Objects 

Explunafioii hi/ ilw Kii' riihas 

The Ku'rahus now mixes in a round wooden bowl blue clay with 
water taken from a running stream and paints with it an ear of white 
corn, in the way our fathers were taught to do. During this act the 
following song is sung. 



FLETCHER] 



FIRST RITUAL, PART III 



43 



SONQ 

IVorils (Dill J/n.svV' 



M. M. ^S-13S. 



— Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



—^-\~\ — I — I- 



^=^=^^Je^= 



=^==s: 



tisr 



hra li - l;i: H'A - ti - ra, we - ri bra ri 



H' A- ti - ra, bra 



=:^==|5=:|= 



fc3^ 



.■Sz.-S= 



m^^ 



ri - ki re; 



We - ri bra ri - ki; H'A - ti - ra, we - ri bra ri 



ki. 
) 



S2 


Ha-a-a-a-al 


193 


83 


H'Atira, weri lira riki; 


104 


84 


H'Atira, weri lira riki; 


105 


85 


H'Atira, weri lira riki; 


106 


86 


H'Atira, hra riki re: 


107 


87 


Weri lira riki: 


108 


88 


H'Atira, weri hra riki. 
II 


109 


89 


Ha-a-a-a-al 


110 


90 


H'Atira. weri ruata: 


111 


91 


H'Atira, weri ruata; 


112 


92 


H'Atira, weri ruata; 


113 


93 


H'Atira, ruata re; 


114 


94 


■Weri ruata; 


115 


95 


H'Atira, weri ruata. 


llfi 



m 

96 Ha-a-a-a-al 

97 H'Atira. weri tukuka 

98 H'Atira, weri tukuka 

99 H'Atira, weri tukuka 

100 H'Atira, tukuka re; 

101 Weri tukuka: 

102 H'Atira, weri tukuka. 



117 
118 
119 
1'30 
131 
122 
1'33 



IV 

Ha-a-a-a-a 1 
H'Atira. weri taiwa; 
H'Atira, weri taiwa; 
H'Atira, weri taiwa; 
H'Atira, taiwa re; 
Weri taiwa; 
H'Atira, weri tiawa. 



Ha-a-a-a-al 

H'Atira, weri tawawe: 
H'Atira. weri tawawe: 
H'Atira, weri tawawe: 
H'Atira, tawawe re: 
Weri tawawe; 
H'Atira, weri tawawe, 

\I 

Ha-a-a-a-a! 

H'Atira, weri tawitshpa; 
H'Atira, weri tawitshpa: 
H'Atira, weri tawitshpa; 
H'Atira, tawitshpa re: 
Weri tawitshpa; 
H'Atira. weri tawitslipa. 



44 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. as 

Trniislalion < if First, Sfditza 

Si Ila-a-a-a-a! liitrodiu-tioii. An rxrlaiuation. 
.S3 lI'Atira, wori lira riki. 

h', ail aspiration, a breathiiii^ I'orlli, as tlio giving of life, 
afira, jiiother. 

weri, I am. The siiigular pronoun refers to the party which 
is taking the initiative in this ceremony and not merely to 
the Ku'rahns. 
lira, an abbreviated form of the word rararit, to hold, 
riki, standing. This word not only refers to the position of 
the person who holds the ear of corn and to the position of 
the corn itself, but it indicates the ijresent time, now. 
S-t, 85 See line 8.3. 
8() H'Atira, lira riki re. 

h'Atira, lira riki. See line S.!. 

re, a sign of the plural. This plural sign imlieates the imper- 
sonation of the ear of corn; h'Atira and Ku'rahns are 
standing as two persons. 

57 Weri lira riki. See line S:!. 

58 See line s;5. 

ExplaimliDU hij ilw Kii'riilins 

The ear of corn represents the supernal iii-al j)()wer tliat dwells in 
HTTraru, the earth which brings fortli tlie food that sustains life; 
so we speak of the ear of corn as h'Atira, mother breathing f(n'th life. 

The power in the earth which enables 11 lo bring forth comes from 
above; for that reason we jjaint the ear of ccn-n with lilue. lilne is 
the cohir of the skj', the dwelling place of Tira'wahut. 

The running water with which the l)lue clay is mixed is put into a 
round, M'ooden bowl, not in a shell, as when we iiainted the stems. 
The bowl is of wood, taken from tlie trees, a part of the living cover- 
ing of Mother Earth, representing 1hc ])ower of Toharu (see explana- 
tion of line 24). 

The bowl is round, like the dome sluqie of the sky, and holds the 
blue paint, which also represents the sky. The bowl is a vessel from 
which we eat when we ha^■e the sacred feast of the corn. Tira'wa 
taught us how to get the corn. 

As we sing the first stanza the Ku'rahns stMiuls in front of the bowl 
containing the blue paint and holds in his hand,b}' the butt, h'Atira, 

the ear of corn. 

Tntnslatton of Second HUiiiza 

S!) lla-a-a-a-al An introductory exclanuilion. 
00 H'Atira, weri ruata. 

h'Atira, weri. See line S;3. 

rujita, flying. Ruata indicates that the ear of corn is moving 
through the air, not touching the ground; the fact that the 
ear is in the hand of the Ku'rahns is ignored. Throughout 
this ceremony the ear of corn is a^ person. 



AU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGV 



TWENTf-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXXXVIII 






^-v -vy 



"MOTHER CORN" 
(TO ILLUSTRATE 'HAKO^A PAWNEE CEREMONY" BY A.C.FLETCHER ) 



FLETCHER] 



FIRST RITUAL. PART III 45 



91, 92 See line 90. 

93 H'Atira ruata re. All tlic wdi-ds have Ijeeu tran.slated. See lines 

83, 86, and 90. 
94r Weri ruata. See lines 83 and 9(i. 

95 See line 90. 

J^j'pIaiKitirni by fhe Ku'ralms 

As we sing this stanza the Kurahus, holding the ear of corn in 
his hand ]ij the butt, moves it slowly toward the bowl containing the 
blue 23aint. 

The bowl and the blue paint represent the blue skj', where the powers 
above dwell, so we sing that the mother is flying (ruata) toward the 
heavens to reach these jiowers. 

The spirit of the corn and the spirit of the Kurahus ai'e now flying 
together (see line 86 for translation of the plural sign, re, and its 
significance). 

Tnnisldiion uf Tliird Stanza 

96 See line 82. 

97 H'Atira, weri tukuka. 

h'Atira, weri. See line 83. 
tukuka, now touches, or touching. 
98, 99 See line 97. 

100 H'Atira, tukuka re. See lines 83, 8(5, and 97. 

101 Weri tukuka. See lines 83 and 97. 

102 See line 97. 

Exphiitdf/oii hij flie Ku'ralms 

As this stanza is sung the Kurahus dips his rtnger in the blue iiaint 
and touches (tukuka) the car of corn with it. 

This act means that Mother Corn in her flight toward the sky now 
touches the place where the sky begins. 

Tniiishitiuii of Fourth Stanza 

103 See line 82. 

104 H'Atira, weri taiwa. 

h'Atira, weri. See line 83. 
taiwa, to rub (hiwnward or mark. 
10.5, 106 See line 101. 

107 H'Atira taiwa re. See lines 83, 86, and 104. 

108 Wci-i taiwa. See lines 83 and 101. 
lO'.i See line 104. 

Rrplaiiatiou hi/ the Kn'ruhus 

As we sing this stanza the Kurahus marks with his finger four 
equidistant lines of blue paint on Ihc ear of corn. He begins at the 
tip of the ear and rubs his finger down (taiwa) about halfway 1o Ihe 
butt on the foiir sides of the ear. 



46 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. axx. 22 

The four blue lines represeut the four pathvS at the four directions 
(cardinal points), near which the winds stand -as guards. Down these 
paths the powers descend to bring help to man. 

The blue paint came down one of these paths, but I was not taught 
which one. 

Triiiislti/ion lit' Fifth Slauza 

110 Ila-a-a-a-al An introductory exclamation. 

111 IFAtira, weri tawawe. 

h'Atira, M-eri. See line .s;i 

tawawe, to spread. 
11-', 113 See line 111. 

11-4 H'Atira tawawe re. See lines 8.3, sii, and 111. 
115 Weri tawawe. See lines 8.'! and 111. 
IKJ See line 111. 

K.rphntatinii hij fJte Ku'ralius 

As wc sing this stanza the Ku'rahus spreads (tawawe) with his 
finger the Idue paint over the tip of the ear of corn, to represent the 
blue dome of tlie sky, where the powers dwell, above whom is the 
mighty Tirawa atius, tlie father of all. 

^ Tills act signifies that Motlier Corn hiis reached the abode of 
Tira'wahut, wliere slic will receive authority to lead in this ceremony. 

Translation of SixtJi Htitnza 

117 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

118 H'Atira, weri tawitshjja. 

h'Atira, weri. See line 83. 

tawitslipa, tlic attainment of an object; the completion of an 
undertaking; the end reached. 
1111, 120 Sc<' line 118. 

121 H'Atira tawitshjja re. See lines 83, Si;, and 118. 

122 Weri lawitshpa. See lines 83 and 118. 

123 See line 118. 

Exphimttioii tiij thf Kii'i-dhiis 

.Mother Corn having reached the blue dome whei-e dwells the great 
circle of i)o\vers, Tii-a'wahut, and ha\'ing gained what she went for, 
tawitshpa, authority to lead in tlie ceremony, she descends to earth 
b3' tlie four paths. 

Tlie blu(! paint having now ])een put on the ear of corn, tliispart 
of the ceremony is completed. 

In all that is to follow li'Atira, Mother Corn breathing fortli life, is 
to lead. Slie came forth from Motlier Eartli, who knows all places 
and all that happens among men, so she knows all places and all 
men, and can direct us where to go when we carry tlie sacred articles 
which give plenty and peace. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL LXXXIX 




THE RATTLES 
ITO ILLUSTRATE"JHAKO,A PAWNEE CEREMONY," BY A CFLETCH ER ) 



FLETCHER] FIEST RITUAL, PART HI 47 

When we have tini.slied 8in.i;iiiu tliis soug the Kii rahiis takes one of 
the plum-tree sticks, which lias been anomted witli red chty mixed 
with fat, and ties on it witli a tliread of sinew a downj' eagle feather. 
This stick is bound to the ear of corn so as to project a hand's Ijreadth 
above the ti^) end, letting the downy featlier wave al)Ove Mother t'orn. 
This feather represents Tira'wa. It is always moving as if Ijrcat liing. 

The Ku'rahus then binds tlie other plum-tree sticlv to the c()rn so 
that it extends below the butt. AVlien the corn is placed in ceremo- 
nial position this end of the stick is thrust in the ground so tliat the 
ear will stand upright without touching the earth. Both sticks are 
bound to the ear of corn by a braided band of hair taken from the 
head of a butfalo. The liraided band signifies the gift of animal food 
and the i^rovision of skin clothing. (The Skidi band of the Pawnees 
tie a bit of buffah) wool, such a.s is shed by the animal in the spring, 
together witli a braid of sweet grass, to the ear of corn.) 

The two gourd rattles, which represent the squasli given us i)y 
Tira'wa, and also the breasts of tlie mother, are each painted with a 
blue circle about tlie middle, with four ecpiidistant lines from the 
circle to the liottom of the gourd. The circle represents the wall or 
lioundary of the dome of the sky; the four lines are for tlie four 
j)aths at the four directions down which the jiowers descend. Xo 
song is sung while this iiainting is being done. 

All the sacred articles are laid at rest on a wildcat skin when tliey 
are not being used ceremoniall}', and it is a cover for tliem in which 
they are all wrapped together at the close of the ceremony. The skin 
is never tanned, and the ears of the animal, the skin of the head, 
the feet, and the claws must all be intact. 

Tira'wa made the wildcat to live in the forest. He has much skill 
and ingenuity. The wildcat shows us that we mu.st think, we must 
use tact, and be shrewd when we set out to do anything. If we 
wish to afiijroach a person we should not do it bluntly; we should not 
rush at him; that might offend him so that he would not receive us 
or the gifts we desired to ort'er him. The wildcat does not make 
enemies by rash action. lie is observant, quiet, and tactful, and he 
always gains his end. 

In this ceremony we are to carry the sacred articles to one not of 
our kindred in order to bind him to us by a sacred and strong tie; we 
are to ask for him many good gifts, long life, health, and children, 
and we should receive gifts from him in return. If we would .succeed 
we must learn of the wildcat, and be wise as he is wise. 

The wildcat is one of the sacred animals. A man who killed a 
wildcat could sacrifice it to Tira'wahut. The man who brought sucli 
an otfering had the right to ask the priest to teach him some of the 
mysteries that belong to the sacred shrine. 

Many years ago two men took the Hako to the Omaha tribe. On 
the journej' one of them killed a wildcat. I said to the man: " 1 am 



48 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEKEMONY [eth. ann. 23 

glad Mother Corn is here leading- us, and the wildcat goes with the 
Ilako." But the man who killed it said: "Xo, this skin will not go 
with the Ilako I I am going to take it to the priest for sacrifice that 
I inny learn some of the mysteries." But he did wrong and suffered 
for it, because that wildcat belonged with the Hake, for it was killed 
while Ave were being led by Mother Corn. 

Tlie sacred articles having been completed are now laid at cere- 
monial rest. The wildcat skin is spread ujion the earth in the holy 
jjlace, which is in the west part of the lodge opposite the entrance, a 
little way back from the fireplace. The head of the skin is placed 
toward the east; the crotched plum-tree stick is thrust into the ground 
close to the head; the two feathered stems are laid in the crotch, the 
brown-eagle stem first, then the white-eagle stem on the top or outside. 
The eagle builds its nest in the crotch of a tree, .so the.se eagle-feathered 
stems are laid in the crotch of the plum-tree stick. The ends which 
are thrust through the duck's head rest upon the wildcat, and under 
the wing-like pendants the gourd rattles are placed. Directly in 
front of the crotched stick stands Mother Corn. 

Part IV. Dffebincj of Smoke 
Exphtniifioii III/ tlie Kii'riilius 

The time hai^ now come for t he olfering of smoke to Tira'wa. 

Ilie priest of the Rain shi'ine must be present with the pipe belong- 
ing to that shrine and lu' must conduct the ceremony. After he has 
filled tli(* pipe with natixe tobacco the Ku'rahus tells the people that 
the time has come to offer smoke to Tira'wa, the father and the giver 
of all Ihiiigs. He selec^ts froin the company a man to act as pipe 
bearer during the ceremony of offei'ing smoke. The pipe bearer must 
be one who has made sacrifices at the saci-ed tents where the shrines 
are kejjt and has been annointed, and who in conseciuence has been 
prospered in his undertakings. The prayers of such a man are 
thought to be more acceptable to the powers than those of a man who 
has never made sacrifices. 

In old times men did not smoke for pleasure as they do now, but 
only in religious ceremonies. The white peoijle have taiight the 
Pawnees to profane the use of tobacco. 

Each of the sacred shrines of the tribe has a pipe, and its priest 
knows the proper order in which the pipe should be offered to Tira - 
wahut. I am not a priest, so I do not know the order in which the 
Rain iiipe is offered, noi- can I tell you the ceremony; the knowledge 
of that belongs to its priest and not to me. 

Up to this point (the conclusion of the ceremony of smoking) all 
the people present have been obliged to remain quiet in their places; 
now they are at liberty to move about or to leave the lodge. 



:JUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL. XC 




. :v% 




'«i- 



■lU » 



'^4^%: 










■^ 




THE WILDCAT SKIN AND CROTCHED STICK ON WHICH 

THE TWO FEATHERED STEMS ARE PLACED 

WHEN AT CEREMONIAL REST 

1 TO ILLUSTRATE "HAKO,A PAWNEE CEREMONY," BY AC.FLETCH ER ) 



FLETCHER] 



INITIAL RITES 



49 



Second Ritual. Prefiguring the Journey to the Son 

Explanation hi/ fhe Ku'rahus 

Ilouor is confei-red upon a man who leads a Hako party to a dis- 
tant tribe and there makes a Son, while to the Son help is given from 
all the powers represented bj' the sacred objects. Between the Father 



EAST 
• 1 




Fig. 1T2. Diagram of the Father's lodge duriug the second ritual. 

i. the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; .3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the Ku'i-ahus; 5, his assistant; 6, the Father (a chief >; T. the server; ?>, the wildcat skin, on 
which are the feathered stems and rattles; Vt, the eagle wings; 10. the ear of corn; 11. members 
ot the Hako party. 



and the Son and their immediate families a relationship similar to 
that which exists between kindred is established through this cere- 
mony. It is a sacred relationship, for it is made by the .supernatural 
powers that are witli the Hako. 
22 ETH— PT 2—04 4 



50 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. akn. 22 

Because of the sacred and binding cliaracler of this relationship, 
and tlie gifts brought by it to the Son, namely, long life and many 
children to make his familj- strong, the selection of a man to be made 
a Son is regarded as a serious and important act, one in -which the 
chiefs and the leading men of the Fatlier's tribe must have a voice. 

The Son shoiild be a chief or a man who has the respect of the lead- 
ing men of his tribe, and whom the Father's tribe would be glad to 
have l)ound to them by the tie of Son. 

While the Father lias been gathering the materials necessary for 
this ceremony, which may have taken him a year or more, he has had 
some particular person in his mind whom he desii-ed to make a Son. 
When everything is ready he mentions this particular person to the 
chiefs and leading men, and when we are gathered together to sing 
this song we think of this chosen man and we ask the assistance of 
]Mother Corn, and if he is the right person she will lead us to him. 

The selection of the Son takes place soon after the preparation of 
the sacred objects, frsqnently on the night of the same day. It must 
always be in the night time, because the spirits can travel best at night. 
Tiie spirit of the corn and tlie spirits of the people present in the 
lodge at tliis time are to decide who shall be the Son, and Mother 
Corn is to lead us to him. The same persons are present at tliis 
ceremony that were present at the preparation of the Ilako. 

In I lie west of the lodge, facing the east, sit the Ku'rahus, his assist- 
ant, and the Father. Before them are the sacred objects arranged as 
at ceremonial rest. A little way in front of the crotched stick stands 
the ear of corn which has been painted in tlie .sacred manner (see 
figure 172). It is held in position by one of the sticks to which it is 
tied being thrust into the ground. This ear of corn is the mother, 
and upon her everyone present must fix his mind. 

The singing of the following stanzas occupies most of the night; 
they do not follow eacli other quickly, for we must pause after each 
one. 

SONG 

IVonl.'} (1)1(1 Mii.'iic 

M. M. ^N = t32. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracv. 



&fM§m^m^M^Mm 



Ha-a-a-a! H'A-ti - ra ha-ri, li'A-ti - ra lia-ri! He! C'bix-u ti 
Drum, m » 'f m « « it f t m a ^<««i « '* r if 

vlii-ti-lja ha-ril H' Ati- ra ha-ri! II'A-ti- ra ha-ri, h".\-ti-ra. Ha! 

f * f * f ' ^ ' tj t—' L—' i— * L.* p " 1 i 



FLETCHER] SECOND 


RITUAL 51 


124 


I 
Ha-a-a-a! 


144 


V 
Ha-a-a-a! 


125 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira hari! 


14o 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


12fi 


He: Chixu ti whitikahari! 


146 


He! Chixu ti whlchata hari! 


127 


H'Atira hari 1 


147 


H'Atira hari! 


128 


H'Atira hari. li'Atira. Ha! 


148 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 




II 




YI 


129 


Ha-a-a-a! 


149 


Ha-a-a-a! 


130 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


1.50 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira hari! 


131 


He! Chixii ti uchitika hari! 


151 


He! Chixu tih itchahka wara. hari 


132 


H'Atira hari! 


1.52 


H'Atira hari! 


133 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 


1.53 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 




Ill 




VII 


134 


Ha-a-a-a! 


1.54 


Ha-a-a-a! 


133 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


1.53 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira hari! 


136 


He! Chixu uti hiata hari! 


156 


He! Chixu ti itwhichata hari! 


137 


H'Atira hari! 


137 


H'Atira hari! 


138 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 


1.58 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira. Ha! 




IV 




VIII 


139 


Ha-a-a-a! 


1.59 


Ha-a-a-a! 


140 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


160 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira hari! 


141 


He! Chixu tih whichuru hari! 


161 


He! Chixu ti tokoka liari! 


142 


H'Atira hari! 


162 


H'Atira hari! 


143 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 


163 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira. Ha! 



Translation of First Stanza 

124 Ha-a-a-a! Au iiitroductory exclainatiou. 

125 H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari. 

h', the sign of an inspiration, a breath, the symbol of giving 

fortli life. 
atira, mother. The term is here applied to the ear of corn, 

the life-giving product of h'Uraru, the Earth, 
hari, a part of the word iha'ri, young, the young of animals; 

also a general term for children. 
12i3 He! Chixu ti whitika hari. 

he! an exclamation, as when l)iddiug one to look at some- 
thing, 
chixu, the spirit or mind of a person or thing, 
ti, have, in the sense of having done something, accomplished 

a purpose or carried out a plan, 
whitika, converged, come together and united for a given 

purpose, 
hari, part of the word iha'ri, offspring. The word here refers 

to the Son. 

127 H'Atira hari! The words have been ti-anslated. See line 125. 

128 H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 

h'Atira hari. See line 125. 

ha! au exclamation, calling attention. 



52 THE HAKO, A PAWNKS CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 82 

Explaiuitioii hij tlie Kii' rahus 

As we sing this stanza eveiyone l)en(ls his mind toward the ear of 
corn, for our spirits (chixu) and the spirit (cliixn) of the corn must 
converge (whitika), must come together and unite for the purpose of 
linding tlie Son. Tlie ear of corn is a part of li'Uraru (see line 10), 
3I()tlier Earth, the mothei' of all things, so we call the ear of corn 
Mother Corn; and because she su^jports our life tlirough food, we 
s])eak of her as h'Alira, mother giving forth life. 

All things live on the earth, ]\Iother Corn knows and can reach all 
things, can reach all men, so lu-i- si)irit is to lead our spirits in this 
•search over the earth. When ^lother Corn went up to Tira'walmt at 
the 1 ime she was painted (see lines S2 t() 123), power was given her to 
lead the spirits of all tilings in the air and to command the birds and 
tlie animals connected with the Hako. Endowed with power from 
Tira'wahut above and from li'Uraru (Mother Earth) below, Mother 
Corn leads and we must follow her, our spirits must follow her spirit. 
We must fix our minds upon Mother Corn and upon the Son, who is 
tlie <>l)Ject of our search. It is a very difficult thing to do. ^VIl our 
spirits must become united as one spirit, and as one spirit we must 
approach the spirit of Mother Corn. This is a very hard thing to do. 

Translation of Second Stmi.za 

Jl'!) Ila-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

130 li'Atira hari, h'Atira hari. 

h'Atira, Mother lireatliing forth life. See line 125. 
hari, part of the word ilia I'i, offspring, children. 

131 lie! Chixu ti ucliitika hari. 

he! look! l)ehold: 

chixu, spirit of a person or thing. 

fi, have. See line 12(1. 

uchilika, meililating on; turning over a suljject in one's 

mind and eoiisiilering it in all its aspects, 
hari, part of iiia'ii, young; refers to the Sou. 

132 ITAtira hari! See line 130. 

133 H'Atira hari, h'Atira. lla! See lines 128, 130. 

E-vplanoHon hij the Ku'ralnis 

W'JLen we sing this stanza our spirits and llie spirit of Mother Corn 
have come together. Now we are all to meditate. We sit with bowed 
heads, and Mother Corn sits with bowed head. We are all to think 
over and consider (uchitika) who shall be the Son. 

We must all agree ui^on the choice, Mother Corn and all. 

It is very difficult for all to unite, but we must do so before we can 
follow Mother Corn where she determines to lead us. It often takes 
a long time. 



FLETCHER] SECOND RITUAL 53 

Tni Halation (if Third Stanza 

134 ITa-a-a-a! An iiitrodiu'toiy exclaiiintioii. 

135 IFAtira hari, h'Atira havi. 

TI'Atira, mother broat.liiiig 1'ortli life. See line 125. 

hari, part of the word ilia ri, young; refers to the Son. 
13tj He! Chixu nti hiata hari. 

he! look! behold! 

ehixn, the spirit. Sec line 12G. 

uti, moving. 

hiata, the air. Uti hiata refers to the spirits iiioving 
thi'ongh the air. 

hari, part of iha'i'i, young; refers to tlie Son. 
137 H'Atira hari! See line 135. 
13.S H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! See lines 135, 128. 

JExphui't/iiiii III/ the Ku' ruhiiN 

"When we sing this stanza the decision has been made. Mother 
Corn lifts her head and .stands erect. Then she moves through the 
air (uti hiata), flying on her journey to tlu^ Son, and we follow. 

It is not the ear of corn that travels through the air, nor do our 
bodies follow, it is the spirit (ehixu) of the c-orn that moves, and it is 
our spirits (chixn) that follow, that travel with her to the land of tlu* 
Son. 

The i)atli uow (ipened by the spirit of Mother C.'orn we, the Fathers, 
will lake, when w<' in oui' bodies journey to the Son, but the way must 
first 1)6 oi)eiie(l and the path prepared by the spirit of Mother Corn. 
This she is about to do. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

139, 140 See lines 134, 135. 

141 He! Chixu tih whichuini hari ; 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, the spirit of a person oi- a thing. 

tih, are in the. act of. 

whichuru, approaching, drawing near to a place. 

hari, ])art of iha'ri, children. 
142, 143 See lines 127, 128. 

Exptaiiation tiij the Ku'raJiNH 

As we sit and sing this stanza our spirits follow the spirit of Mother 
Corn, and now we are ai)proaehliig (tih whichuru), di'awiiig near to 
the village wh(!re the Son lives. We .see it all (in the spirit) as with 
Motiier Corn Ave approach the place whei-e the Son dwells. 



54 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth, ann 22 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

144, 145 See lines 124, 125. 

140 lie! Chixii ti whicliata hari. 

he! look! behold! 

cliixu, the spirit of a person or tiling. 

ti, have, in the sense of liaviug accomplished a purpose or 
carried out a plan. 

Avhichata, reached one's destination, the end of one's journey. 

liari, part of iha'ri, young', cliildreu. 
147, 148 See lines 127, 128. 

Expldudtion tnj the Ku' rahus 

As we sing this stanza Motlier Corn reaches her de.stination (ti 
whichata). The journey across tlie country is now at an end. Mother 
Corn lias opened the way from the Iribe of the Fathers to the tribe of 
the Children. "We shall now be able to travel safely along that path, 
for she has made it straight, she has i-emoved all evil influences from 
it, so that we shall be happy when we pass over this path she has made. 

Here Mother Corn i^auses, and we shall pause when we arrive at 
this place, for it will be here that we shall stop and await the messen- 
ger from the Son. He will bring words of welcome and precede us to 
the lodge set apart for lis by the Son. 

After a pause we shall follow the spirit of Mother Corn when she 
enters the village of the Son. 

Transhdion < if Sixth Stanza 

1411, 1511 See linco 124, 125. 

151 He! Chixu tih itchahka wara hari. 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, the spirit of a person or thing. 

tih, are, are in the act of. 

itchahka; it, a prefix, indicating desire; chahka, a part of the 
word chahkahawe, village: itchahka, the village one has 
desired to reach. 

wara, walking. 

hari, part of iha'ri, children. 
152, 15:3 See lines 127, 12S. 

ExplaiHition tiij tltr Kn' rahut< 

As we sing this stanza the spirit of Mother Corn walks through the 
village she has desired to reach (tih itchahka wara). She opens the 
way for us through the village to the door of the lodge of the Son. 
Our spirits, as one spirit, follow hers as she walks among the lodges, 
seeking the one in which the Sou dwells. 

As we follow we keep our minds fixed uiion Mother Corn and upon 
the Sou to whom we are now drawing near. 



1-LETCHER] 



SECOND RITUAL 55 



Translation of Seventh Stanza 

154, 155 See lines 134, 125. 

15'j He! Chixu ti itwhichata hari. 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, the spirit of a person or thing. 

ti, have, in the sense of having accomplished a purpose. 

itwhichata; it, a prefix indicating desire; whichata, reached 
one's destination: itwliichata, reached the desired end or 
ob,ject of one's journey. 

hari; jjart of the word iha'ri, young; refers here to the Son. 
157,158 See lines 127, 128. 

Explanation Inj the Ku'rahns 

As we sing this stanza the spirit of Mother Corn arrives at the lodge 
of the Son and enters. Our spirits follow her spirit. We have now 
reached the ob.ject of our searcli and the end of our journey (ti 
itwhichata hari). The Son does not see us as we stand there; he 
is sleeping. We fix our minds upon Mother Corn and upon him: 
we think of the gifts we ai-e to bring him when we come to him witli 
the Hako, the gifts that the birds and the animals that attend tliese 
sacred objects will surely bestow upon him — long life, cliildren, and 
plenty. These gifts \,U\ be his, and we shall share in tliem, for all 
these good things go with this ceremony. 

Translation of Eighth Stanza 

159, 160 See lines 124, 125. 
IGl He! Chixu ti tokoka hari. 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, tlie spirit of a person or thing. 

ti, have, in tlie sense of having accomplished. 

tokoka, touched, made itself felt. 

hari, part of iha'ri, young. 
102, 103 See lines 127, 128. 

Explanation hij the Ku'rahus 

Wliile we sing this stanza tlie spirit of Mother Corn touches tlie 
Son (ti tokoka hari). 

We fix our minds upon Mother C(n'n and upon the Son; if we arc in 
earnest he will respond to her touch. He will not waken, lie will not 
see her, but he will see in a dream that which her toucli will bring to 
him, one of the birds that attend tlie Ilako, for all the spirits of tliose 
birds are witli Mother Corn and they do her bidding, and he may hear 
the bird call to him. Tlien, wlien lie awakens, he will remember his 
dream, and as he tliinks upon it, lie will know that he has been chosen 
to be a Son, and that all the good things that come with tlie cei-e- 
mony which will make him a Son are now promised to him. 



56 



THE HAKO, A PAWNKE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 28 



By touching' the Son Mother Corn opened his mind, and ijrepared 
the way for our messengers to him, so that lie would lie willing to 
receive them, and later to receive us. 

Mother Corn has now found the Son ; she has made straight and safe 
the path from our country to his land, and she has made his mind ready 
to receive us and to carry out his part of this ceremony of the Hako. 

Third Ritual. Sending the Messengers 

Exphinofioi) liij till' Kii'ralnis 

On the day following the night when Mother Corn selected the Son 
the members of the Father's party brought to his lodge the gifts 
which they were to take to the Children. 

Four men were chosen to carry the message of the Kxt'rahns to the 
Son. The.y were clothed by the Father with the butfalo robe in the 
ceremonial manner, and led by him to a place near the entrance of 
the lodge. 

The Ku'rahus gave a little of the sacred native tobacco to the 
Father, who tied it in a small piece of liladder and returned it to the 
Ku'rahus, who then addressed to the messengers the first stanza of 
the following song. 



^Vnr(^s and Music 



M. M 


1=112. 
















• — Pulsation of the voice. 


Transcribed bv Edwin S. 


Tracy. 


Slow and heavy. 










?T^^3^ 


m -tip mem. 


-E^— ff-fi— 


H 


=J— J^-r,: 


'—t^- 


Ha-a-a! 


Ka - sha wha - ko - o 


Ha - a! H'ars 




wi - ta - a 


Ka - 


Drum, i , 
Matiles.l 1 

.1 i — 


m m fi m m 
1 1 1 1 1 1 


& . » . 
1 1 1 1 




^ • i" 
1 1 1 


• • • 

1 1 1 


i^=s- 


i s — J 


=Jz=--^ 


=1 ^ 


W=; 


a— 

^ — 


^**^ ^ 


— t-P---- 


^ 4 




^ .. I— 




• _J. -S- 




sha 


wha - ko - o: Ha - 


a ! H' ars \\ 


i 


ta - a! 


Ka- 


• 
1 


« « « • 
1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 

__ — y — 


1 


r r r 
—1 — 1^ — 


r r 


slia 


wlia - ko - o: 


Ha 


- al H'ars 


"^^ 


wi - ta - 


■S- ^ 
a! 


t 


r ^ r i^ 


r 1* r 




1* r 


i I 


164 


Ha-a-a! 


I 








165 


Kasha whako-o: Ha-a! 


H'Ars wita-a! 








166 


Kasha whako-o: Ha-a! 


H'Ars wita-a! 








167 


Kasha whako-o: Ha-a! 


H'Ars wita-a! 
II 








168 


Ha-a-a! 










169 


Kusha whako-o: Ha-al 


H"Ars wita-a; 








170 


Kusha whako-o: Ha-a! 


H'Ars wita-a; 








171 


Kusha whako-o- 


H 


a-a! 


H'Ars witf 


i-a. 









FLETCHER] THIRD RITUAL 57 

Transhttioii uf First Stanza 

164 Ha-a-a! An iiitrodTictoi'y exclamation. 

165 Kasha ■whako-o : Ha-al IFars wita-a! 

kasha, a form of command, referring to an act to be performed 

at a futui'e time, 
whako-o; whako, tell or say; o, vowel prolongation, 
ha-a! ha I behold! a, vowel prolongation, 
h', a contraction of ha, your, 
ars, a contraction of atius, father. 
wita-a! wita, he coming; a, vowel prolongation. 
160, 167 See line 165. 

ExphiiKttidii by the Ku'mhus 

This stanza is a command to the messengers to say, when they hand 
the tobacco to the Son, "Behold! Your father is coming!" ("Ha! 
H'ars wita!") 

The stanza is sung four times. At the fourth time the Ku'rahus 
puts the tobacco into the hand of the leader of the four messengers, 
who at once leave the lodge and start upon their journey. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

168 See line 164. 

169 Kusha whako-o: ITa-a ! IFars wita-a. 

kusha, they will; that is, those that have been commanded 

will do as they have been directed, 
whako-o; whako, tell, say; o, vowel prolongation, 
ha-a! ha! behold! a, vowel prolongation, 
h', a contraction of ha, your, 
ars, a contraction of atius, father, 
wita-a, wita, he coming; a, vowel prolongation. 
170, 171 See line 169. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the messengers are out of sight of the village the Ku'rahus 
sings the second stanza. It is addressed to the members of the 
Father's party, who are still sitting in his lodge. It is an authoritative 
assurance that the messengers will (kusha) fulfil their mission and 
deliver to the Son the message, "Behold! Your father is coming!" 

After the Ku'rahus has sung this second stanza four times, the 
people disperse to await the return of the messengers, while he and 
his assistant, or two persons designated by him, must sit with the 
sacred objects until the four men come back from the Son. 

As the Son hears the words of the mes.sengers he will be reminded 
of his dream, in which Mother Corn touched him. And as he looks 
at the men he will recognize the tribe from which they have come and 
will know who has chosen him to be the Son. Then he will call 
together his relatives and they will talk over the matter. If it is 
decided to accept the ceremony they will keep the little bundle of 



58 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. axn. 23 

tobacei) aud the messengeivs will l)e told to retnrii and say to the 
Father, "I am ready!" 

The messengers start back immediately, aud when they are insight 
of their village the news of their arrival is proclaimed. Then all the 
men of the Father's party hasten to his lodge. The Ku'rahus, his 
assistant, and the Father put on their buffalo robes in the ceremonial 
manner, with the hair outside, and take their places back of the Ilako. 
The other members of tlie party range themselves against the wall of 
the lodge, (HI either side, and all await the coming of the messengers. 

As the four men enter the lodge the people cry, "Xawairi!" 
("Thanks!") while the Kurahus lifts his hands, palms upward, and 
then brings them down slowly. This movement means thanks, and 
the calling down of help from above. 

The lea<l»'rof tlie messengers, addressing the Kurahus, delivers the 
words .sent by the Sou, "I am ready!" This closes the ceremony. 

FOURTH RITUAL 

Part I. Vivifying the Sacred Objects 

E.rpl(uiaiiuii hij the Ku' rahus 

When the messengers return from the Son with the words, '"I am 
ready," there is rejoicing in the lodge. 

The young men of the Father's party rise and dance. From these 
dancers two are selected, by the Ku rahus and the chief, to perform 
the final dance, which takes place on the morning of the fifth day of 
the ceremony. The choice of these two dancers is signified by tying 
on their hair a downy white eagle's feather (see plate xli). Mean- 
while the other members of the party are bu.sy with their final prepa- 
rations. They tie in packs, ready for transportation, tlie gifts thej- 
ai-e to carry to the Children. The singers nuike ready the drum, while 
outside the women are engaged preparing food and other necessaries 
for the long journey. 

The Ku'rahus orders a straight tent pole to be selected and brought 
to the lodge of the Fatlier. 

On the morning of the day the journey is to begin the Ku rahus 
rises from his place in the lodge behind the Hake and goes outside. 
There he 1 ies the sacred objects on the selected tent pole. He puts 
the two feathered stems near the top — the brown eagle toward the 
north and the white eagle touaid the south — and he spreads out their 
feather pendants. Below tliese he fastens the ear of corn, and under- 
neath it the two rattles and, lastly, the wildcat skin. These objects 
must face the east when the pole is raised. Behind them, so as to 
face the west, the right and left wing of an eagle are fastened and 
spread out. 

The rope of buffalo hair is used to lie these sacred objects to the 
pole, which is then set up at the entrance of the lodge. Here it 
stands where the wind of the dawn may breathe upon the Hako and 
the lirst rays of the sun strike the sacred objects and give them life. 



AU OF AMERICAM ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL XCI 




■ 9*^ 



"^^^ 



r^ 



THE FEATHER SYMBOL OF TIRAWA 
(TO ILLUSTRATE "HAKO,A PAWNEE CEREMONY," BY A.CFLETCHER ) 



FLETCHER] 



FOURTH RITUAL 



59 



We do this that Tira'wa and all the lesser powers — the Winds, the 
Siiu, the Earth, and the four at the west which control the storm — 
maj^ see that all is complete and ready for the ceremony. 

It is all done in silence before tlie day dawns. No song is sung 
when we put the objects on the pole and raise it nor when we 
take it down and remove thtMii. We must let them stay up there f(jr 
some time in order that all the powers may surely see that everything 
is correct, so the sun is well up when the Ku'rahus goes out to the 
pole, lowers it, and removes the sacred objects and carries them into 
the lodge and puts them on the holy place. 

Part II. Mother Corn Assumes Leadership 

E-r^iIcniafioi) hy the Ku'rahus 

As I told you before, the Ku'rahus at the beginning of the ceremony 
anointed himself with the sacred ointment and fastened upon his head 



EAST 
1 —I 




Fig. 173. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the singing of the first stanza of the song of the 

fourth ritual, part ii. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2. the fireplace: 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the holy place; ,5. the Ku'rahus; 6, his assistant: 7. the bearers of the eagle wings: f, the Father 
(a chief): 9, the second chief; 10, members of the Hako party. 



60 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



the downy eagle feather (see plate xci). Now he takes the rope of 
buffalo hair with which the sacred objects have been bound to the 
pole, and with it ties his buffalo robe around his waist. He is now 
fully dressed for the ceremony, and he stands at the west, back of the 
holy j)lace. 

He anoints with the sacred ointment the face, arms, and Ijodj' of 
his assistant, ties a down.y eagle feather on his scalp lock, ijuts a 
buffalo robe on him in the ceremonial manner and hands him the 
featliered stem with the white-eagle pendant; then the assistant 
takes his position behind tlie holy place, toward the south. 

The Ku'rahus next annoints the face of the chief and fastens on 
his head a small tuft of down taken from under the wing of an eagle. 
T]u> chief wears his buffalo robe in the ceremonial manner. The Ku'- 
rahus hands the wildcat slcin to the chief, who folds its head about 
the crotched stick and the butt of the ear of corn, so that the tip to 
which the downy eagle feather is fastened is well in sight aliove the 
head of the cat. The skin hangs down in front of the chief as he 
holds it with both hands bj' the neck. He takes his place back of the 
Ku'rahus. 

The second chief, who is to assist the first, is now given the sacred 
pipe and tobacco bag of the Rain shrine and told to stand behind the 
Ku'rahus's assistant. 

The Ku'rahus hands the eagle wings to the doctors; the one with 
the left wing stands to the north of the Ku'rahus, and the one with 
the right wing takes his place to the south of the assistant. Lastly 
the Ku'rahus takes up for himself the feathered stem with the brown- 
eagle pendant and then, with the six men all in position (see figure 
1731, they sing the first stanza of the following song. 

SONG 

Woi-ds and Music 




Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



H'A - ti - ra liu 



H'A • ti - ra hii 



S 4— a- 



3=*= 



i=^3= 



3£3= 



--^^33ig^=u 



we - ta. 



H'A - ti - ra Im 



we ■ ta. 




^.— .S— J— jr 



a-ri-sol H'A-ti-ra liu 



we - ta. 



J 1 1 1- 




a-ri-sol H'A-ti - ra hu 



a - n - bol 



FLETCHER] FOURTH 


RITUAL, 


172 


I 
H'Atira hii weta ariso! 


178 


173 


H'Atira hia weta ariso! 


179 


174 


H'Atira hu weta ariso! 


180 


175 


H'Atira hu weta ariso! 


181 


176 


H'Atira hu weta ariso! 


183 


177 


H'Atira liu weta ariso! 


183 



61 



II 

H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 



Translation of First Stanza 

172 H'Atira hu weta ariso! 

h', the sign of an aspiration; a breath; the symbol of giving 
life. ^ 

atira, mother. The term is here applied to the ear of corn, the 
representativ-e of Mother Earth. 

hu, the same as ha, yonder. The vowel is changed from a to 
u to give greater euphouj' in singing by avoiding the repe- 
tition of the sound a. 

weta, coming toward one, so as to overtake one. 

ariso, a living thing that has come from a great distance in 
time or space. 
173-177 See line 17-2. 



Explanation by the Ku'raJius 

This stanza is sitng four times. As we sing it the first time the 
jjriucipal chief takes a step with his right foot, which brings him on a 
line with the Ku'rahus and his assistant. When we sing it a second 
time he takes a step with his left foot, which leaves him in advance 
of the line of the Ku'ralius and his assistant. As we sing it a third 
time he takes a step with his right foot and turns toward the north. 
When we sing it the fourth time he advances a step with his left foot. 
He has now passed in front of the Ku'rahus as leader, and faces the 
north. 

As we sing this song we remember that Mother Earth is very old. 
She is everywhere, she knows all men, she gave (supported) life to our 
fathers, she gives (supports) life to us, and she will give life to our 
children. 

Tlie ear of corn represents venerable Mother Earth, and also the 
authority given by the powers above; so, as the chief, holding the ear 
of corn, takes the four steps tliat bring him in advance of the Ku'ra- 
hus, we sing that Mother breathing forth life and bearing the sign of 
the powers above is now coming from the far distant past to go 
before us. 

At the close of the fourth repeat the Ku'rahus tells the assistant 
chief to pass in front and stand at the right hand of the principal 



62 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

cliiet'. When this is done, tlie Ku'rahus and liis assistant and tlie two 
doctors form a line beliind the two chiefs; then we sing the following 
stanza (see figure 174). 

EAST 
1 ■ 




Fui. 174. Diaijram of the Fatlier'.s lodge during the siuging uf the second stanza of the s<:)ng of 

the fourth ritual, part ii. 

1. the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace: .3. inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4. the holy place; 5. the Ku'rahus; H, his assistant; 7, the bearers of the eagle wings; 8, the Father 
(a chief i; 9. the second chief; 10, members of the Hako party. 

Translation of Second St(mza 

ITS II'Atira hn weti arisntl 

h', tlie sign of breatli, of giving fortli life. 

atira, mother; the term applied to the ear of corn. 

liu; ha, yonder; the vowel is changed for euphony. 

weti, starting forward. The object wliieli was coming toward 

one has overtaken tlie speaker and has started onward 

before him. 
arisut, a living thing that is stai'ting or has started to go a long 

distance, as into future time or on a long journey. 
170-1 S3 See line 178. 



FLETCHER] FOURTH RITUAL 63 

E.rphmafion Jnj the Ku' rahvs 

We sing this stanza four times, talcing a step at each repeat, the two 
chiefs leading with 3I()fher Corn and the sacred pipe. 

As we sing we think that Mother breathing forth life, who has come 
out of the past, lias now started to lead ns on the journey we are to 
take and to the fulfilment of our desire that children may be given 
us, that generations may not fail in the future, and that the tie may 
be made strong between the Father and the Son. 

After this song the six men walk slowly toward the entrance to the 
lodge, going by the north, and all the others follow. 

Part III. Thf. Hakd Party Presented to the Powers 

Ea'planatioii hij ihe Ku'ralius 

When the Ilako party are all outside of the door of the lodge, the six 
men stand abreast, the doctor with the left wing of the eagle to 
the north, on his right the Ku'rahus, then the principal chief, then 
the second chief, then the Ku'rahus's assistant, and the doctor witli the 
right wing of the eagle at the end of the line toward the south. 

..\t the word of the Ku'rahus the six men bearing the saci-ed objects 
advance aljreast toward the east. The men of tlie Ilako party fall in 
behind and are followed by the women. When all have walked for- 
ward a little way, the six men halt and sing the following song. 

As the party sings the Ku'rahus lifts and points his feathered stem 
toward the east; the assistant does the same with his feathered stem; 
the chief makes the same movement with the wildcat skin, from the 
head of which protrudes the ear of corn ; the second chief offers the 
stem of the pipe, and the two doctors hold up their eagle wings. 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed l>y Edwin S. Tracr. 

Slov) ad lib. ^^^^ ■ ' :< 

Hi-ru ra lii - ri ra \va, Iii - ru ra wa lii-ri; Hi-rii ra lii - ri ra wa, 



EiEg^=g^E^3^=S|]=|Eg^5^ 



i4^ 



Iii - ru ra wa, lii-ri ra wa, lii-ri ra wa. He! Hi-ru ra hi ra wa 



p 



64 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. axx. 22 

184 Hiru ra hiri ra wa, }iiru ra wa hiri: 

185 Hii-ii ra hiri ra wa. him ra wa. hiri ra wa. hiri ra wa. Hel 

186 HirTi ra hi ra wa liiri: 

187 Hiru ra hiri ra wa. him ra wa. He! 

Tr<(Uf:lafioii 

184 Hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa liiri. 

hiru; iru, they yonder; the li is prefixed for euphony and to 

give ease in singing. 
I'a, coming. 

hiri; iri, they who are far away; the h is prefixed for euphony, 
ra, moving, moving tliis waj'. 

wa, part of the word teware, passing througli tlie air. 
hiru, they yonder; the h is for euphony, 
ra, coming. 

wa, from teware, darting througli the air. 
hii'i, they who are far away; the h is used for euphony. 

185 Iliru r;i liiri ra wa, hiru ra wa, hiri ra wa, hiri ra wa. He! 

hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa, hiri ra wa. See line 184. 
hel a part of the exclamation i'harel meaning I think upon 
and consider the signiticance of (the act which accompanies 
the song); the change of the r to h is for euphony. 
18(i Hiru ra hi ra wa hiri. 

hiru ra. See line 184. 

hi, part of the word hiri, translated above, 
ra wa hiri. See line 184. 
187 Hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa. He! All the words are trans- 
lated above. See lines 184 and 185. 

Explutiatiiiii III/ fill Kii'roliiis 

This song is addressed to Tii-a'wa atius. He is the father of all and 
all things come from him. We pray in our hearts as we sing. We 
ask 'J'ira'wa to watch over the Ku'rahus, to guide his acts and to guard 
his words so that he may make no mistake and the ceremony may lie 
complete. From the east the flashes of the eyes of Tira'wa come dart- 
ing through the air upon us and upon the sacred objects. 

We sing this song four times and then take sixteen steps to the 
east; there we turn and face the west, the people all behind us. 

As we stand and look toward the west we remember that it is there 
that the f(nir lesser powers dwell who were permitted by Tira'wa atius 
to bring life to man. These powers also control the thunder, the 
lightning, the sti)rin, and death. 

We sing the first stanza of the following song to them eight times. 



FLETCHER] 



FOURTH RITUAL, PART III 



65 









SECOND 


SONG 






Words an 


/ MUHU- 


M. A 


. ' = 42. 




• = Pulsation of the voice. 


Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 


~jr — 7 


—m— 




^ — 


—^ . •-"■r 


-f.---iP^-s^^-^^- 




—3— 


-1 ff— , " -ff — ^._ J_3— 


!S — 


1* 


A! 


III - ri, ra ri - hi - ii! 


A! Hi ■ ri, ra ri - lii-ul A! 


Saitles.f tr 




" tr. 


a-9 






i=^*~ 


i^--=d=q=i^i=5.- — 


3==S5_l_=ii:^^_^r^:r=e=l3E 


^ %-^ 


o" -J.--L T^* ^^* W -W V W • J- # -S--:* J.-S. 


Hi-ri, ra ri - hi u! A! Hi-ri, ra ri - 


hi-u! K\ Hi - ri, ra ri - hi-u! A! 


„ 


f "• 


^ (r 


„ ° tr. 


:=l**r; 


=P^55::==a=a-«= 


•"^i • m 


"i -f~l 1 ->- 


" 


32 2 «^.^^— 


i^r-^^-^-g--3_^_j— j_,=_--«,-^-,^i_,^^_,^,_H--M-^_eij 


Hi-ri, 


•a ri - hi-u! A! Hi-ri, ra ri 


- lii-u! A! Hi-ri, ra ri - hi-u! 


A 


_^ 2= (^ 


A A 

Ttr J , T 5 




I 
188 A! Hiri. ra rihiu! A! 


Hiri. ra rihiu! 




189 A! Hiri, ra rihin! A! 


Hiri. ra rihiu! 




190 A! Hiri. ra rihiii! 






191 a: Hiri, ra rihin! 






193 A! Hiri. ra rihiul 






193 A! Hiri. ra rihin! 






II 






19-1 H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 


H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 




19.5 H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 


H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 




196 H'UrariTha! Hiri re! 






197 H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 






198 H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 






199 H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 






Ill 






200 H'Uraru riri wan! H'Uraru riri wari! 




301 H'Uraru riri wari! H'Uraru riri wari! 




202 H'Uraru riri wari! 






203 H'Uraru riri wari! 






204 H'Uraru riri wari! 








20.5 H'Uraru r 


ri wari! 









Translation of First Stanza 

188 A! Iliri.ra rihiu! A! Hiri, ra rihiu ! 

a! a part of ha! behold! The exclamation nas here a double 
meaning; the people are to look toward the powers and the 
powers are called upon to behold the people, 
hiri, they far away; an address to the ijowers. The h is pre- 
fixed for euphony. 
ra, come. 

rihiu; rihi, is the place; u, a vocable to fill out the measure. 
189-193. See line 188. 

22 ETH— FT 2—04 5 



66 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann .22 

K.riihtnniidtt hi/ ihi' Kn' raliiis 

Wlieii wt' have fiiiisln'il singing tlic six iiu'u take sixteen steps liaek 
to the place where the first song was sung as we faced the east. Then 
they take eight steps toward tlie soiitli, wliere Miey stand facing the 
south and sing the foUowing stan/.a, the i)eople l)eing all behind them. 

Tntn.shtlioti of Si foml Stanzd 

VJi irUraruha! lliri re! IFUraru lia! Iliri re! 

H'Uraru, the earth. 

ha! hehold! 

hiri, they far away; an address to tlie power.s of the soutii. 

re, are, in the sense of lieing, ii\'ing. 
lOo-lOO See line 104. 

E.rjiliniiitiiiii III/ /III Kii' niliiis 

When we sing this stanza we are standing and looking towanl the 
south. That is the iilace wliere the sun travels, where the liglit 
conies, and the brightness of day. 

As we look we ask the powei-s of tlie soutii to give life and increase 
to us, as well as to the seeds within Mother Eartli. 

After we have sung this stanza eight times to tlie powers of the 
sontli, we turn and take eight steps toward the entrance of the lodge, 
to a place just back of where we sang the tii-st song to the east; then 
eiglit steiJS toward the north, all the peopk- following. Here, facing 
the north, we sing the ne.xt stanza. 

Tnt nshitioii of 'J'liird Stiinzn 

2(H) II'L'raru riri wari! Il'lrarii riri wari! 

lIT'raru, the eartli. 

riri. oil. 

wari, walking. 
l'(i1-i>o.3 .See line 200. 

E.Vphi iiilfioil hi/ /Ik I\ii' I'lilllis 

The peojile are now loolving toward tlir iiorlli, the moon, the night, 
the inothei' of t'.ie day. 

We ask the powers of the nortli, tiiey wjio can see the path of life, 
to lead us and make us able to walk, us and our cliildren. 

\Ve sing tliis song eight times to the powers of the north. 

Tlieii the si.x men turn sout li and take eight steps toward the cut rancc 
of tlu^ lodge, to a point before tlie place where we sang the first song 
to the east; there they turn and face east and walk to the place where 
they sang to the powers of the west, and there they halt. 

'I\) all the powers of the east, west, south, and iiortli we have sung 
and have presented ourselves. As we walked, we have traced upon 



FLETCHER] 



FOURTH RITUAL, PART III 

WEST 



67 






Q V" 



If' ' 



CO 



\ 
\ 

i 

i 
\ 
\ 

I 

\ 

i 

i 






i 

EAST 

Fk;. 17"). Diasrram Rhowing the movements of the principal memliers of the Father's jiarty 

during the presentation to the powers. 

1, entrance to the lodge; 'Z^ place where the first song is sung: 3, place where the first ;:-tanza 
of the second song is sung; 4, place where the socond stanza of the second song i:* sung; 5, place 
where the third stanza of the second song is sung; 6, place where the halt is made after the last 
sixteen steps; T. the four steps taken in the presence of the powers. 

The dots represent the following persons, heginnin^ at the left: the doctor with the left wing 
of the eagle, the Ku'rahus. the principal chief i the Father, if he is a chief), the second chief, the 
Ku'rahus's as.sistant, and the doctor with the right wing of an eagle. Ihe arrows attached to 
the dots show the direction in which the persons are facing. < By an error, but five dots were 
drawn, instead of six.) Each of the other an-ows represents a stei? taken by the group, and 
points in the direction in which it is tiiken. 



68 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



tlie earth the figure of a man. 'J'his image that we liave traced is 
from Tira'wa. It lias gone arouiul witli us, and its feet are where we 
now stand ; its feet are witli our feet and will move with them as we now 
take four steps, bearing tlie sacred objects, in the ijresenee of all the 
powers and begin our journey to the land of the Son (see figure 175). 

Second Division. The Journey 

fifth ritual 

Part I. Mother Corn Asserts At'tiiortty 

Mrpltindtioii ill/ ihe Ku'raltu.s 

After we have taken the four steps in the presence of all the powers 
we are ready to begin our journey, but before we start, and while we 
stand facing the east, we sin»' the following song: 



FIRST SONG 

IVoril.s (iiiil Music 



M. M. J -56. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 

-J>— , , !»- 



Ho-o-o-o-o! H'A - ti -ra slii-ra ti 
HatttesAi "^- •"■'-— — r r 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracr. 



^g^E 



wa - re! H'A-ti - ra 

? r r r >^ r 



slii-ra ti ■ 






i^E 



mm^^^ 






^EE 



wa - rel H'A-ti - ra ebi-ra ti 

20r) Ho-o-o-o-o! 

207 H'Atira sliira tiware! 

208 H'Atira shira tiware! 

209 H'Atira shira tiware! 

210 Whe-eratiwa! 



re! Wlie-e ra-ti - wal 

i_r ^, I I i 
II 

211 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

212 H'Atira ^hira tiwara! 

213 H'Atira shira tiwara! 

214 H'Atira shira tiwara! 

215 Weru tihiwa! 



Tnnislafiiiii of First Sfa7izft 

206 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory cxclaniatiou. 

207 IFAtira shira tiware! 

h', an aspiration, symbolic of a breathing forth, as the giving 

of breath so that a thing may livc^. 
atira, mother. The term is here applied to the ear of corn, 
shira, it and me; it refers to the ear of corn, Mother Corn; me 

refers to the Father's party spoken of or speaking in the 

singular, as one person, 
tiware, walking in a devious or a winding course. 
208-209 See line 207. 



FLETCHKR] . FIBTH RITUAL, PART I 69 

210 Whe-e ratiwa! 

whe, now, at this time. 

e, prolongation of the final e iu wh«>. 

ratiwa, walking, i)lural form; that is. Mother Corn and the 
Father's party are walking as two persons. See the trans- 
lation of shira (line 207). 

Explanation bij the Ku'ralvas 

Mother Corn, who led our spirits over the path we are now to travel, 
leads us again as we walk, in our bodies, over the land. 

When we were selecting the Son (second ritual) we had to fix our 
minds on Mother Corn and make our spirits as one spirit with her. 
We must do so now, as we are about to start on this journey; we must 
be as one mind, one person, with ^Mother Corn (h'Atira shira); we, 
as one person, must walk with her over the devious, winding path 
(tiware) which leads to the land of the Son. 

We speak of this path as devious, not merely because we must go 
over hills and through valleys and wind around gulches to I'each the 
land of the Son, but because we are thinking of the waj^ by which, 
through the Hako, we can make a man who is not of our blood a Son; 
a way which has come down to us froni our far-away ancestors like a 
winding path. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

211 IIo-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

212 H'Atira shira tiwara. 

h', symbolic of breatliing forth. 

atira, mother; the term refers to the corn. 

shira, it and me; the ear of corn and the party of the Father. 

tiwara, walking in a definite path, a straight path. 
213, 214 See line 212. 
215 Weru tihiwa. 

weru, by or according to, indicating order or arrangement. 

tihiwa, equal stages; divided into equal lengths, as when mark- 
ing a line of travel by a number of camps. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This stanza means that Mother Corn will lead us iu the path she 
opened and made safe for us when she went in search of the Son. 
The path is definite to her, like a straight jjath, in which we are to 
journey by equal stages (weru tihiwa). First we are to travel, then 
we are to camp, then travel, and again camp. This is the way our 
fathers did, and the knowledge has come down to us from father to 
son, from father to son, by generations, in equal stages all the way. 

After singing the stanza the six men with the Hako move forward 
and all follow; Mother Corn is leading and breathing forth life. 

After we have moved on a little distance, and have left the village 



70 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

behiiul lis so that we can no longer see our homes, we halt and sing 
the first stanza of tlie following song. 

SECOND SONG 
J]lirils (111(1 Jf lisle 

M. iM. S=-112. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed liy Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ho-o-o-o! Ka - ra lia-tu-ru ta? Kara lia-tn-iu ta? H'.\-ti - ra ku-hra 

U 



Battles. ?•?• 5-1 i f ' 4»i»»»»» ••? 



DEZ ^_^„^ ^ V-» — ,^-Bi— •-*-'-•— •—*■ — » a^-'^-wr-m — m •- '^° 

ha-lu - ni e? Ka-ra ha-tii - rn ta? H'A-ti - ra l<n-lira ha-tu - ru e? 

L: L-Lr U Lr U Lj U L: ^ ^ ^ i 

I 

2U) Ho-o-o-dl 

217 Kara haturti Ui'f Kara liaturn ta? 

218 H'Atira knhra hatiiru e? 

219 Kara hatnru ta? H'Atira kulira liaturii e? 

II 

230 Ho-o-o-ol 

231 Wiri haturu ta. wiri liatiirn ta: 
222 H'Atira kuhra haturu e: 

323 Wiri hatnru ta. h'Atira Icnlira haturu e. 

TransJulioii of First Stanza 

216 llo-o-o-o! All introductory exclamation. 

217 Kara hatnru ta':' Kara haturu ta';;* 

kara, is there':' An inquiry. 

haturu, path, road, way. 

ta, a part of the word ruta, a long stretcli, as a long stretch 
of road or of counhy. In order to make the words con- 
foriu to the rhj'thm of the music the fiiuil syllable of 
hatnru is made to serve as tlie first syllable of the next 
woi-d (ruta), so only the last syllaliic, ta, is given. 

218 H'Atira kuhra haturu e':' 

h\ symliolic of tlie breath; a breatliing foi'th. 
atira, mother. The term applies to Mother Com. 
kuhra, hers; the owner of. 
haturu, path, road, way. 

e, the equivalent of ta, a part of ruta. The change from la to 
e is for euphony. 

219 Kara haturu ta'? ITAtira kuhra liaturn e'? All the words are 

translated above. See lines 217 and 218. 

E-vplanafivn by tlie Ku'i-ulnis 

Before us lies a wide i>athle.ss stretch of country. We are standing 
alone and un;irmed, facing a land of strangers, and we call upon 



FLETCHER] FIFTH RITHAL, PART I 71 

Mother Corn and we ask her: "Is there a path through this long 
stretch of country before us where we can see nothing"? Does your 
path, the one which you opened for us, wherein is safety, lie here?" 

Tnuishiiidii (if Seconil Stanza 

220 IIo-o-o-ol .Vn inl nxluctorv cxclaiiiation. 

221 Wiri haturu Ta, wii-i iiaturu ta. 

wiri; liere, at this place; right before one. 

haturu, path, road, way. 

ta, part of the woi-d ruta, a long stretch. 

222 See line 21S. 

22o Wiri haturu ta, h'Atira kuhra haturu e. All the words are 
translated above. See lines 221 and 218. 

Explunaiio}! liji Uie Kit rahiis 

As we stand and sing the second stanza, Mother Corn s^ieaks to us 
and we are assured in our spirits. She answers our api^eal; she says 
that here, right before us, stretches out the path she has made 
straight. Then o*ur eyes are opened and we see the way we are to go. 

But although we se« our waj' we are not to take the path by our- 
selves; we must follow Mother Corn; she must lead us, must direct 
aud guide our steps. The next song is to enforce obedience to 
Mother Corn. 

THIED SONG 
^V(II^(^S mill JTllsic 

M. M. ^N = 112. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

Ho - o-o-o! Ra ri - hi u ha- wa ra-ti - r:i e; Ra ri - lii u 

RatUex. r ' f f J -y I I ' T r ' f * ^•:«f 

Iia-wa rati - ra e; Ha-\va-a rari-hi u lia-wa ra-ti - ra e; Ra ri hi u 

L.' 'Lj' L' L.' t-' L_' Lj Lj Lj' Lj' L' 

pfcp — y^^^- J-- ^^" ^^lz:j i^iji" ^-^ ^^ o^ — ~ Di 4~* ;i—^~^'z^^ — ^s cH 

lia - wara-ti ra e; Ra ri - hi u ha - wa rati - ra e. 

r • r • r_» f_j I • I f J -1 i I 

1 II 

224 Ho-o-o-ol 230 Ho-o-o-o! 

22.") Ra rihi u hawa i-atira e; 231 Ti rihi ii hawa ratira e; 

226 Ra rihi u hawa ratira e; 233 Ti rihi n hawa ratira e: 

227 Hawa-a ra rilii n hawa ratira e: 233 Hawa-a ti rihi u hawa ratira e: 

228 Ra rihi n hawa ratira e: 231 Ti rihi ii hawa ratira e: 

229 Ra rihi u hawa ratira e. 23.5 Ti rihi ir hawa ratira e. 



72 THE HAKO, A* PAWNEE CEKEMONY [eth. ann.22 

Translation of First Stanza 

224 IIo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

225 Ra rihi u hawa ratira e. 

ra, at a distance; yonder. 

rihi, a place; a locality. 

u, a particular place. 

hawa, Avhenee; from where. 

ratira, I came. 

e, vowel prolongation to meet the rhymth of the music. 

226 See line 225. 

227 Hawa-a ra rihi u hawa I'atira e. 

hawa, whence; from where, 
a, vowel prolongation, 
ra rihi u hawa ratira e. See line 225. 
228, 229 See line 225. 

Explanation hij the Ku'raJius 

When this song is to be sung, the Ku'rahus bids all the j)eople go in 
front of him, then he and they all turn and face tlie west, and look 
toward the lodge of the Father within which thepreliminarj^ ceremonies 
have been performed, and before the enti'ance of which the powers 
have looked on the elevated sacred objects and ui^on all the people. 

In this song Mother Corn is speaking of the place whence she came 
when slie was consecrated according to the rites given to our fathers. 
She led our fathers and she leads us now, because she was born of 
Mother Eai'th and knows all places and all people, and because she 
has on her the sign (the blue-paint symbol) of having been np to 
Tira'wahut, where x>ower was given her over all creatures. Slxe also 
is speaking of the path over which hei- spirit led our spirits when we 
were traveling in search of the Son." 

Translation of Second Stanza 

330 llo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

331 Ti rihi u hawa ratira e; 

ti, this. 

rihi u hawa ratira e. See line 225. 
3.32 See line .331. 

333 Ilawa-a ti rilii u hawa ratira e. See lines 225, 227, and 331. 
334, 335 See line 331. 

Explanation bijthe Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza, the Ku'ralius points along the path 
we have already traveled under the leadership of Mother Corn. 

This act and the song are to impress upon the peojjle that they 

a See first ritual, second ritual, and fourth ritual. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH EITUAL. 73 

are not moving at i-andom, but in a prescribed manner, which the 
Ku'rahns has been taught and directed to follow; that they are led 
by Mother Corn authorized by the powers, and to her they must give 
unquestioning obedience throughout the ceremony. 

After this song the Ku'rahus and the other bearers of the sacred 
objects turn, and facing the east, pass on in front of the iieople, who 
also turn and follow as they go forth on the journey. 

The three songs we have just sung are in .sequence. Their order 
can not be changed; they belong to the beginning of the journey, and 
teach us to obey Mother Corn. 

Part II. Songs and Ceremonies of the Way 
Explanation by the Ku'rahu-s 

The journey we are taking is for a sacred purpose, and as we are led 
by tlie supernatural power in Mother Corn we must address with song 
eveiy object we meet, t)ecause Tira'wa is in all things. Everything 
we come to as we travel can give us help, and send help by us to the 
Children. 

Trees are among the lesser powers, and they are represented on the 
Hako which we carry, so when we see trees we must sing to them. 

Trees gi-ow along the banks of the streams; we can see them at a 
distance, like a long line, and we can see the river glistening in the 
sunlight in its length. We sing to the river, and when we come nearer 
and see the water and hear it rippling, llieu we sing to the water, the 
water that ripples as it runs. 

SONO TO THE TREES AND STREAMS 

IVards and Music 
M. M.^S=112. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

No drum. 



^ ■»■ -m- -m- ■»■ -m- -m- -w :^ -*■ »■ 

Wi-ra u-ha - ki, wi - ra u - lia - V.\\ Ka-tu - ha-ru u - lia - ki, 

RattHi. ^» <» • f__» f|_» j__* 'r_^ f * ^ ^ r * ,* ' 




I II 

236 Wira uliaki. wira iihaki: 239 Wira uhaki, wira uhaki; 

237 Katuham nhaki, wira wliaki: 240 Kichaharu uhaki. wira uhaki; 
S38 Katuliaru uhaki. 241 Kichaharu uhaki. 

Ill 

242 Wira wihaku, wira wihaku; 

243 Kichaharu wihaku. wira wihaku; 

244 Kichaharu wihaku. 



74: THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

Trunsldlioii 

I 

23ij Wira nhaki, wlra uhaki. 

wii-a; wi, a (jualifyiiii;- word iiu-aiiiiig' tliat An object is long or 
stretched out; ra, at a distance, yonder. 

iiliaki, somethinii' tliat is in a line, a strcti-li. 
2;!7 Katuhaiu uhaki, wiia uliaki. 

katuharu, trees, timber, woods. 

uliaki, a hmy; line, a stretch. 

wira uhak'. See line 23i>. 
238 Katuharu uhaki. See line 237. 

II 

23!i See line 236. 

240 Kichaharu uhaki, wira uhaki. 

kichaharu, a stream, a ri\-ii'. 
uhaki, a long stretch. 
wira uhaki. See line 23(1. 

241 Kichaharu uhaki. See line 24n. 

Ill 

242 Wira wihaku, wira wihaku. 

wira, something that is long seen at a distance, 
wihaku, rippling. 

243 Kichaharu wihaku; wira wiliarn. 

kichaharu, a stream, a rivei-. 

wihaku, rippling. 

wira wihaku. See line 242. 

244 Kichaliaru wihaku. See line 243. 

K.rphi ii'iiioii In/ I III Kit' raJiua 

In this ceremony water is not used except foi- sacred purposes. We 
mix the paint that we use upon the sacred ob.jects with running water. 
When on our journey we come to a stream of running watei- we 
can not step into it to cross it without asking permission of Kawas. 
Kiiwas is the mother; she rei)rcsents the night and the moon, and she 
can |)ermit us to enter and wade through the stream. So, whenever 
we come to a river we call upon Kawas to protect us, that our act 
of passing through the water may not bring puni.shnient, and nuiy not 
eau.se the clouds to come between us and the blue dome, the dwelling 
place of Tira'wa, or l>reak the continuity of life from one generation 
to another. 

The following song is our appeal to Kawas. When we sing the 
first stanza we enter the stream, the water touches our feet. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH RITITAL, PART II 75 

SONG -WHEN CROSSING THE STHEAMS 

]\'(ir<ls iniij Music 
M. M. /= 116. 

• — Piilsatiim of tlie voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

_ No drum. ^ _ , 

Ho-o-o I He! Ka-w.issi-re te - wi liii ku-ka, Te-\vibu-ku-ka. lie! Ka-wassi -re a he! 

^W — »'-*-»»-»--»^^-l1J-j^^->-a-H-i---r— ;--| -^-^t^ H4 '-m^ ffl 

Ka-wassi-re te-wi bu-ku-ka. He! Ka-tvassi-re te-wi bu-kuka. 

T 

24.J Ho-o-o! 

246 He! Kawa.s sire tewi linknku, 

247 Tewi hiiknka. 

248 He! Kawas sire a lie! Kawa.s sire tewi hnknka. 

249 He! Kawas sire tewi hukiilja. 

ir 

2.50 Ho-o-o! 

2.51 He! Kawas sire tewi liariki. 

252 Tewi liariki. 

253 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas sire tewi hariki. 

254 He! Kawas sire tewi hariki. 

Ill 

255 Ho-o-o! 

256 He! Kawas sire tewi haiwa, 

257 Tewi haiwa. 

258 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas .sire tewi haiwa. 

259 He! Kawas sire tewi haiwa. 

IV 

260 Ho-o-c! 

261 He! Kawas sire tewi hawitslipa, 

262 Tewi hawitshpa. 

263 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas .seri tewi hawitshpa. 

264 He! Kawas sire tewi liawitshpa. 

Tr(ui.slafi(»i 

I 

245 IIo-o-o! An iiitrniluclory cxclaniatioii. 
24(5 He! Kawa.s sire tewi Iiukuka. 

hel a part of the exclamation liiril give heedl liai'ken! 
Kawa.s; the V)i-own eagle, which in this ceremony represents 

the feminine principh^, the night, the moon. 
sire, its; a possessive pi-onoun referring to Kawas. 
tewi, it has; refers to the water. 

hnknka, a coini)osite word; hu, from chuharu, water; kuka, 
to step into, as to put one's feet in the water, to wade. 
247 Tewi hnknka. 

tewi, it has; tlie water has tonehed the feet. 
hnknka, step into the watei'. Tlie feet have stepped into the 
water. 



76 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

248 Hel Kawas sire a he ! Kawas sire tewi liukuka. 

he! give heed! harkeu! 

Kawas, the mother, the brown eagle. 

sire, its; refers to the control of the water bj' Kawas. 

a, a vocable used to fill out the measure of the music. 

he! Kawas sire tewi hukuka. See line 24G. 

249 See line 246. 

II 

2.50 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

251 He! Kawas sire tewi hariki. 

he! part of the exclamation hiri! harken! give heed! 
Kawas, the brown eagle, representing the female principle, 
sire, its. 
tewi, it has. 

hariki, a composite word; lia, a part of chahai'u, water; riki, 
standing. 

252 Tewi hariki. 

tewi, it has. 

hariki, water standing. Our feet are standing in the water. 

253 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas sire tewi hariki. See lines 248 

and 251. 

254 See line 251. 

Ill 

255 IIu-o-o! All introductory exelaination. 

250 He! Kawas sire tewi haiwa. 

he! part of the word hiri ! harken! give heed ! 
Kawas, the brown eagle; the mother, the feniiile principle, 
sire, its; refers to Kawas. 
tewi, it has. 

haiwa, a composite word; lia, part of chaliaiu, water; iwa, 
moving in: haiwa, moving in the water. 

257 Tewi haiwa. See line 25i'i. 

258 He! Kawas sire a lie! Kawas sire tewi haiwa. See lines 248 

and 250. 

259 See line 250. 

IV. 

200 Ho-o-o! All introductory exclamation. 

201 He! Kawas sire tewi hawitslipa. 

lie! harken! give heed! 

Kawas, the brown eagle; tlic motlicr, tlic female principle. 

sire, its; refers to Kawas. 

tewi, it has; refers to the water. 

hawitslipa, a composite word; ha, part of chaharu, water; 
witshpa, completed, accomplished a purpose, reached an 
end. The meaning of the word is that the water has cov- 
ered the feet. 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTH RITUAL, PART II 



77 



262 Tewi liawitshpa. See line 261. 

263 He! Kawas sire a he ! Kawas sire tewi hawitshpa. See lines 

248 and 261. 
26-t See line 261. 

Explatiafion hij the Ku'rahus 

When we sing the second 'stanza, our feet are standing in the water. 
When the third stanza is sung, our feet are moving in the water. At 
the fourth stanza the water eovei'S our feet. So as we sing this song we 
enter the stream and, under the pi-otection of Kawas, we pass through 
to the other side. 

Every time we come to a stream acro.ss which our path lies we must 
sing this song. 

After we have forded the stream we pau.se at the bank. We are 
wet with water through which we have just passed, but we must not 
touch our bodies where we are wet to dry ourselves, for the running 
water is sacred. 

So, we sing the first stanza ot tl^e followin? song and call on the 
Wind, Ilotoru, lo come and touch us that we mav become drv. 



M. M. ^N-132. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. 
No drum. 



SONG TO THE WnSTD 

Words and Music 

Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ho-o-o-ol 



Rattles 



Tu - ku - ka, 



tu 

r 



ku - ka lia 



Ho 



to - ru, 




205 Ho-o-o-o 1 

866 Tukuka. tukuka lia Hotoni. 

267 Tukuka ha Hotorn. 

268 Tukiika ha ! 

II 

269 Ho-o-o-o ! 

2T0 Taiwa. taiwa ha Hotoru, 

371 Taiwa ha Hotoru, 

272 Taiwa ha ! 



273 Ho-o-o-o ! 

274 Tawawe, tawawe he Hotoru, 
27.5 Tawawe he Hotoru. 

276 Tawawe he I 

IV 

277 Ho-o-o-o ! 

278 Tawitshpa, tawltshpa ha Hotoru, 

279 Tawitshpa ha Hotoru. 

280 Tawitshpa ha : 



78 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ass. 22 

Tritii'<htli(:iii 
I 
2(i5 IIo-()-o-o! An iuti-oiliicloi'v cxchiiuatiou. 
200 Tukuka, tukuka lia Ilotoru. 
tukuka, touch or toucliod. 

ha, a syllable addeil to meet the rhythm of the music. 
Ilotoru, the Wind, the supernatural power. 
207 Tukuka lia Ilotoru. See line 260. 
268 Tukuka ha! See liue 200. 

II 
20'.t IIo-o-o-ol An introduelory excbunation. 

270 Taiwa, taiwa ha Ilotoru. 

taiwa, to touch lightly or brush on the sides of anj-thing. 
ha, a syllable ad(l(Ml for the sake of rhythm. 
Ilotoru, the Wind, one of the lesser powei- . 

271 Taiwa ha Ilotoru. See line i'7n. 

272 Taiwa ha! See line 27<i. 

Ill 

273 IIo-o-o-ol ^Vn iutri>duct()ry exclamation. 

274 Tawawe, tawawe he Ilotoru. 

tawawe, a creeping lotu-li, felt now liere and uow there, 
he, a syllable added lo keep the rhythm of tlie music. 
Ilotoru, the Wind, one of the lesser powers. 

275 Tawawe he Ilotoi-u. See line 274. 
270 Tawawe he! See line 274. 

IV 

277 See liue 205. 

278 Tawitshpa, tawitshpa ha Ilotoru. 

tawitshpa, the comi)leti()n of an act, the accomiilislimcnt (if 
a purpose. Ilotoru has completely toucli<'<l all i)arts of 
the body, 
ha, a syllable added to till out the rhythm of the music. 
lloturu, the Wind; one of the lesser powers. 
27'.i Tawitshpa ha Ilotoru. Se<' line 278. 
280 Tawitsliija hal See line 27S. 

E.rpIdiKilldii hi/ llir Kii'i-ahiis 

As wc sing the second' stanza the Wind brushes lightlj-thc sides of 
our bodies and our wet legs and feet, ^\"\\h the thii-d stanza the Wind 
circles about, touching us hei'e ami there. When we sing the fourth 
stanza the Wind completely envelops tis, touching all jjarts of our 
bodies. Now, we are ready to move forward in safety. No liarni 
will follow (uir iiassage of the river and we can pursue our journey. 

Whenever, as we travel, wc have to cross a rivei- we must sing this 
song to the Wind to come and dry our bodies before we can continue 
our journey. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH KITUAL, PAKT II 79 

Wlien the spirit of 3Iotht'i- C^orn was traveling in searr-li of the Son 
(secuiul ritnal) she saw buiTalo; tlie first stanza of tlie following- song 
refers to that time (ira saka riki, an indefinite time in the past). So, 
when on our journey we come to bufTalo trails, or see the herds at a 
distance, we know that the.y have been seen befoi-e, at this place, by 
the spirit of Motlier Corn, and we sing this song. 

SONG TO THE BUFFALO 

M.M.J -120. 

• = I'lilsation of the voice. Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracy. 



ii -.E'miM zJ^-Ei ^—^rZ — F ^»^4-^Ti-^-»-— » F-»— »^-»— "iT*-*- 



4 :■-.:* z«E 

lla a a a! Ha! Ira sa-ka ri-ki; Ha!I-ra riki: IIa!I-ra sa-kari-ki; 



Drum. 
Sattles. 



r 







-Jtz 



--^-=-^t 



I - ra riki; Ha! t - ra sa-ka ri-ki; Ha! I - ra ri-ki. 

r r * r r f r 'f_j t r t "^ i i 

•iai Ha-a-a-a! 

282 Ha! Ira .saka riki: Ha! Ira riki: 

283 Ha! Ira saka riki: Ha! Ira riki; 

284 Ha! Ira saka riki: Ha! Ira riki. 

II 
28.J Ha-a-a-a! 

286 Ha! Tira saka riki: Ha! Ire wawa; 

287 Ha! Tira saka riki: Ha! Ire wawa; 

288 Ha! Tira saka riki; Ha! Ire wawa. 

Tnui:-:I(ifii}ii 
I 

281 Ila-a-a-a! An intioductory exclamation. 

282 Ha! Ira saka riki; Ila! Ira riki. 

ha! behold! 

ira, a single object in the distance; ra, distant, also means in 
the past, distant as to time. 

saka, part of the word tarasaka, sun. 

riki, standing. Saka riki means present time; but, as the 
words follow ira, the phrase ira saka riki means an indefi- 
nite time in the past. 

lia! behold! see! 

ira, the object seen at an indefinite time in the past. 

riki, standing; referring to the object that was seen. Al- 
though the object seen is not mentioned l)y name, it was 
known to be butfalo. 
283, 284 See line 282. 



80 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



II 

285 Ha-a-a-a! An Introdiietoiy exclamation. 
280 Ha! Tira saka riki; Ha! Ire wawa. 
ha! behold! 
tira, this. 

saka, part of the word tarasaka, sun. 

riki, standing. Saka riki means present time. The phrase 
tira saka riki means a definite time, at this time or 
moment, 
ha! behold! see! look! 

ire, many objects at a distance, as many trails vrith buffalo. 

wawa, many walking. The phrase "Ilal Ire wawa" means 

"Look, where many buffalo walk in many different 

trails! " This refers to different herds seen at a distance. 

287, 288 See line 286. 

Explaitutioii 1)1/ fhf Kii'ralius 

The second stanza refers to our seeing with our own eyes the buffalo 
herds walking in many different trails. We sing of this sight and we 
carry its promise of plenty to the Children. 

These stanzas are not now sung upon the journey with the Ilako, 
because the buffalo herds are all gone; but we sing them in the lodge 
of the Son, in remembrance of the buffalo, the animal Tira'wagave us 
for food. 

SONG OF THE PKOMISB OF THF BUFFALO 



lVo7rJs and Music 
Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



M. M. J = 120 




Jjrum. t m m d » m » p m m m p «•# 



-mzzii^=3tz 



ru-wa-wa, We-re rii- wa-wa, 




289 He-e-e-e! 294 

290 Were ruwawa. were riiwawa, 29.) 

291 Sira ritka ruwawa. 29G 

292 Were riiwawa, 297 

293 Sira ritka riiwawa-a ra. 298 



II 

He-e-e-e 1 

Wera hara-a. wera hara-a, 

Taralia-a raliara. 

Wera hara-a, 

Taraha-a rahara-a ra. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH KITUAL, PART II 81 

Translation 

I 

280 He-e-e-e! An introductory cxcliuiiation. 
200 Were ruwawa, were ruwawa. 

■were, they; a number of persons or animals. 

ruwawa, running- from, as from the jjlace where one is stand- 
ing or where one is walking. 

291 Sira ritka ruwawa. 

sira, their. 

ritka, dust; the soil raised by the feet in running. 

ruwawa, running away from. 

292 Were ruwawa. See line 290. 

293 Sira ritka ruwawa-a ra. 

sira ritka ruwawa. See lines 290, 291. 

a ra, vocables used to fill out the rhythm of the music. 

II 

291 Ile-e-e-e! An introductory exclamation. 
29.5 Wera hara-a, wera hara-a. 

wera, one coming; we, one, it, singular number; ra, coming. 

hara-a, a composite word made up of the sj'llable ha, from the 

word iha're, the .young of animals (the word is also used 

for offsi^ring, children) and ra, coming. The final a is a 

vowel prolongation to till the rhythm of the music. 

296 Taraha-a rahara. 

taraha, the female buffalo. 

a, vowel prolongation because of the rhythm of the music. 

rahara, a comijosite word ; ra, from wera, one coming; ha, from 
iha're, young; ra, coming. The line "Taraha-a rahara" 
means that the female buffalo and her calf are coming. 

297 Wera hara-a. See line 29.5. 

298 Taraha-a rahara-a. ra. See lines 203, 296. 

ExiTilandtioii hij the Kii'rahus 

While we were traveling we sometimes saw a great cloud of dust 
rising in the distance. When wo saw this cloud rolling up from the 
earth we knew it was caused by a herd of buffalo running awa.y from 
us toward the land of the Children. 

Sometimes a cow and her calf would separate from the herd hirI 
come nearei- us. We were taught to be mindful of all that we saw 
upon the journey, for these sights meant the j)romise of i)lenty of food 
for Ihe Cliildreu. 

We do not sing this song any more as we travel, for now tliere are 
no buffalo herds to l)e seen sending the dust up to the sky as they 
run. AVe sing the song in the lodge of the Son, tliat we may remem- 
ber the buffalo, and that our children may hear of them. 

22 ETH— PT 2—04 6 



82 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[eth. anx. 



Wln'ii as we trav(^l we come to mountains or hills we siiitr the fol- 
lowiniT song. 

Hills wereniarte by Tifa'wa. WeaseemI hills when we go away alone 
to pray. From the top of a hill we ean look over the eountry to see if 
there are enemies in siglit or if any danger is near n.s; we ean see if 
we are to meet friends. The lulls help man, so we sing to Iheni. 

SONG TO THE MOTJNTAINS 



M. M.jN=168. 
• — Pulsation of the voice. 
No drum. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



mmm 



==i==ds 



Ila-a-a-aa! 



a wha - ku we - re - chili wha - ra; 



:S=a-^«!C:d 



-0 — '^-0 — '^— •;•— » — '^-0-,--'^0 ^-'--g .• '-- 



wha - kii 



chih wha - ra. 



Ila! 



Cliili 



T3«=z3«:==rcd 



ku 



f * '^—0- 



g?B^SE 



^ '-^-»^0 •" 



re - cliih wha - ra. 

I 



Hal Wha 



ku 



re - chih wha - ra. 



Ill 



300 
301 
302 
303 



304 
30."> 
306 
307 
308 



Ha-a-ii-a-a! 

Ira wliakn werecliih whara: 

Ira whaku werecliih whara. 

Hal Chih whaktt werecliih whara. 

Ha! Whaku werecliih whai-a. 

II 

Ha-a-a-a-al 

Ira whaktt werecliih katawara: 
Ira whakit werecliih katawara. 
Ha! Chih katawara chih wara. 
Ha! Whaku werechih katawara. 



300 
310 
311 
312 
313 



314 
315 
31fi 
317 
318 



Ha-a-a-a-a! 

Ira whaktt werechih kitta lira: 
Ira whakn werechih kitta lira. 
Ha! ( 'hih e werechih kitta lira. 
Ha! Wliakti werechih kitta lira. 

IV 

Ha-a-a-a-a! 

Ira whaku werechih kitta witit: 
Ira whaktt werechih kitta witit. 
Ha! Chih werechih kitta witit. 
Ha! Whaku werechih kitta witit. 



Tfini.sld/iiiii 
I 

290 TTa-a-a-a-a! ^\n introdnetory exelamation. 

300 Ira wliakn werecliih whara. 

ii-a, yonder iiarticular and single object. 
wliakn, an elevation, a mountain, a liill. 
werechih, a party, a number of per.s(jns. 
whara, walking, traveling on foot. 

301 See line 300. 

30-2 Ila! Chih Avliakn wei'echih whara. 

ha! behold! 

chih, the last syllable of the word werechih, a party. 

whakn werechih wliara. See line 300. 
303 Ila! Whakn werechih whara. See lines 300, 3ni. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH RITUAL, PART II 83 

II 

304 Ila-a-a-a-cil An introductory t-xflaination. 
303 Ira whakti werechih katawara. 

ira, a partifiilai- and a single object at a distance. 

whakii, a mountain, a liill. 

werechili, a group of iiersons niakinii;- an organized party. 

katawara, climbing as they walk. 
30(i See line 305. 

307 Hal Chilj katawara chih wara. 

ha I behold I 

chih, the last syllable of the word werechih, a company of 

persons, a party having a common purpose, 
katawara, climbing, ascending a motintain or a hill, 
chih, part of the word werechih, party. 
wara, a pai't of the word katawara, ascending, elinibing. 

308 Ha! "Wliaku werechih katawara. See lines 305, 307. 

Ill 

30ii Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
31t» Ira whaku werechih kitta hra. 

ira, a particitlar and single object at a distance. 

whaku, a motintain or a hill. 

werechih, a party. 

kitta, toj), as the top of a mountain or hill. 

hra, from whara, walking. 

311 See line 310. 

312 Ha! Chih e werechih kitta hra. 

ha I behold I 

chih, the last syllable of werechih, party. 

e, a vocable used to fill out the measure of the music. 

werechih, a party, a company of pei^jle. 

kitta, top; the summit of a mountain or a hill. 

hra, from whara, traveling o7i foot. 

313 Ha! Whaku werechih kitta hra. See lines 310, 312. 

IV 

314 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

315 Ira whaku werechih kitta witit. 

ira, j-onder particular object, 
whaku, mountain or hill. 

werechih, an organized group of persons, a party, 
kitta, summit, top. 
witit, sitting down. 
31 G See line 315. 



84 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 

317 Ila! fhih werecliih kifta witit. 

lux! beliold! 

chih, the last sj'llal)le i)f wcrecliih, a pai-ty. 

verecliih, an organized group of persons, a party. 

kitta, summit of a mountain or hill. 

witit, to sit down, to ivsl. 

318 Ha! Whaku wereehih kitta- witit. See lines 3ir), :!17. 

Expluniitioii hi/ fJie Ki('rnh\is 

The first stanza is sung wlion we who ;irc traveling see in tlie dis- 
tance the top of a mountain or liill rising above the horizon. Tlie 
Ku'rahus calls the attention of the peojile and bids them look at the 
mountain that lies in the i)a1h before them. "We sing tlie next stanza 
as we are about to climb the mountaiji. Tlie tliird stanza is sung 
when the party reaches the top of the mountain. While the people 
are sitting down to rest on the summit we sing the fourth stanza. 

As a ITako part}- does not now go in a direction where there are moun- 
tains and hills, they do not sing these songs on the journe>'. They 
are generally sung in the lodge of the Son. 

SONG TO THE MESAS 

TForr/.s' and 3Iusir 
M. M. Melody. J =58. 
M. M. Drum. \= 116. 
• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




i^^-5^1^^fei-^EEES=^ 



lia-re wi - tu; lia - re \vi - tu; lia- 

Dnim.2 i , i , «*<< i t m » k t i m 

BalUes.H L— : L—' ' [ L— J L=J L— _ 



lE^SE^^5£fegfc^!^^E^3^^^35i3ES^i-^ 



re \\'\ - tu; Ha - re wi - tu; lia- re \vi - tu; ha -re wi - tu. 

319 Ho-o-o-o-o: 

320 Hare witn; liarn witu; liarr witu: Imre witu; 

321 Hare witu; liare witu; bare "nntu. 

II 

322 Ho-o-o-u-o! 

323 Ha rha witu; ha rha witu; lia rha witu; ha rlia witii; 

324 Ha rha witu; lia rha witu; ha rlia \^^tu. 

111 

325 Ho-o-o-o-o 1 

326 Hare wawe; hare wawe; hare wawe; liare wawe; 

327 Hare wawe; liare wawe; hare wawe. 

IV 

328 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

329 Ha rha wawe; ha rlia wawe; ha rlia wawe; lia rha wawe; 

330 Ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH KITUAL 85 

Translation 



319 Ho-o-o-o-oi An introductory exclamation. 

320 Hare witu ; hare witn ; hare witii ; hare witu. 

liare, yonder, at a short distance. 

witu, a mesa, an elevatiou or liill with a flat top. 

321 See line 320. 

II 

322 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

323 Harhawitu; ha'rhawitu; ha rha witu; ha rha witu. 

ha, yonder. 

rha, beyond this one; meaning that another mesa is seen 

beyond the one in th(i foreground, 
witu, a mesa. 

324 See line 323. 

Ill 

32.5 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
320 IIar(> wawe; hare wa we; hare wa we. 

hare, j-onder, at a short distance. 

wawe, the ridge or rim of the mesa. 

327 See line 326. 

IV 

328 Ho-o-<^-o-o! An introductorj' exclamation. 

329 Ha rha wawe; ha I'ha wawe; ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe. 

ha, yonder. 

rha, beyond this one; that is, the one in the foreground just 

spoken of. 
wawe, the rim or sharp ridge of the mesa. 
33U See line 320. 

Explanatidu In/ ihe Ku'rahus 

We are told that long ago (nir fathers used to see the mesas; that 
on their journeys with the Ilako they ijassed by or over these flat- 
topped mountains. This song has come do\^^n to us from that time. 
As we have never seen mesas, we do not sing the song on the journey; 
we sing it in the lodge of the Son, that we may not forget what our 
fathers saw when they traveled far from where we now dwell. 

Part HI. Mother Corn Re.\sserts Leadership 

Explu nation by the Ku'rahus 

The next two songs are in sequence. 

When we have reached the b(jrders of the country where the Chil- 
dren dwell we sing the first song. We give an exclamation of thank- 
fulness (Iri!) that we behold the laud where thej^ dwell. Mother Corn 
had passed here when she was .seeking the Son (second ritual), and 
now she has led us to this place. 



86 



M. M. J=fiO. 

• = I'lilsation of the voice. 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 

Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracv. 



^ s_* -•- -m- -•- -9- -w- -9- -m- 

- ri! Ho - ra-ro. Ho-ra - ro 



a-3=i 



e pi- ra- o 




I 

331 Ha-a-a-al 

332 Iri! Horaro. Iri! Horaru. 

333 Horaro e pirao kure horaro. 

334 Iri! Horaro; horaro e. 



II 

33.5 Ha-a-a-al 

336 Weri shii riwa. weri shu riwa \vi: 

337 Shu riwa wi i)ira<), shu riwa wi; 
33.S Weri .siiii riwa. shu weri wi. 



331 
332 



333 



33-1: 



335 

330 



III 

339 Ha-a-a-al 

340 Weri hnriwa, weri liuriwa wi; 

341 Huriwa wi pirao. huriwa wi; 

342 Weri huriwa. huriwa wi. 

Traiishiliuu 
I 

lia-a-a-a! An introdnetoi'y exflaiiialinii. 
Iril Horaro. Iri! Horaro. 

iril a part of nawairi I an cxclainali >t' tliaiiklulne.ss. 

Iioiaro, land, conntry. 
Horaro e pirao kure horaro. 

hoi'aro, land, country. 

(', a vocable used to till out the measure 

pirao, children; a general term. 

kui'e, tlieir. 

horaro, country. 
Iril Horaro; horaro e. See lines 332, 333. 

II 

Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
Wei'i shu riwa, weri shu i-iwa wi. 

wei'i, here, at this place. 

sliu, a part of the word asliuro, moccasin. 

riwa, an impress, as an imprint made by moccasins on the soft 
ground. 

wi, many. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH KITUAL, J'ART III bi? 

337 Shu riwa wi pirao, slin riwa wi. 

slm riwa wi. See line 33ii. 

pirf o, children; not necessarily one's offspring. 

shu riwa wi. See line 336. 

338 Weri shu riwa, shu weri wi. See line 336. 

Ill 

33!) Ha-a-a-a! An introductoiy e.xclanuition. 
340 Weri liuriwa, weri huriwa wi. 

weri, here. 

huriwa, walking. 

wi, many. 
34:1 Huriwa wi pirao, huriwa wi. See lines 337, 340. 
342 Weri huriwa, huriwa wi. See line 340. 

E,rpl((ii<ifion liij the Kurulius 

As we move on and enter the land of the Children we sing, in the 
second stanza, about their footprints, the marks of their moccasins 
where they have w;dke<l to and fro on the ground. 

We may not actually see these marks, l)ut the soug reiiresents us 
as seeing them; Mothei' Corn has seen them, and she is leading us. 

Farther on we sing in the third stanza that we see the Children 
themselves walking over their land. Mother Corn can see them if we 
do not; she has been here before; she knows all the people and (-an 
reach them all, so she leads us where we can see them walking. 

This song represents the Fathers coming to the country where the 
Son lives. They first see his footpiints; then thej' see him and liis 
kindred, the Children, walking about where tliej' live. So the way is 
made plain for us and we go forward. 

When the village of the Children is in sight the following song is 
sung. Mother Corn speaks in the first st;inza and tells us she has 
come again to this place. Her spirit had been here before when she 
came seeking the Son. To-day we have arrived with her at this her 
destination, and we give thanks to Mother Corn. 



88 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



SECOOT> SONG 

IJ^ords and JSlTisie 



M. M. *< - 112. 

i= Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Drum, i 
Rattles. L 



h. ti-ra sa - ka ri - ki 



u 



a - wa ra - ti whiclia: A ti-ra sa - ka ri- ki 




a- wa ra ti whi-clia 



ri! Ha-wa ra-ti wlii-cha; 

• & P * * f f 



w -»■-•■ •*■ ■»--*■ -*■ 
\ ti-ra sa-ka ri-ki 



a - wa ra-ti whi-cha; 

? r f r • f 



A ti-ra sa - ka ri- ki 



a - wa ra-ii whi - clia. 

Lr i -^ I 



3-±:i A tira saka riki avva rati whicdia: 

344 A tira saka riki awa rati whicha. 

34.5 Iri! Hawa rati whiclia: 

346 A tira saka riki ;iwa rati whicba; 

347 A tira saka riki awa rati whicha. 

II 

348 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha: 

349 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha. 
3.50 Iril Hawa rashihri whicha: 

351 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha; 
353 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha. 

I 

34o A tira saka riki awa f.iti whicha. 

a, a vowel sound iiilrixliiccd I'm- cuijhony 

tira, this. 

saka, part of the word larasaka, sun. 

riki, standing; tira saka riki means this present time, to-day. 

awa, again. 

rati, a modification of tlie word it Ira, I coming. 

whicha, arrived. 

344 See line 343. 

345 Iri! Ilawa rati whicha. 

iri! thanks! a part of the word na'wairi, tlianks, tViankful. 
hawa, again. 

rati, I coming; refers to Motlier t'oru. 
whicha, arrived, reached the point of destination. 
.3411, .347 See line 343. 



FLETCF_EE] FIFTH RITUAL, PART III 89 

II 

348 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha. 

a, a vowel sound used for euphony. 

tira, this. 

saka, sun; part of the word tara saka, sun. 

riki, standing, tira saka riki, to-day, this lareseut time. 

awa, again. 

rashihri, you liave brought. 

whielia, arrived, come. 

349 See line 348. 

350 Iri! Ilawa rashiliri whicha. 

iri! an exclamation of tlianks or thankfulness. A i>art of 

the word na'wairi, thanks, it is good, 
hawa, again. 

rashihri, you liave brouglit. 
whicha, arrived. 
351, .352 See line 348. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The second stanza says that Mother Corn has arrived, bringing 
gifts for the Children. These gifts are not only the things in our 
packs; but they are the promise of long life, of children, of plenty, 
and of peace. It is for these that the Children will give tlianks, and 
we sing their thanks in this song. 

Third Division. Entering the Village of the Sor and Conse- 
crating Ills Lodge 

sixth ritual 

Part I. The Sox's Messengers Received 

ExijJduiitiou hi/ the Ku'rahus 

When the messengei's sent b^^ the Fathers (third ritual) turned 
homeward the Son began his preparations to receive tlie llako party. 
Each of his relatives selected from among his ponies those which lie 
desired to present to the Fathers. The Son chose a messenger as his 
representative to go out and receive the Ilako jjarty when it should 
arrive within sight of the village. He also selected the little child 
necessary to the performance of certain rites belonging to tlie fifth 
morning of the ceremony. It could be one of his own children or the 
child of a near relative. Finall}% an earth lodge of suitable size was 
secured, the oecui>ants with all their belongings moving out for the 
occasion. 

In this vacated lodge the ceremony was to be perfornied and the 
Fathers were to live day and night, for no member of the liako party 
ever sepai-ated himself from the sacred objects from the time of start- 
ing on the journej^ tintil the close of the entire ceremony. 



90 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. asn. 22 

P2vei-y j'awnee village keeps eei'tuiu men on the lookout to give 
iiotiec of the approaeh of strangers. As soon as the Hako paity was 
re('ogniz('(l one of these men I'an with the news to the village. The 
Son at once dispatched his messenger, 1ii(l<linL;- him go 1o tlie Fathers 
and say, "I am ready." 

As soon as the Fathei's discerned the messenger hastening towai'd 
t lieni, the Kn'ralnis sent two men to nie<'t him and conduct him to the 
Ilako parly. 

A cushion was jilaced I'm' him to sit upon and a liowl of liulfalo meat 
was given him. While he ate, the Ku'rahus, liis assistant, and the 
chief, holding the sacred objects, sang the first stanza of this song. 

SONG 

Words (1)1(1 Jlii.sic 
M. M. s = Ufi. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

Nod ruin. ■ — v 

Ho-o-o-o! Ti-we ra-kn-she ti hao; Ti-we ra-ku-sbe li ha-o; 

^1 



Ti-we ra-ku-she hu-wati ha-o; Ti-we ra-ku-slie ti ha-o; Ti-we ra-ku-she. 

I II 

358 Ho-o-o-n! :i.")9 Ho-o-o-o! 

3.54 Tiwe raku.slie ti hao; oOO Tiwe riata ti liao; 

3.5.5 Tiwe rakushe ti hao; :>(!1 Tiwe riata ti hao; 

3.5() Tiwe rakn.she liawa ti hao; :!l!i Tiv.-e ii..ta hawa ti hao; 

3.57 Tiwe rakxishe ti hao: ;i(i8 Tiwe riata ti liao; 

3.58 Tiwe rakiislie. 3ti4 Tiwe riata. 

'J'rdiisldfioii (if First SI(liiZ(( 

■Jo.'! IIo-o-o-ol An introductory exclamation. 
;)54 Tiwe rakusiie li hao. 

tiwe, liere. 

I'aknshe, he sitting. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child; my offspring. 
o5.5 See line.' :!54. 
35G Tiwe rjikushe liawa ti hao. 

tiwe, here. 

rakushe, he sitt iug. 

liawa, again. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child. 
357 See line 354. 
35S Tiw(; rakushe. See line .354. 



KLETCHER] SIXTH KITUAL, PART I 91 

Ea-pla)icdii)n hij Ihe Kii' r<thiis 

In 1his stanza wo speak of the messenger as "ni\' own chilil "' (1 i hao), 
because he represents the Son, to M'hom we are b^ing led by Mother 
Corn. Althouuli tlie man who is the Son is not and can not be of an.y 
blood kinshij:) to ns, yet by tlie power of tlie sacred objects in Ihis 
ceremony lie is to be made as our own cliild, as our offspring, we are 
to be bound to liini l)j- a tie as unalterable as that which exists between 
father and son. So we sing', "]S[y own cliild, my offspring, is sitting 
here." 

When ^^•e sing "Tiwe rakiishe hawa. ti luio," we are thinking that 
our child lias again said ''I am I'eady." 

'Fi-diishil Hill (if Hifiiiid Stanza 

359 llo-o-o-o! An inti-oduetory exclamation. 
3G0 Tiwe riata ti hao. 

tiwe, here. ^ 

riata, he walking. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child. 
301 See line :Jf,i). 

362 Tiwe riata hawa ti iiao. 

tiwe, here. 

riata, he walking. 

hawa, again. 

ti, my. 

liao, my own cliild. 

363 See line 360. 

364 Tiwe riata. See line ;>i'iO. 

E-rpla nation hij tla Ivii' rahiis 

The i^ack containing tlie clothing provided for this representative 
of the Sou is now opened. After the messenger lias finished eating 
he is dressed in the new clothing. 

We clothe him because that is an act which marks the care of a 
father for his child. The garments we put upon him are fiiu^ and 
embroidered; these fine and carefully made garments show that we 
have been thinking of him, that v.-e regard him highly and wish to do 
him honor. 

After tlie messenger is clot lied he walks toward the village; we fol- 
low, walking slowly and singing the second stanza. The words ti^ll 
that the Son is walking before us and that we again are walking 
toward the lodge of the Son. 

Just before we reach the A-illage we halt and sing the next song. 



92 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Part II. The Hako Party Enter the "Village 

SONQ 

Words and Music 
M. M. jN=nfi. 
• — Pulsation of tlie voice. ' Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

Ho-o-o-ol Ki - rii ra - ka wi? Ki-ru ra-ka wi, ti ha - o? 

Drum. ici« ••£<«• <•<« «*•««••« 

liiMUs. LJ L_I [— J r ' L_ L_ L^ L_ L_ L^ LJ 

A 

^ ^- -^. -^- -w- ■^'- -*- -•■ -^ -m -m- •»- -m ^ -*- 

Ki - ni r:i - ka wi, ti Im - <>? Ki-ru ra-ka, ki - I'u ra - ka wi? 

Lj' L_r L* L: iJ Li Li Ij I ^ ^ ^ i 
I II 

365 Ho-o-o-(i! HTO Ho-o-o-n! 

366 Kiru ntka wiV 371 Tiwi reka wil 

367 Kiru raka wi. ti liuii? 373 Tiwi reka wi. ti bao! 

368 Kiru raka wi. ti bao? 373 Tiwi reka wi. ti liao! 

369 Kiru raka, kiru raka wiV 374 Tiwi reka, tiwi reka wi! 

'rvdii^ihiiloii 
T 

365 Ho-0-0-0! An iiitrdductory fX(^l;iiiiation. 

366 Kiru raka wi? 

kiru? where? 

raka, a composite word; ra, wliere; ka, partof akaro, a lodge. 

wi, is. 

367 Kiru raka wi, ti hao? 

kiru raka wi? See line 366. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child, my (ill'sj)riu«'. 

368 See line 367. 

36!) Kiru raka, kiru raka wi? See line 366. 

II 

370 IIo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

371 Tiwi reka wi ! 

tiwi, here. 

reka, a composite word; le, here; ka, part of akaro, lodge. 

wi, is. 

372 Tiwi reka wi, ti hao ! 

tiwi reka wi. See line 371. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child, my offspring. 

373 See line 372. 

374 Tiwi reka, tiwi reka wi ! See line 371. 



FLETCHER] SIXTH RITUAL, PART II 93 

E'xplaiKxtion by the Ku'rahus 

When Mother Corn went in search of the Son (second ritnal) she 
halted at the edge of the viUage where he lived. As we I'ollow in the 
path that she opened for us, we nmst do as she did. So, when we are 
just outside the village, we halt and sing the first stanza. The words 
mean, "Where is the lodge of my Sou wherein he sits waiting 
forme?" 

By the time we have linisluMl singing, the nvessenger, wlio lias 
walked on in advance, has reached and entered the lodge set apart 
for the ceremony. 

When jMotherCorn liail decided which was the lodge of the Son 
slic made ready to (Miter the village a-nd go to that lodge (second 
ritual). Now, we follow her ;igain and sing, as we walk, tlie second 
stanza: "Here is the lodge of niy Son wherein he sits waiting for me." 

When we arrive at tlie lodge we halt, for we must enter cere- 
monially. 

SEVENTH RITUAL 

Part I. Touchino .\nii Crossing the Threshold 

Explaudtiuii by ihe Ku'rahin: 

When the Son has dispatched his messenger to the Ilako party, he, 
with a few of his near relatives, enters the lodge set apart for the 
ceremony, there to await the return of his messenger and the coming 
of the Fathers. 

He seats himself at the south side of the lodge near the door. This 
is the humblest jalace, and he takes it to show that he is not seeking 
his own honor. By the clioice of him as the Son a verj^ liigh honor has 
been bestowed upon him, and his appreciation of this is shown by his 
taking the seat of the lowliest and not assuming prominence before 
the people. 

When the Hako party arrive at the door of the lodge they halt and 
await the ceremony of touching and crossing the threshold, for no one 
can pass into the lodge until this has been performed. 

At the doorwaj' the three men stand abreast — the chief with the ear 
of corn and the wildcat skin between the Ku'rahus and his assistant, 
each bearing a feathered stem — and behind these stand the two doctors, 
each with his eagle wing. 

The Ku'rahus directs the chief to advance one step and to stand 
upon the threshold while the first stanza of the next song is sung. 



94 



THE HAKO, A I'AWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 24 



SONG 

Wonl.'i f 111(1 Jliislc 



M. M. J =58. 



' = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



m 



lI(i-o-o! H' .V - ti - ra ra ko - ka 



--^=:A- 



Dnnn & 
Battles. 



ri! II'A 



3^ 



-, — ai—y—jr-°-.iT- ~m—" 



ti -ra ra ko-ka. 



ri! II'A- 



tr. 



.^^mm^m^ 



ti-ra ra ka ka, 



i! \Vi ra ko-ku, ri! II'A 



fsmmmsm^ 



^ tr. 



tr.. 



lira ra ko ka, ril 

r 



375 Ho-o-(]| 

376 H'Atira ra koka, ri! 

377 H'Atira ra koka, ri! 

378 H'Atira ra koka. rl! 

379 Wi ra koka, ri! 

3S0 H'Atira ra koka. ri! 

II 

:i.si Ho-o-o! 

382 H'Atira ra koka. ri! 

383 H'Atira ra koka, ri! 

384 H'Atira ra koka, ri! 

385 "Werakoka, ri! 

386 H'Atira ra koka, ri! 



in 

387 Ho-o-o! 

388 Kawas i ra koka, ri! 

389 Kawas i ra koka, ri! 

390 Kawa.s i ra koka, ri! 

391 Wi ra koka, ri! 

392 Kawas i r^^ koka. ri! 

IV 

393 Ho-o-o! 

394 Kawas i ra Ivoka, ri! 

395 Kawas i ra koka. ril 
390 Kawas i ra koka, ri! 

397 We ra koka, ri! 

398 Kawas i ra koka. ri! 



Tnnisltitiiin of First Stdii.ia 



37.-) 

.•>7i; 



lli)-()-<i! All int rodiiciory oxclaiiuil ion. 
irAtini ra koka, ri! 

h", a symbol of liroath; ■'breathing forth Hfo.'' 
atiia, inothcM-. 'I'lic Iciiii is applied to the ear of cuni. 
ra, moving, walking, 
koka, enter. 

ri, part of the word n.iwaii'i, an expression of ihaiikfnhiess, of 
confidence tliat all is well. 
.577, :57s See line 37(J. 
;!7!i Wi ra koka, ri! 
wi, now. 

ra koka, ri. See line .'{7<J. 
;JS() See line .■:!7l'i. 

K-Tphnidfinii 111/ Ihr J\u' riihus 

The words of tills stanza mean that Mother C4)rn, breatliing life, 
has come to the entrance. She is now moving there, bringing the 
promise of life, a promise that makes the heart of man glad, so we 
give the cry of thankfnlness as wo sing: " Nawairi ! " 



FLETCHER] SE\' ENTH RITUAL, PART I 95 

This stanza is sung four times, for we are tliiulving that tliis prom- 
ise of life given by Motlier Corn is kno\\'n to tlie powers of the four 
directions. These powers give strength .iinl iiiaki' the promise sure. 

When we liave flnislied singing, tlio Ku'ralius tells Ihe ('hi<'r to take 
four steps bej'ond tlie tlireshokl witliin tlie entrance way. These 
four steps are in recognition of the same powers. 

While the cliii^f stands IIk'I'c wr sing the second stanza. 

Trniisliiiioii tif i^i i-oiiil Sliinzfi 

381 Ho-o-o! \n introdnctory exclamation. 

382 IFAtira ra koka, ri ! 

h\ a symbol of breath; "breathing forth life." 

atii'a, motlier; tlie t-erm is ai)i)lied to the e.ir of coi'u. 

ra, moving, walking. 

koka, entered. 

ri, part of nawaii'i, an expression of thankfulness. 
383, 384. See line .'JSl'. 
385 We ra koka, ri ! 

we, it has. 

ra kolia, li. See line 38l'. 
38G See line 382. 

K.vphincdinti hi/ tin Kii' r<ihns 

The words of this stanza mean that Mother torn has entered the 
doorway of the lodge, she lias walked within fiie eutranceway with 
her promise of life which makes the heart of man thankful. 

Mother Coi-n has now oi)ened the door of the lodge for the entrance 
of life, so we give the cry of thankfulness, "Nawairil" 

This stanza is sung foui- times, and then the Ku'rahus tells the 
chief to step backward out of the enti'ance way and to stand two 
steps behind 1,he Ku raliiis and liis assistant, wIkj now advance and 
stand upon the threshold wliile the third stanza is sung. 

Trdiisldfioii (if Thiril Sfiuisa 

387 llo-o-o! An introdnctory exclamation. 

388 Kawas i ra koka, ri 1 

Kawas, tlie name used in tliis eei-emony todesignate 1 lie brown 

eagle, 
i, it. 

la, moving, 
koka, enter. 

ri, part of nawairi, a.n exclamation of I liankl'ulness. 
389, 3'JO See litK! 388. 

391 Wi la koka, ri! 

wi, now. 

ra koka, ri. See line .'iss. 

392 See line 388. 



96 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

ExjjlanaUoii hi/ the Kitrahus 

The words of this stanza lueiin that Kawas is now moving at the 
entrauoe way and is about to enter, carrying the promise of the powers 
above, a promise which makes the heart of man thankful. 

We sing this stanza four times, remembering tlie powers of the four 
dii-ections. 

Tlien the Ku'rahus and his assistant advance four steps into tlie 
entranceway and pause while tlie fourth staiiza is sving. 

Translation of Fniirtli ,Stauza 

'39^ Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
31t4 Kawas i ra koka, ri! 

Kawas, the name given to the lu'own eagle in this ceremony. 

i, it. 

ra, moving. 

koka, entered. 

ri, pai't of nawairi, an expi'essioii of Ihankfulness. 
395, 396 See line 304. 
307 We ra koka, ri! 

we, it has. 

ra koka, ri. See line 3!t-t. 
398 See line 304. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The words of this stanza mean that Kawas has entered the passage, 
way of the lodge bearing the promise that makes the heart thankful — . 
the promise of life from the powers above. 

After singing this stanza four times, the Ku'rahus and his assistant 
step back outside the lodge door and take their places at either side 
of the chief bearing the ear of corn. 

Tlie three together now a<lvance to the threshold, and the Ku'rahus 
tells the chief to go forward and keep a step in advance. The Ku'ra- 
hus and his assistant carrying the feathered stems follow the chief, 
and behind them walk the two doctors with the eagle wings. 

The five men walk slowly and silently down the long entrance waj^ 
When the chief reaches the ridge at the inner door of the passageway, 
he steps over it into the lodge and pauses. Mother Corn is the first 
to enter the lodge. The Ku'rahus and his assi-stant follow and take 
their places, the Ku'rahus on the left of the chief, the assistant on the 
right. Next the doctors step in; the one with the left wing goes to 
the left of the Ku'rahus, and the other with the right wing to the right 
hand of the assistant. The five men, now abreast, walk slowly around 
the lodge, going by the south, west, and north to the east, while they 
sing the first stanza of the following song four times. They move in 
step, keeping close together, the chief with the ear of corn just a little 
forward of the line. As they sing they sway the feathered stems, the 
ear of corn, and the eagle wings. 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTH KITUAL 



97 



Pakt II. Consecrating thk Lodge 

FIRST SONG 

^Vor(ln iind Music 



M. M. ^N-120. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




390 

400 



401 
402 
403 

404 
405 



40G 
407 
408 



I 

399 A-a-al 

400 H'Atira we rika wara: 

401 H'Atira we rika wara: 

402 We rika wara; 

403 H'Atira we rika wara. 



404 
40.5 
40G 
407 
40.S 

Transluilun 



II 
A-a-al 

H'Atira wetih ka wara: 
H'Atira wetih ka wara: 
Wetih ka wara: 
H'Atira wetih ka wara. 



I 

A-a-a! An introdiK'tion to tlie song. 
H'Atira we rika wara. 

h', a symbol of breath, a breatliing forth. 

atira, mother; the term refer.s to the ear of corn. 

we, his; refers to the owner of the lodge, the Sou. 

rika, a composite word, ri, this; ka, part of the word akaro, 
lodge. 

■\vara, walking. 
See line 400. 

We rika wara. See line 41" i. 
See line 400. 

II 

A-a-a! An introdnctory exclamation. 
H'Atira wetih ka wara. 

h', a sj'mbol of breatli, a breathing forth. 

atira, mother; the term is here applied to tlie ear of corn. 

wetih, it lias; an act accomplished. 

ka, part of the word akaro, lodge. 

wara, walked. 
See line 405. 

AVetih ka wara. See line 405. 
See line 405. 
22 ETH— PT 2—04 7 



98 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ans. 22 

Explanation by the Ku' ralius 

The words of the first stauza mean that Mother Corn breathing 
life is now walking in the lodge. We sing this stanza four times, 
remembering the four directions where the paths are down whioh the 
powers descend to man. 

When we have passed entirely around tlie lodge and reached tlie 
east, we begin the second stanza and sing it four times as we make the 
second circuit around the lodge. 

The words tell that Mother Corn lias walked within tlie lodge, 
lii'inging the promise of life. 

After a short pause at the east the five men turn again t.owai-d the 
soutli and begin a third circuit of the lodge. Tliis time the cliief with 
the ear of corn falls back into line with the Ku'rahus and his assistant, 
who bear the feathered stems, and, as they walk, sing the following 
song: 

SECOND SONG 

Wiirils <ni(l Jl/(/.s-/r 
M. M. ^N = 126. 
• = Pulsation of tlie voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tnc.T. 

=3= 



^■^f-mS — ■S'- — °^-m—»-'-'W-':gr 



Ho-o-ol Ka-was te-wi ka-we he-ra ti ra - o; Ka-was te-wi ka - we 

Drum. A, i, i , i , i,i, i.i.i. £.i|. > r ^ I 



'%¥^i^^^^^'^^P^^^f^^ 



he-ra ti ra - o; Ka-was te- wi ka - we he-ia ti ra - o. 

UL'U 'LJ U L'Lj i ^ I i 

I n 

409 Ho-o-o! 413 Ho-o-o! 

410 Kawas tewi kawe hera ti rao; 414 Kawas tewi kire hera ti rao; 

411 Kawas tewi kawe hera ti rao; 415 Kawas tewi kire hera ti rao; 
41'2 Kawas tewi kawe hera ti rao. 41C Kawas tewi kire hera ti rao. 

Translatioii uf Firat Stanza 

409 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclanuition. 

410 Kawas tewi kawe hera ti rao. 

Kawas, the name given to the brown eagle in this ceremony. 

Kawas represents the female and the beneficent powers, 
tewi, hovering, with a slow circling movement, 
kawe, a composite word, meaning within the lodge, 
hera, my. 

ti, possessive pronoun, 
rao, part of the word pirao, child. 
411.412 See line 410. 



TLETCHER] SEVENTH RITUAL, PART II 99 

Explanation by the Ku'rahiis 

The words of the first stanza tell us that Kawas is now hovering 
overhead in the lodge. 

The eagle soars in the skies and can eonmiunicate with the powers 
that are above; so the eagle represents these powers. As we stand 
facing the east the white-eagle feathered stem, on the right, toward the 
south, represents brightness, the light, the day, the sun, and it is the 
male. It is for defense and is parried on the side farthest from the 
people. The brown-eagle feathered stem, Kawas, is to the left, toward 
the north; it represents darkness, the night, the moon, and is the 
female. Kawas is carried nearest the people. Kawas has the right 
to make the nest and to .seek help from Tira'wa for the Children. 

Kawas leads in this ceremony, which is to ask for the gift of chil- 
dren, not only that children may be born to us, but that the tie of 
l)arent and child may be established between us and those to whom 
we are bringing these sacred objects, that peace may be between the 
tribes, and x^lent}' and long life and prosperity. So we sing that 
Kawas is hovering in the lodge, as an eagle hovers over her nest. 

This stanza is sung slowly, for the eagle as it hovers is slow in its 
movements. 

Translation af Second Stanza 

413 IIo-o-o! An iutrcxluelory exclamation. 

414 Kawas tewi kire hera ti rao. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, representing the beneficent powers, 
tewi, hovering, moving with a slow, circling movement, 
kire, starting to fly. 
hera, my. 

ti, jiossessive jironoun. 
rao, part of the word pirao. child. 
415,410 See line 414. 

Explanation Inj the Kn'rahus 

We sing the second stanza faster, for now Kawas has stretched her 
mighty wings and is flying within the lodge, driving awa,y all harm- 
ful influences and making the place ready for all the good that is 
promised to us through this ceremony. 

When, on the fourth circuit, the west is reached, we pau.se and face 
the east, but we continue to sing until we have repeated this second 
stanza four times. 

As soon as we have reached the west the two doctoi's with the eagle 
wings move away, the one with the left wing going by the north and 
the one with the right wing going toward the south. They raise and 
lower the wings to simulate the eagle cl"-iniiig its nest, flapping and 
blowing out all imimrities. When the doctors meet at the east they 



100 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

face the open entrance way and flirt the wings toward the opening, as 
thougli bi-nshing out something from the lodge. These motions mean 
that Kawas has now cleared the lodge of all that is bad, of all disease 
and trouble, and made the place readj^ for the coming ceremony. 

Then the doctors join the Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief. 

At the west, back of the fire, a space is now set apart and made 
sacred. Here the wildcat skin is spread and at its head the crotched 
stick is thru.st into the ground; one end of the feathered stems is laid 
against the crotch, the other upon the skin, and the rattles are placed 
under the eagle pendants. The wings are laid on the edge of thei 
skin. Ill front of the wildcat the ear of corn is held in an upright 
position by one of the sticks to which it is ti(^d being thrust into the 
ground. The sacred objects are always laid at rest in this position, 
and are never left alone or unguarded. 

The members of the Ilako party now enter and place the packs 
containing the ceremonial gifts at the north side of the lodge. Mean- 
while the women of the party are bu.sy pitching tents, for, as onlj' a 
few of the Hako party remain and live within the lodge, all the other 
men must camp with their families in a place .set apart for them. 

The Ku'rahus at this time appoints certain men to attend to special 
duties. 

Some are to bring wood and water aii<l attend to the cooking. 
They divide them.selves into dilfei-ent groups, one for each daj' of 
the ceremony, so that the work will be evenly distributed and there 
will be no confusion or delays. 

Othei's ai'e appointed to fill the pipes for the Children to smoke. 
To attend to this duty they are required to be always jiresent in the 
lodge. 

Some eight or ten men are chosen to be in readiness to do any 
work that may be demanded of them. For instance, if the crops of 
the Children are being planted or gathered, these men are to attend 
to this work, so that the Children can at all times be present at the 
ceremony and .suffer no loss. 

A man is selected to notch a stick as a recor<l of the number of 
ponies presented to the Fathers and to wiioin each pony is given. 

In this way the labor attendant upon the long ceremony is planned 
nm\ divideil so that nothing will l)e neglected and there will be no 
dispute or confusion. 

"While these appointments are being made the Son disijatches 
runners to notify the people that the Hako party has arrived and to 
bid his relatives come to the lodge. 



rLETCHEK] 



SEVENTH RITTTAL 



101 



Part III. Clothing the Sox and Offering Smoke 
Explcmation hy the Ku'ralivs 

The Ku'ralms orders that the paok containing the new garments 
brought for the Son be opened, and he directs the chief to clothe the 
Son. The embroidered shirt, leggings, and moccasins are then pnt 
ui:)on him and he is wrapped in a fine robe. 

The Ku'rahus asks the priest of the shrine which controls the rain 
to take its sacred pipe and direct the Son how to offer tobacco and 
smoke to Tira'wa. 

The i^riest fills the sacred pipe and carries it toward the south, 
where he sits down beside the Son and instructs him what to do. 

The Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief, bearing the sacred 
objects, follow the priest and halt before the Son. 

The ijriest puts the sacred pipe in tlie hand of the Son, and the 
first stanza of the following song is sung. 



FIRST SONG 

Words (111(1 JIi(sic 
M. M. J - 52. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 

Sloic. — ^— ^ 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ho-o-o! Suks pa-ka wa - wa lii rata - a ha - o ha! 

Drum, p f^ p ,,. 
Matties. I "^■ 



Hi - ril Hi rata - a 
'^ tr 




wa hi ra-ta - a 



hal 



417 
418 
419 
420 



417 
418 



Ho-o-o: 

Suks paka wawa lii rata-a liao ha! 

Hiri: Hi rata-a hao ha! 

Suks paka wawa hi rata-a hao ha! 



II 

431 Ho-o-o! 

423 Ti wawaka wawa hi rata-a hao ha! 

423 Hiri! Hi rata-a hao ha! 

424 Ti wawaka wawa hi rata-a liao ha! 



Translation of Fir.st Stanza 

Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
Suks paka wawa hi rata-a hao ha! 

suks, a command; you must. 

paka, pako, speak. The change in the last vowel is for 
euphony. 

wawa, part of rawawa, to send something; in tliis instance, to 
send the words or thoughts of the prayer. 

hi, that person. 

rata, my or mine. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

hao, child; offspring. 

ha, a musical vocable used to fill out the measure. 



102 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEBEMONY [eth. ann. 22 

41!) Iliri! Hi rata-;i hao lia! 

liiri! ail exclamation iiicaiiiiig ,i;ive heed! harkeu! 
hi rata-a hao ha ! See line 418. 

420 See line 418. 

Explanaf 11)11 hij flu Ku'raJins 

The words of this stanza are a CMjiiiinand to the Son. They are, 
" Give heed, my chilil; you must now send your prayers to the powers 
which dwell above." 

This stanza is sung four times. 

Then the Son takes a jjincli of toliaceo from the bowl of the pipe 
and passes it along the stem and oifers it as the priest directs. 

Tliere is a certain order to l)e observed in the offering of tobacco 
and smoke to the jiowers above peculiar to each of the sacred shrines, 
and only the priest or keejier of a shrine knows the order in which 
the powers which preside over his shrine should be approached. The 
sacred pipe belonging to the Rain slirine is used in this ceremony, and 
its priest must direct the Son how to make the offering. I do not 
know this order ; it does not belong to me to know it. 

^Vhen the xjinch of tobacco has been jiresented to the ijowers above 
it is placed upon the earth. 

After this act the second stanza is sung. 

Translation of , Second Stanza 

421 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

422 Ti wawaka wawa hi rata-a hao hn! 

ti, he. 

wawaka; wako, spoken; the added wa indicates that he has 

spoken to those who are at a great distance. 
wawa, part of tiwari, traveling from one, and towawa, traAel- 

ing ill many ways, to many different places, 
hi, that person, 
rata, mj' or mine, 
a, vowel prolongation, 
hao, child, 
ha, a musical \ocable. 

423 See line 419. 

424 See line 422. 

Kxplanation hi/ tlic Kii' ralius 

As the Son oft'ers tobacco in the directions indicated by the priest, 
he prays to the powers that dwell in these directions. What he .says 
is not audible to us, for it is not intended for us to hear. 

The words of this stanza refer to the prayers of the Son. 

We are liidden to take heed that the prayers of the Son, who is as 
our cliild, have been spoken and have traveled far, going on and on 
to the different distant places where the great powers abide which 
watch over tlie rain. 



FLETCHER] SEVENTH RITUAL, PART III 103 

Thi.s stiinza is sung four times. 

The priest now lights the pipe and the Son smokes, sending little 
puffs in the directions indicated by the priest. As he smokes we sing 
the first stanza of the following song. 

SECOND SONG 

JVorda and Music 
M. M. J -56. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



3— J ■" ■— • *— * ti^^ -5^-ir-.i).-''--Sr.-3.-.^^— .5=^ 

Ho-0-o-ol Ra-wi-siu lia ku n! Ti we-ri ha-ku ra-wi-sulia-ku ri! 



Drum 

I 



ft A 



Ti we-ri ha-kul Ra-wi-suha-ku ri ti we-ri ha-kii ! Ra-wi-su ba-ku ri! 

I 
I 






42.5 Ho-o-o-u! 

426 Rawisu haku ril 

437 Ti weri haku rawisu hakii ri! 

428 Ti weri haku! • 

429 Rawisu haku ri ti weri haku! 

430 Rawisu haku ri! 

II 

431 Ho-o-o-o! 

432 Rawis kalia witshpa! 

433 Ti weri witshpa rawis kaha witshpa! 

434 Ti weri witshpa! 

435 Rawis kaha ^vltshpa ti weri witshpa! 

436 Rawis kaha witshpa! 

Trunsluiion of Fir tit Stanza 

4i5 IIo-o-o-o! An introduetorj' exclamation. 
42(i Rawisu haku ri. 

rawisu, smoke. 

haku, passes by. 

ri, present time. 

427 Ti weri haku rawisu haku ri. 

ti, it. 

weri; we, now; ri, present time. 

haku, passes by. 

rawisu haku ri. See line 42(5. 

428 Ti weri haku. See line 427. 

429 Rawisu haku ri ti weri haku. See lines 426, 427. 

430 See line 426. 



104 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Explanation hy the Ku'raJms 

The words tell lis that the smoke offered l)y the Son is now passing 
by, leaving us and going on its way to the different places where the 
powers dwell that guard the rain. 

We sing this stanza four times as the smoke passes by us. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

431 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory e.xclamation. 

432 Rawis kaha witshpa. 

rawis, part of the word rawisu, smoke. 

kaha, part of the word kaliaru, smell, savor, odor. 

witshpa, reached, arrived at, completed. 

433 Ti weri witsh^ia rawis kaha witshpa. 

ti, he or it. 

weri; we, now; ri, is; denotes present time, 
witshpa, has completed, reached, arrived, 
rawis kaha witshpa. See line 432. 

434 Ti weri witshpa. See line 433. 

435 Rawis kaha witshpa ti weri witshpa. See lines 432, 433. 

436 See line 432. 

Exjilanation by tlie Ku' raltus 

As the smoke disappears we sing tlie second stanza, which tells 
that the odor of tlic smoke has reached the abode of tiie mighty pow- 
ers and that our offering to them is now completed. 

We sing this song four times. 

The ceremony of offering smoke over, the priest with the sacred 
pipe of tlie Rain shrine, and the Ku'rahus with his assistant and 
the chief, bearing the sacred objects, return to the west and there, 
upon the space set apart and made holy, lay them down. 

The Son takes off' the fine garments with wliicli the Father has 
clothed him and places them in a pile before a chief of his village, 
that they may be distributed to the young men of the receiving party — 
that is, the Cliildren. 

The lodge lias now been opened by Mother Corn and cleansed of all 
bad influences by Kawas; the Sou, clothed as a child bj' the Father, 
has offered prayer and smoke to tlie i^owers above; the garments worn 
during this act have been removed and given awaj'; and now every- 
thing is ready for the public ceremony to begin. 



FLETCHER] 



EIGHTH KITUAL 



105 



THE CEREMOXY 

First Division. The Public Ceremony 
eighth ritual (first day). the fathers feed the children 

Expldttiitidii hij the Ku'rahus 

The ruiuH'i's dispatched hy tlie Son deliver their message, and soon 
men, women, and children, dressed in their best attire, can be seen 

EAST 
• 1 




Fig. ITti. Diagram uf the Son's lodge at the beginning of the public ceremony. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4. the Ku'rahus: .5, his assistant; 6, the Father (a chief); 7, the server; 8, the Son; 9, the Hako 
at rest upon the holy place; 10, the ear of corn (should be represented by a dot just below the 
number!; 11. members of the Son's party; 12, members of the Hako party; 13, the bearers of 
the eagle wings. 

walking through the village toward tlie lodge set apart for the 
ceremony (flgure 176). 

As they i)ass into the lodge they see the Ku'rahus and his assist- 
ant with the chief between them sitting behind the Hako at the west, 



106 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

facinjic the entrance at tlie east. The^' wIkj have In-ought gifts to the 
Fathers go ai'ouud to the sacred place and lay them down upon the 
ground between the central fire and tlie Hako. All gifts are received 
silently unless someone brings a present of food ; for such an offering 
the Ku'rahus gives thanks. 

In old days it was not unusual for the Children to bring packs filled 
with dried buffalo meat; sometimes the packs contained the entire 
jjroduct of a hunt. 

When all the Children are gathered within the lodge the Ku'rahus 
directs that the Hako be taken up. When this is done, the five men 
stand facing the east. The chief, in the center, holds the wildcat 
skin and the ear of corn; on his left and toward the north is the 
Ku'rahus with the brown-eagle feathered stem, and at his left is the 
doctor with the left wing of the eagle. On the right of the chief and 
toward the south is the Ku'rahus's assistant holding the white-eagle 
feathered stem, and at his right the doctor with the riglit wing of the 
eagle. The Kii'rahus now addresses the Children: 

"Mother Corn has led us to the liorder of your laud. Mother Corn 
has brought us to yoni- village. Mother Corn has guided us to the 
entrance of this lodge. Mother Corn has crossed the threshold and 
entered. The lodge has been swept and made ready for th"^ ceremony. 
Kawas has flown about the lodge seeking its child, and i.ere he has 
been found. 

" You must all help me by reverent conduct as I try to perform faith- 
fully the rite handed down from our fathers, so that all the promise 
of good which follows the Hako may come to us here." 

No particular form of speech was taught me to be used on this 
occasion. Every Ku'rahus can choose his own words, but he must at 
this time tell the people of the sacredness of this ceremony and call 
upon them to give reverent attention that the rite may go forward to 
the end and be the means of bringing good to all who take part in it. 

By this time those appointed to attend to the cooking have prepared 
food outside of the lodge. This is now brought in and placed near 
the fireplace, toward the east. 

Before anyone can be served the thoughts of the Fathers and of 
the Children must be turned toward Tira'wa, the father of all things, 
so we sing the following song as we carry the Hako around the lodge 
and wave the feathered stems over the heads of the people. 



FLETCHER] EIGHTH RITUAL 107 

FIRST SONG 

TT'orr/.s on (7 Mil s If 
M. M. J =126. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

\ A A ' • 

1= 



B»i^_^i^=P=3=^^ 




Drum, i , 4 
Rattles, r I 



3^=§-^=i=^|5=^^-^ 



K*-=1- 



rS=b-^B=*= 



H'A-ars Ti-ra-wa La-ki; H'A-ars Ti-ra-wa ha -ki; H' A-ars Ti -ra-wa ha-ki. 

A A A .^ A A A A A A , 

^ r r r r r r r r r f r r 1 ^' r r r i 

437 Ha-a-a-al 

438 H'Aars Tira wa haki; 

439 H'Aars Tira wa haki; 

440 H'Aars Tira wa haki; 

441 H'Aars Tira wa haki; 

442 H'Aars Tira wa haki. 

Tr(i/i.':ilutioi( 

437 Ha-a-a-a! An iiitroductoiy exclamation. 

438 H'Aars Tira'wa liaki. 

h\ a part of the word ha, your. 

aars, a contraction of the word atius, father. 

Tira'wa, the designation of the great power Tira'wa atius, 

thouglit to 1)6 above all other powers, 
haki, many. 
439-442 See line 438. 

ExplatKttioii hij ihe Ku'rahus 

When the Ku'rahus begins to sing this song he must think what this 
ceremony is for and be mindful that all the powers that the heavens 
contain and all the powers that are felt over the earth are now coming 
near and bending over the Hako. 

All the powers that are in the heavens and all those that are upon 
the earth are derived from the mighty power, Tira'wa atius. He" is 
the father of all things visible and invisible. He is the father of all 
the powers represented by the Hako. He is the father of all the 
lesser jjowers, those which can approach man. He is the father of all 
the people, and perpetuates the life of the tribe through the gift of 
children. So we sing, your father, meaning the father of all people 
everywhere, the father of all things that we see and hear and feel. 

As we sing the words over and over we think about Tira'wa atius 
being the father of all things. This and all stanzas are sung four 
times. 

When we have gone entirely around the lodge and have returned 



"The Pawnee pronoun here translated "he" does not in the original indicate sex. nor is it 
equivalent to "it," as the word relates to a person. 



108 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[eth. asn. 22 



to the west we pause, and start agaiu to make tlie secoud circuit, 
always going by the north, the east, the south, to the west. Ou this 
second circuit we sing this song, which must always follow the one we 
liave just sung. Both songs are about Tira'wa atius, the father of all. 
These two songs belong to the first two of the first four circuits of 
the lodge, which are made in the presence of all the Children. We 
shall sing the.se same songs twice again ; the first time, after the sacred 
feast of corn and, the second tune, when we arc l)eginning the last 
four circuits of the lodge on the fourf li and last night of the ceremony. 



SECOND SONG 

J]'(ir(ls (111(1 Music 
M. M. J=]26. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Drum. 
Rattles 




44:5 

444 



445 
440 



::l=3=l: 



ilEpEiE^^i^^ 



f r^ 



Ti-ra-wa ha-ki. 



447 



Ti-ra-wa lia-ki; IT A - ars 

r r I r fr r r rr 

Ha-a-a-a! 

444 H"Aars e he! Tirawahaki; 

445 H'Aars e )ie! Tira'wa haki; 

446 Kidhi! Tira'wa haki; 

447 H'Aars Tira'wa haki. 

Ti'dlltillltidll 

Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
IFAars e he! Tira'wa haki. 

li', a part of the word "ha", your. 

aars, an abbreviation of atius, father. 

e, a vocable used to fill out tlie rhythm. 

he! an exclamation indicating tliat somellung is l)rought to 

one's attention which demands thoughtful consideration. 
Tira'wa, a part of Tira'wahut, tlie dwelling place of the lesser 

powers, those whicli can come near to man. 
haki, many. 
See line 444. 
Hidhi! Tira'wa haki. 

hidhi, on high; above, as when one points upward. 
Tira'wa, a part of Tira'wahut, the dwelling place of the lesser 
powers. The word Tira'wa is not the same as in the pre- 
ceding song and therefore has not the same meaning, 
haki, many. The phrase Tira'wa haki in this song refers to 
the many lesser powers which dwell al)0ve. 
H'Aars Tira'wa haki. See line 444. 



FLETCHER] 



EIGHTH RITUAL 



109 



Exphiiiofioii hij fhe Ku' ralius 

When we begin this song .iiid sing " H'Aars" (j-oui- fatlier), we think 
of what we iiave been told in (he first song, that Tira'wa atins is the 
father of all tilings; that he is the father of all those lesser powers 
which eonie to us in onr visions and dreams. These lesser powers are 
many, but 1"'ira'wa atins is the father of them all. 

When we sing, "Hidhil" we think that all these powers have their 
dwelling ijlace on high, Tira'wahut, and that above them all is the 
abode of Tira'wa atius, their father. It is he who sends help to us bj- 
these lesser powers, because they alone can come to ns so that we 
can see and feel them. 

When we have reached the west we pause and then begin the third 
circuit of the lodge. On this round we sing of Mother Corn, she who 
has led us (ni our journey, who has entered the lodge of the Sou, and 
is now to walk before the Children with the promise of iilenty. 

THIRD SONG 

lVor(h and Music 
a 26. 

Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



M. U. S ■ 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 






Ho-o!Ho-o!Xawa'Ti 
Drum, i , 4 , i , i 

Rallies. LJ LJ i_J I— 



na 

f 



'Ti - ra, na'Ti-ra we-ri-nil Na'Ti-ra 



^^^^m^^^ 



we-ri-ral Na-wa'Ti - ra, 



c^L'L- :_• 




I 



448 Ho-o! Ho-o! 

449 Nawa "Tira. nawa "Tira. iia "Tira weriral 

450 Na "Tira werira! 

4.51 Nawa "Tira. nawa "Tira. nawa. Ha! Werira! 
II 

4.53 Ho-o! Ho-o! 

453 Ha wa "Tira, ha wa "Tira, ha 'Tira werai! 

4.54 Ha "Tira werai! 

455 Ha wa "Tira. ha wa "Tira, lia "Tira werai! 

Translation of First Stanza 
44S Ho-o I Ho-o! Introductory exclamations. 
440 Nawa 'Tira, nawa 'Tira, na 'Tira werira! 
nawa, now. 
'tira, ijart of the word atira, mother. The term i-efers to tlie 

ear of corn, 
na, part of nawa, now. 
'tira, atira, mother, 
werira, she comes. 



110 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

450 Xa 'tira werira! Se<^ lint' 44!t. 

461 Xawa 'tira, nawa 'tira, iiawa. Ha! ^ye^il•a! 

ha! behold! look! For th*^ other words, .see line 449. 

Explanation hy iht' Ku' rahns 

In the first stanza the Fathers speak; thej^ tell the Children to 
behold Motlier Corn, who comes bringinf< the promise of good gifts. 
They must fix their eyes and thought upon Mother Corn, who now 
comes hither. They must give her thanks for all .she is bringing to 
make their hearts glad. 

We sing this stanza four times as we go around the lodge. 

Wlien we reach the west we pause and then start on the fourth 
circuit singing the second stanza. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

452 Ho-o! Ho-o! Introductory exclamations. 
45o Ha wa 'Tira, ha wa 'Tira, ha 'Tira werai! 

ha, yonder. 

wa, part of nawa, now. 

'tira, part of atira, mother. Refers to the corn. 

ha, yonder. 

'tira, atira, mother. 

werai, she is coming. 

454 Ha 'Tira werai! See line 453. 

455 See line 453. 

Explanation tty the Ku' rahuH 

In this stanza the Children speak. Yonder Mother Corn is coming. 
She is bringing good gifts of peace and plenty to make glad our hearts. 

The Fathers, they who are carrying the sacred objects, are singing, 
but if the Children choose they can Join in the song as the waving 
feathered stems are passing by. 

"When we have sung this stanza four times and have reached the 
west we have completed the fourth circuit of the lodge. 

We sing each stanza four times during one circuit and -we must 
make four circuits of the lodge after we ha\'e taken up the Hako and 
before we can laj^ them down. 

The four circuits of the lodge are made in recognition of tlie four 
directions, the four jjowers at the west and the four sacred ob.jects, 
the two eagles, the ear of corn, and the wildcat skin. 

Up to this time the feathered stems have been simply laid down 
upon the wildcat skin without ceremony, but now and hereafter 
during the ceremony, whenever we complete a fourth circuit of the 
lodge and return to the west, they are laid to rest upon the skin with 
certain peculiar movements made to the rhythm of song." The songs 
which belong to this act explain its meaning. 

o In the following pages the places will he indicated where these songs must be sung, but to 
avoid unnecessary repetition the songs themselves will be omitted. 



Fletcher] 



EIGHTH RITUAL 



111 



The feathered stems represent the eagle; the holy place, where the 
stems are laid to rest, represents the eagle's nest. A nest is made for 
the .young; the making of a nest in the lodge of the Son by Ka- 
was presages the fulfilment of the proniise of ehildi'en to the Son, as 
well as the establishment of a close bond, like that of father and son, 
between the members of two unrelated clans or tribes. 

The cat skin lies next to the ground on the holy place; it protects 
!)}'■ its skill the nest and all that the nest represents. 

Whenever we laj' the feathered stems down, after they have been 
carried four times around the lodge and waved ovei- the heads of the 
people, they are moved in a way to represent the eagle hovering over 
her nest and then alighting ou her young. These songs and these 
movements are a pra.yer for the gift of children, and that the bond 
between the Father and the Son may be true and strong. 

There are four songs for the ceremony of lajingdown the feathered 
stems. Each song has two stanzas. We sing two of these songs every 
time we lay these objects to rest. We sway the stems over the cat 
skin, dropping them lower and lower, then suddenly we raise them 
again and finally let them gently down on the nest. The eagle acts' in 
this manner when going to her nest. She does not at once settle 
down; she flies over it, sweeping lower and lower, then rises to see if 
all is well, and slowly descends to drop lightly on the nest. 

When the young eagles see the mother coming and hear her call, 
thej^ answer back, they are glad. We are like the young birds in the 
nest, so we cry "Hiril" expressing our gratitude to Kawas, who is 
making her nest with us. We pray in our hearts as we sing. 



SONGS FOE LAYING DOWN THE TEATHERED STEMS 

SONG 

Worth (i)id Music 



M. M. ^.= 69. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed bv Edwin S. TracT. 




He-e-e-e! Wlie ri 

rtr. 



a; wlie ri - a - a; 



rhe ri 



a. Hi 



I>rum. f (r 
Rattles. ' 




112 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

I 

456 He-e-e-e! 

457 Whe ria-a; whe ria-a: whe ria. Hiril 

458 Whe ria. Hiri! 

459 Whe ria. Hiri! 

460 Whe ria. Hiri! 

461 Whe ria-a; whe ria-a: whe ria. Hiri! 

II 

462 He-e-e-e! 

463 Whe ria-a; whe ria-a: wlie ria. Hiril 

464 Whe ria. Hiri! 

465 Whe ria. Hiri! 

466 Whe ria. Hiri! 

46T Whe ria-a; whe ria-a: wlie ria. Shpetit! 

Truiittlation 
I 

45<> He-e-e-e! An iutroductory exclamation. 
457 Whe ria-a; whe ria-a; whe ria-a. Hiri! 

whe, now. 

ria, flying and circling over sometliing, as a nest. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

hiri! part of nawairi! thanks! The initial li is added for 
enphony. 
458,459,411(1 Whe ria. Hiri! See line 457. 
4G1 See line 457. 

II 

46:3 He-e-e-e ! An introdnctory exclamation. 

403 See line 457. 

464, 465, 466 See line 458. 

4G7 Whe ria-a, whe ria-a, whe ria. Shpetit! 

whe ria-a, whe ria-a, whe ria. See line 457. 

shpetit, to light upon, as on a nest, and sit down npon it. 



FLETCHER] 



EIGHTH RITUAL 



113 



SONG 

IVords cmd Music 



M. M. J =108. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 

A 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

_^ 

Hi- ri!Hawara-ti - ra. Hi - ril Hawara-ti - ra! Hi tu-ka i ra - r.a"- spi ! 




Drum. f> ,.. 
Matties. ' 




Hi ri! Hawara-ti - ra. Hi - ri! Hawa ra-ti - ra! Hi tu-ka i ra-ra-spi. 



I "• 

1 

468 Hiril Hawa ratira. Hirll Hawa ratiral 

469 Hi tnka i raraspil 

470 Hiril Hawa ratira. Hiri! Hawa ratiral 

471 Hi tuka i raraspil 

II 

473 Hiri! Hawa rassira. Hiril Hawa rassira! 

473 Hi tnka i rarispi! 

474 Hiri! Hawa rassira. Hiril Hawa rassira! 

475 Hi tuka i rarispi! 

Translation 

I 

468 Hiri ! Hawa ratira. Hiri ! Hawa ratira. 

hiri! part of nawairi! an exclamation of thanks, gratitude, of 

confidence that all is well. The initial h is added to iri 

for euphony and ease in singing, 
hawa, again, 
ratira, coming. 
4G9 Hi tuka i raraspi. 

hi, it; refers to the eagle. 

tuka, slantwise. 

i, vocable to fill out the nieasure. 

raraspi, verj' near to alighting, referring to the movements of 

the eagle, which makes feints of descending upon her nest 

and then rises again. 

470 See line 468. 

471 See line 469. 

23 ETH— PT 3—04 8 



114 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 
II 



[ETH. ANN'. 22 



472 Hiri! Hawa rassira. Iliril Ilawa rassira! 

hiri! an exclamation of tluuikfulnoHs. See explanation in 
line 4G8. 

hawa, again. 

rassira, yon coming, or returning. Refers to the movements 
of the eagle. After the feint of alighting she rises and 
then she returns again preparatory to settling on her nest. 

473 Hi tuka i rarispi. 

hi, it; refers to the eagle. 

tuka, slantwise. 

i, vocable used to fill out the measure of the music. 

rarispi, has alighted. 

474 See line 472. 

475 See line 473. 

SONG 



IVohIn (ind ^[iisir 



M. M. J =56. 



: Pulsation of tlie voice. 

:|z=3sr(::rr?3=j=in: 



Transcribed liv Edwin S. Tracy. 



dEE^z^^mdtzs-^^^S^ 



--■^--7- 



Ha-a-a! E ra he-ra i 
^ tr 



Drum. P ,,. 
Rattles. I 



ru - wa. Hal Ti wi ru-\va, ti \vi ru-\va,I<a- 



r' 



rawi-ti-lia? Ka-was ti wi rii-wa, ti wi ruwa, I<a - rawi-tika? E 



^i^-l^i?^i|^E^^?3E^=3i3l"^35^^i 



ra he - ra 

A 

P -■ 



ru-wa. HaITi wi ni-wa, ti wi riiwa, ka- ra witi-ka^ 



fir. 



tr — 
I 



: 



4Tfi Ha-a-a! 

477 Era hera iruwa. Hal Ti wi rtiwa. ti wi ruwa. kara witika? 

478 Kawas ti wi rnwa. ti wi rnwa. kara witika? 

479 Era hera iriiwa. Hal Ti wi rnwa. ti wi rnwa, kara witiku? 

II 

480 Ha-a-a! 

481 Era hera eria. Hal Ti wi ria. ti wi ria, hara witika; 

482 Kawas ti wi ria, ti wi ria. hara witika. 

483 Era hera eria. Hal Ti wi ria, ti wi ria, hara witika. 



FLETCHER] EIGHTH EITUAL 115 

Translation 
I 

•176 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

477 Era liera iruwa. Ha! Ti wi ruwa, ti wi ruwa, kara witika? 

era, it coming; refers to tlie eagle. 

liera; era, it coming; tlie h is added for euphony. 

iruwa, one flying this way, toward us one (singular) is flying. 

ha! look! behold! 

ti, here. 

wi, is. 

ruwa, flying this way. 

kara? has it? a question. 

witika, sat down within, or alighted and settled on, its nest. 

478 Kawas ti wi ruwa, ti wi ruwa, kara witika? 

Kawas, the brown eagle, the leading bird in the ceremony. 

ti wi ruwa. See line 477. 

kara witika? has it alighted and sat down within its nest? 

479 See line 477. 

II 

480 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

481 Era hera eria. Ha! Ti wi ria, ti wi ria, hara witika. 

era, it coming. 

hera, a repetition of era, the h being added for euphony. 

eria, circling overhead; refers to the movements of the eagle. 

ha! look! behold! 

ti, here. 

wi, is. 

ria, a part of the word eria, circling over. 

hara, it has. 

witika, sat down within, or settled on, its nest. 

482 Kawas ti wi ria, ti wi ria, hara witika. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, the leading symbolic bird in the cere- 
mony, 
ti wi ria, hara witika. See line 481. 

483 See line 481. 



ll'> 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETIT. ANN. 22 



SONG 

JVonls (ukJ Music 



M. M.J =58. 



= Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



=3=3- 



y?a=:a^=i:»-?-:j d 



s 



IIa-:i-a a! Ka-ra wi-tit? Ka-ra wi-tit? Ka-ra wi-tit? Ka-ra \vi-t!t? Ka-ra wi-tit? 



Drum, o ... p 



Rattles. I 



tr. f^tr. 



'Ir 



=5epS= 



'^1» ~^ ~ 



t-tras^ 



3=fe=^i^' 



z=^^^- 



Ka - ra e? Ka-ra wi-tit?Ka-ra wi-tit? Ka-ra wi-tit? Ka-ra 



r "■- 



tr.. 



f 



484 Ha-a-a-al 

485 Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara ^^•itit? Kara •witit? Kara witif/ Kara e? 

486 Kara witit? Kara \\'itit? Kara witit? Kara e? 

487 Ha-a-a-al 

488 Hara witit: liara witit; liara -nitit: liara witit; liara \vitit: bara el 

489 Hara witit; hara witit; liara witit; hara el 

I 

484 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

4X0 Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? 
Kara e? 

kara? has it? a ([iiest ion. 

witit, sat down or lit upon (its nest). The iteration of the 
words follow tlie pit-ture made bj' the niovenients of the 
feathered stems as they are waved now lower and now- 
higher over the cat skin, simulating the eagle as she pre- 
pares to alight on her nest, 
e, a vocable to fill out the measure of the music. 
Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara e? See line 485. 



48t; 



11 



487 Ila-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

488 Hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; harae! 

hara, it lias. 

witit, sat down or alighted and settled upon (its nest). The 
repetition of the words accompanies the movements of the 
feathered stems as they are waved lower and lower toward 
the cat skin. 

e, a vocable to fill out the measure of the music. 

489 Hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; harae! See line 488. 



FLETCHER] EIGHTH AND NINTH RITUALS ] 17 

ExpldiKi/ioii })tj tlie Ku'rahus 

When the Hiiko are at rest, the food whieli has been standing 
beside the fire is served by the Fathers to the Children. Certain men 
are appointed for this task. 

It is the duty of a father to provide food for his child, and not to 
partake himself until the child is satisfied. As we are to simulate the 
relation of father to child, we prepare a meal for the Children twice 
and sometimes thrice a day during the continuance of this ceremony. 
We are obliged to bring much food for this purpose, as the Children 
are sometimes many, and we have also ourselves to feed. 

Where we must travel far to reach the tribe of the Son, the burden 
of carrying so much food is hard upon our ponies. So much cooking 
for the Children keeps the women very busy, but they are willing, for 
the ceremony brings good to them. 

After the Children have eaten they rest a while and then go home, 
returning to the lodge when the sun has set. Before they go thej^ 
generally make gifts of ponies to the Fathers. 

When the Fathers are left alone in the lodge they eat their evening 
meal. 

The Ilako throughout this ceremony are never left unattended by 
night or da.y. When the Ku'rahus, or his assistant, or the chief needs 
to leave the lodge, someone is requested to take his place during his 
absence. 

NINTH RITUAL (fIRST NIGHT). INVOKING THE VISIONS 

Explanation by flie Kit'raliiis 

When the sun has set and it is dark and the stars are shining, then 
the Children gather in the lodge. Some, as thej^ come in, will advance 
to the holy place and there drop a stick; this means the gift of a pony. 
For every such gift the Ku'rahus returns thanks to the giver. 

After all are seated, wood is jiiled upon the fire, and when the flames 
leap high the Ku'rahus rises, then his assistant and the chief rise and 
the Hako are taken up. 

The singers carrying the drum follow the Hako bearers as thej' move 
slowly around the lodge, singing the following song. 



118 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEp: CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 32 



SONG 

Words and 3Ivsic 



M. M. j> - 132. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Ho-o-o-o! Hit - ka aha - ru 



Drum i « i 
Rallies. ;j 'i. 



m^m^m 



Ru-hu - ri-hi! Ru-hn - ri-hi hit-kasha-ru! 

L: U U Lj U U U L: 



I 

490 Ho-o-o-ul 

491 HitkasharnI 

492 Ruliurilii hitkasham! 

493 Rulmrihi! 

494 Riilnirihi hitkashani! 
49.5 Rnhnrihi! 

II 

496 Ho-o-o-o! 

497 Hitkasliarii! 

498 Weri rawha hitkasham! 

499 Weri rawha! 

500 Weri rawha hitkashani! 

501 Weri rawha! 

Ill 

502 Ho-o-o-o! 

503 Hitkasharu! 

504 Weri whicha hitkasham! 

505 Weri whicha! 

506 Weri whicha hitkasham! 

507 Weri whicha! 

IV 

508 Ho-o-o-o! 

509 Hitkasharu! 

510 We rahmka hitkasham! 

511 We rahmka! 

513 We raiinika hitkasham! 

513 We rahmka!" 



Ru-hu - ri-hi! 

P ^ i I 

V 



514 Ho-o-o-o! 

515 Hitkasham! 

516 We rakawa hitkashant! 

517 We rakawa! 

518 We rakawa hitkasham! 

519 We rakawa! 

VI 

520 Ho-o-o-o! 

521 Hitkasharu! 

522 We riteri hitkasharu! 

533 We riteri! 

524 We riteri hitkasharu! 

525 We riteri! 

VII 

526 Ho-o-o-o! 

527 Hitkasham! 

528 We rahwara hitkasham! 

529 We rahwara! 

530 We rahwara hitkasharu! 

531 We rahwara! 

VIII 

532 Ho-o-o-o! 
583 Hitkasham! 

534 Wera rawhishpa hitkashani! 

535 Wera rawhishpa! 

536 Wera rawliishpa hitkasham! 

537 Wera rawhishpa! " 



'rrdnslatioii of Firnt Sfanzo 

490 Ho-o-o-o! An (exclamation introductory to tin* song. 

491 Hitkasharu! A composite term; hit, from liittu, feather; ka, 

from rotkaharu, night; sharii, visions, dreams. Hittii, 
feather, refers to tlie l)irds represented upon the featliered 
stems. Tlie term indicates tlie night visions which attend 
or belong to these symbolic objects, the feathered stems. 



<' Here the Hakn are laitl at ceremouial rest. See pages 1 11-116. 



FLETCHER] NINTH KITUAL 119 

492 Ruliurihi hitkasharu! 

ruhurihi, a command, a call; "let it be so!" 

hitkasharu. See line 491. 
•493 Ruhurihi! See line 49-'. 

494 See line 492. 

495 See line 493. 

Explanaiion by the Ku'ralms 

We sing about the visions which the birds on the feathei-ed stems 
are to bring to the Children. 

Visions come from above, they are sent by Tira'wa atius. The 
lesser powers come to us in visions. We receive help through the 
visions. All the promises which attend the Hako will be made good 
to us in this way. 

Visions can come most readily at night; spirits travel better at that 
time. Now when we are met together we, the Fathers, call upon the 
visions to come to the Children. 

The spirits of the birds upon the feathered stems .join our spirits 
in this call to the visions. That is what the words of this stanza 
mean. We sing it four times as we make the first circuit of the 
lodge. 

When we reach the west we pause. 

Trdiisluiion of Second Stanza 

496 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

497 Hitkasharu ! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

498 Weri rawha hitkasharu! 

weri, they. 

rawha, are coming. 

hitkasharu, tlie visions which attend the Hako. 

499 Weri rawha! See line 498. 

500 See line 498. 

501 See line 499. 

Explanation hij the Ku'rahi 

As we go around the lodge the second time we sing tliis stanza. 

The visions have heard the call of the spirits of the birds upon the 
feathered stems, joined to the call of our spirits, and they are 
descending by the east from their dwelling place above, and are com- 
ing toward the lodge. 

We sing "Thej' are coming," and the Children join in the song, as 
we pass around and wave the feathered stems. 

When we reaeli the west we pause. 



120 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. Ann. 22 

Transhition of Third Stanza 

50-2 IIo-o-o-oI An iutroductoiy exclamation. 

503 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 401. 

504 Weri whicha hitkasharu ! 

weri, they. 

whicha, a part of the word rawhicha, arrived, have ai'rived. 

hitkasharu, the visions which attend the Hako. 

505 Weri whicha. See line 504. 

506 See line 504. 

507 See line 505. 

Explanaiion hy the ICu'rahus 

We start on the third cii-cuit of the lodge, singing this stanza. We 
sing it four times. 

The visions have been traveling from the east, whence they 
descended; they have been passing over the quiet earth, coming 
nearer and nearer in answer to our call, and at last they reach the 
door of the lodge. There they pause. 

When we reach the west we pause. We are waiting, all the Chil- 
di-en ai'e waiting. We are thinking of these visions, of the i^lace where 
they dwell, of their coming at our call, of all they are to bring to us. 
Thej^ are holy visions. 

Tranalatinn of Fourth Sta7iza 

508 IIo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

509 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

510 We rahruka hitkasharu ! 

we, a pai't of the word weri, they. 

rahruka, a composite word; rahru, to go through or enter; ka, 
a part of the word akaro, lodge; the word means entered 
and passed through the long passageway that leads into 
the earth lodge. 

hitka.sharu, the visions that attend the Hako. 

511 We rahruka! See line 510. 

512 See line 510. 

513 See line 511. 

Explanation hy the ICn'ralius 

We turn toward the north to make the fourth circuit of the lodge, 
singing this stanza. We sing it four times. 

As we sing the visions touch and cross the threshold and then pass 
down the long passageway leading into the lodge. As we reach the 
west they have entered the lodge. 

Kawas and all the birds have called these visions to bless the Chil- 
dren. The visions have heard, they have traveled far, they have 



FLETCHER] NINTH RITUAL 121 

reached the lodge, and now tliey have entered and are in the presence 
of the Chiklren. 

Kawas now goes to her nest, so we hiy the Ilako down with the move- 
ments and songs which belong to this act," and then we sit down 
behind the Hako and are quiet. 

Perhaps some one of the Children may rise and come to the holy 
place and there lay down a stick, signifying the gift of a horse to the 
Fathers in recognition of their having called the visions which are 
now present. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

514 Ho-o-o-o! An introdnctory exclamation. 

515 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line -iOl. 

516 \Ye rakawa hitkasharu ! 

we, part of weri, they. 

rakawa, walking, moving; conveys the idea of spreading 

tlirough, pervading the space within the lodge, 
hitkasharu, the visions that attend the Hako. 

517 We rakawa! See line 51C. 

518 See line 516. 

519 See line 517. 

Explnnation by the Ku'rahus 

Near midnight the Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief rise and 
take up the Hako, and we go around the lodge again and sing this 
stanza four times. 

As we walk, the visions walk; they till all the space within the 
lodge; they are everywhere, all about us. 

When we reach the west we pause. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

520 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

521 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

522 We riteri hitkasharu! 

we, a part of the word weri, they. 

riteri, touching in different places, touching here and there. 

hitkasharu, the visions that attend the Hako. 

523 We riteri! See line 522. 

524 See line 522. 

525 See line 52.3. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we go around the second time we sing the next stanza four 
times. 

The visions which attend the Hako are now touching the Children, 
touching them here and there and by their touch giving them dreams, 
which will bring them health, strength, happiness, and all good things. 

"See pages lU-Ilfi. 



122 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ank. 22 

The visions toucli all who are in the lodge, so it is a good thing to 
be there, to be touched by the visions. 
At the west we pause. 

Translation of Seventh Stanza 

526 Ho-o-o-o! An iutroductorj^ exclamation. 

527 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

528 We rahwara hitkasharu ! 

we, a part of the word weri, they, 
rahwara, walking away, departing, 
hitkasliaru, the visions that attend the Ilako. 

529 We rahwara! See line 528. 

530 See line 528. 

531 See line 529. 

Explanntion Inj the Ku'rahus 

We go around the lodge for the third tinu^ and sing this stanza four 
times. 

As we sing, the visions are walking away; they have done what 
they came to do; they are now leaving the lodge, and when we reach 
the west the space thej' had filled is empty. 

We pause and we think of the visions goinjf away over the silent 
earth to ascend to their dwelling place. 

Translation of Eighth Stanza 

532 Ho-o-o-o! An introductoiy e.xclanuition. 

533 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

534 Wera rawhishpa hitkasharu ! 

wera, they have. 

rawhishpa, arrived at the ijlace from which the start was 

made, 
hitkasharu, the visions that attend the Hako. 

535 Wera rawhishpa! See line 534. 
530 See line 534. 

537 See line 535. 

Explanation hi/ tlie Kit' rahus 

Once more, for the fourth time, we go around the lodge singing this 
stanza four times. 

As we sing, the visions ascend to their dwelling place; they have 
returned whence they came, to their abode in the sky. 

When we reach the west we lay the Hako down with the songs and 
movements which accompany the act." Kawas rests in her nest. 

One by one the Children go to their homes, and the dreams brought 
by the visions which attend the Hako go with them to make their 
hearts glad. 

a See pages lU-116. 



FLETCHER] 



TENTH RITUAL 



123 



TENTH RITUAL. THE DAWN 

Pakt I. The Birth of Dawn 

Explanaiion hij the Ku'rahus 

As the night draws to a close, the Kuraliiis orders tlie server to 
lift the skins which hanj; at the enter and inner doors of the long 
passageway of the lodge, and to go ontside and watch for the first 
glimmer of light. 

The Kn'rahiis, his assistant, and the chief, sitting behind thellako, 
where thej' lie at rest, look toward the east through the open doorway 
and watch for the first signs of the dawn. 

At the first indication of a change, when the air begins to stir, the 
server comes iu with the tidings, and we rise, take up the Ilako, and 
stand at the west, behind the holy place; there, looking toward the 
east, we sing this song. We sing it slowly and with reverent feeling, 
for it speaks of the mysterious and powerful act of Tira'wa atius in 
the birth of Dawn. 

SONO 

^Vordn (111(1 Music 
M. M. K-llfi. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




^P^E^^ 



shu -ru ti - a 



i; H'A - ti-ra si wha-ta 



-P.l 



IV 



538 


Ho-o-o! 


539 


H'Atira si whata i: 


540 


H'Atira si whata i; 


541 


Eeshurii tiara i; 


542 


H'Atira si whata i. 




II 


543 


Ho-o-o! 


544 


H'Atira ta wata i: 


545 


H'Atira ta wata i; 


546 


Reshitni tiara i: 


547 


H'Atira ta wata i. 




Ill 


548 


Ho-o-o! 


549 


H'Kawas si whata i 


550 


H'Kawas si whata i 


551 


Reshuru tiara i; 


553 


H'Kawas si whata i 



553 


Ho-o-o! 


554 


H'Kawas ta wata i; 


555 


H'Kawas ta wata i; 


556 


ReslittriT tiara i; 


557 


H'Kawas ta wata i. 

V 
Ho-o-o! 


558 


559 


Kawas ti waku ka riki: 


560 


Kawas ti waku ka riki; 


561 


Reshurtt tiara i: 


562 


Kawas ti waku ka riki; 




VI 


563 


Ho-o-o! 


564 


We tatichiri wak ka riki 


565 


We tatichiri wak ka riki 


566 


Reshuru tiara i ; 


567 


We tatichiri wak ka riki 



12-4 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ANN. 22 

VII VIII 

568 Ho-o-o! 573 Ho-o-o! 

569 Piraii si whata i; 574 Pirau ta wata i; 

570 Piiau si whata i; 575 Pirau ta wata i; 

571 Reshnru tiara i; 576 Resliuru tiara i: 
573 Pirau si whata i. 577 Pirau ta wata i. 

Tnnifdation of First Sfatizd 

538 Ho-o-o! An inliodiictory exclamation. 

539 IFAtira si whata i. 

h', the sign of breath, of breathing fortli life. 

atira, mother. The term here refers to ]\Iother Earth, rei^re- 
sented by the ear of corn. 

si, yon; singular number, used in addressing a person. 

whata, arise, move, stir about. The word is used when mak- 
ing a request or a suggestion, not a command. 

i, a part of the word riki, now, the present time. 

540 See line 539. 

541 Reshuru tiara i. 

Reshuru, the Dawn. 

tiara, a birth, a transformation, one forju proceeding from 

anothei'. 
i, i)art of the word riki, now, the present time. 

542 See line 539. 

Ex2Jlanafi(in In/ the Kii'rahus 

We call to Mother Earth, who is represented by the ear of corn. 
She has been asleep and resting during the night. We ask her to 
awake, to move, to arise, for the signs of the dawn are seen in the 
east and the breath of the new life is here. 

H'Atira means Mother breathing fortli life; this life is received 
from Tira'wa atius with the breath of the new-born Dawn. 

Mother Earth is the first to be called to awake, that she may receive 
the breath of the new day. 

Translalinn of Second Stanza 

543 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

544 H'Atira ta wata i. 

h', the symbol of breath, life. 

atira, mother; refers to the earth. 

ta, a personal pronoun referring to atira; she. In the original 

no sex is indicated; there are no pronouns he or she; ta 

applies to either sex. 
wata, has arisen, 
i, a part of the M'ord riki, now, present time. 

545 See line 544. 



FLETCRER] TENTH RITUAL, PART I 125 

546 Reshurii tiara i. 

Resliuru, the Dawn. 

tiara, born. 

i, a part of riki, now, present time. 

547 See line 544. 

Ej-planation bij ihe Ku'rahus 

Mother Earth hear.s the call; she moves, she awakes, she arises, she 
feels the breath of tlie new-born Dawn. The leaves and the grass 
stir; all things move with the breath of the new day; everywhere life 
is renewed. 

This is very mysterious; we are speaking of something \ery sacred, 
although it liaj)pens every day. 

Traiislatioii of Third Stanza 

548 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

549 H'Kawas si whata i. 

h', the symbol of Ijreath, breathing forth life. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, representative of the lesser and 

beneficient j)Owers above, 
si, yoii; a personal i^ronoun, singular nuniljer. 
whata, arise, stir, move about, 
i, a part of riki, now, the present time. 

550 See line 549. 

551 See line 54G. 

552 See line 549. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We call upon Kawas to awake, to move, to arise. Kawas had been 
sleeping and resting during the night. 

Kawas represents the lesser powers which dwell above, those which 
aresentbyTira'waatius tobringushelp. All these powers must a wake 
and arise, for the breath of the new life of the Dawn is upon them. 

The eagle soars where these powers dwell and can communicate 
witVi them. The new life of the new day is felt by these poM'ers 
above as well as by Mother Earth below. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

553 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

554 H'Kawas ta wata i. 

h', the symbol of breath, life. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, representative of the lesser powers 

above, 
ta, a per.son;il pronoun referring to Kawas. 
wata, has arisen. 
i, a part of the word riki, now, the present time. 

555 See line 554. 
550 See line 54(3. 
557 See line 554. 



126 THK HAKO, A I'AWNKE CKREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

JCx^iliiiiiilidii hi/ the Ku'rahus 

Il'Kjiwas lioai's tli<» call and awakes. Now all tlic powers above 
wako and stir, and all t-liinjrs Ixdow wake and slir; the breath of new 
lif<' is everywhere. \\\\\\ llie si<,nis in the east has eonie this new life. 

Triiiislii/iiin I if Fifth SIftnza 

558 Ho-o-o! All iiitrodiu-tory exclamation. 

559 Kawas li wakii ka riki. 

Ivawas, the brown eaii'le, the in1eriue<liar.\' as well as the repre- 
sentative i)f the lesser and beneficent powers above, 
ti, a jiersonal pi-oiioiiii refeiTiiiy to Kawas, singular number, 

sjioken of. 
wakii, speaks. 

ka, a part of the word akaro, lodge; refers to the space 
within th«< hidge about i\w fire. In this instance ka indi- 
cated the holy place set apart for the sacred objects, 
riki, standing; the word iiii])li(>s the ju'csent time. 
5<;0 See line 550. 

5til Reshuru ti;ira i. See line 54fi. 
502 See line 559. 

K.VjtId iiiiliiin hij Ihi Kii'niJixs 

Kawas, llic brown eagle, llic messenger of the i)(>wers above, luiw 
slaiids within the lodg(^ and speaks. The Knralius hears her voice 
as she tells him what the signs in the east- mean. 

She tolls him that Tira wa alius there moves upon Darkness, the 
Night, and causes her to bring forth the Dawn. It is the breath of the 
new-born Dawn, the child of Night and Tira'wa atius, which is felt by 
all the pow<u's and all things above and below and which gives them 
new life for the new day. 

This is the meaning of this stanza. The words of the song do not 
tell all that the .song means; the meaning has been handed down 
from our fathers and taught to the Ku'rahus, who may teach it to 
anyone who is serious-mind(^d and sincerely desires to learn the.se 
sacred tilings. 

TraiisJiiHou of Si.rlh Slau.Zd 

5i)o IIo-o-o! An iiit roduetory exclaniat ion. 

504 We tatichiri wak ka riki. 

W(>, I. 

tatichiri, understand, have knowl(>dge of the ni(>aning. 
wak, a part of the word wakii, speech, to speak, 
ka, a j)art of akaro, lodge: within the lodge. See line 559. 
riki, standing. 

505 See line 504. 

500 Heshurii tiara i. See line 54(). 
507 Se(^ line 5ii4. 



FLETCHER] TENTH RITUAL 1>AKT I lL'7 

Exphtitdtioti III/ till- Kti'niliiis 

In this sfjinzii flu? Kn'rahus answers K;i\vas. lie tells lier that he 
uiulerstamls the words she spoke lo him when standiiiji: thei-e in the 
lodge, that now he knows the meaning; of the signs in the east; that 
night is tlie mother of the day, that it is by the power of Tira'wa 
atius moving on Darkness tliat slie gives birth to tli(> l>awn. 

The Dawn is tlie ehiUl of Tira'wa atius. It gives the blessing of life; 
it eomes to awaken man, to awake Mother Earth and all living things 
that they maj' receive the life, the breath of the Dawn which is born 
of the Night by tlie power of Tira'wa alius. 

Our fathers were taught by Kawas and understood what she told 
them, and what they then learned has been handed down to us. 

Tnui.sJtifion of Seventh Stanza 

568 IIo-o-ol .\n introductoi'v exclamation. 

569 Pirau si whata i. 

pii'au, Tuy son. The term i-efers to the .Son, the person to 
whom the Father has bi-oughl the Hako to establish a 
bond between the two by nu'ans of this ceremony. The 
Son has remaiiu'd in the lodge through the nigiit. 

si, you. 

whata, ari.se. See lim* 5;i9. 

i, a part- of riki; now, present time. 



570 


See line 569. 


571 


See line 546. 


572 


See line 569. 



Explanation hy the Ku'raluis 

We now call u[)on the Son, who has been asleep and resting in the 
lodge, to awake, to move, and to arise, for the east gives signs of the 
birth of the dawn, whose breath is on all things. 

Translation of Kii/lilli Slansa 

57o IIo-o-o! An intn)ductory exelamat ion. 

574 Pirau ta wata i. 

pirau, my .son; the term refei's to the Son. 
ta, a personal proiuiun referring to the Sou. 
wata, has arisen, 
i, a part of riki; now. 

575 See line 574. 

576 See line 546. 

577 See line 574. 

Explanation of the ICu'rahus 

'I'he Son hears the call, lie wakes, he moves, he ri.ses, he looks to 
th<> easi^ and sees the siffus of the dawn. 



128 



THE HAKO, A PAWJIEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. AXX. 22 



Part II. The Mornixo Star and the New-born Dawn 

Explanatidii Inj the Ku'rctlius 

Now all have risen and have received the breath of tlie new life 
just born, all tlie powers aliove, all things below. Kawas has stood 
and spoken in the lodge; the Ku'rahus has heard and understood ; the 
Son is awake and stands with the Ku'rahus awaiting the coming of 
dawn. The Ku'rahus ]>as sent the server outside tlie lodge to watch 
for the morning star. We stand at the west and wait its coming. 
When it appears he sings the following song: 



SONG 

J]'()r<ls (111(1 JIkkIc 



M. M. ^v = 132. 

■ = Pulsation of the voice. 






3r- 



=s=i*ir 



?E»E^ 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Drum. 
Rattles. 



Ho-o-o-o! H'0-))i-rit ri - ra 



sha; H'0-pi-rit ri - ra ri - 




- pi 


- rit ri - ra ri - sba 


« 


_• f n i i 




III 


588 


Ho-o-o-o! 


.589 


Reshuru rira risha: 


590 


Reshuni rira risha; 


591 


Reshuru rira risha; 


592 


Reshuru rira risha. 




IV 


593 


Ho-o-o-o! 


594 


Reshuru ta alirisha; 


595 


Reshuru ta ahrisha; 


596 


Reshuru ta ahrisha: 


597 


Reshuria ta ahrisha. 



I 

578 Ho-o-o-o! 

579 H'Opirit rira risha; 

580 H'Opirit rira risha; 

581 H'Opirit rira risha; 

582 H'Opirit rira risha. 

II 

583 Ho-o-o-o! 
58-i H'Opirit ta ahrisha; 

585 H'Opirit ta ahrisha; 

586 H'Opirit ta ahrisha; 

587 H'Opirit ta ahrisha. 

Translation of Fir ■'it Stanza ^ 

578 H-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

579 H'Opirit rira risha. 

h', the s.ymbol of breath, breathing forth life. 

Opirit, the Morning Star. 

rira, coming; approaching toward one. 

risha, something seen at a great distance; it .seems to appear 
and then to be lost, to disappear. The word conveys the 
picture of a gradual advance, as from a great distance, 
where the object was scarcely discernable, to a nearer 
point of view, but still distant. ' 

580, 581, 582 See line 579. 



FLETCHER] TENTH RITUAL, PART II 129 

ExpJanaiion by the Ku' minis 

We sing this song slowly with reverent feeling, for we are singing 
of very sacred things. 

The Morning Star is one of the lesser powers. Life and strength 
and frnitfnlness are with the Morning Star. We are reverent toward 
it. Onr fathers performed sacred ceremonies in its honor. 

The Morning Star is like a man; he is painted red all over; that is 
the color of life. lie is clad in leggings and a robe is wrapped about 
him. On his head is a soft downj- eagle's feather, painted red. This 
feather represents the soft, light cloud that is high in the heavens, 
and the red is the touch of a ray of the coming sun. The soft, downy 
feather is the symbol of breath and life. 

The star comes from a great distance, too far away for us to see the 
place where it starts. At first we can hardly see it; we lose sight of 
it, it is so far off; then we see it again, for it is coming steadilj' toward 
us all the time. We watch it approach; it comes nearer and nearer; 
its light grows brighter and brighter. 

This is the meaning of this stanza, and the star comes as we sing it 
four times. 

Tronslafinn of Second Stanza 

583 H-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
58-4 H'Opirit ta ahrisha. 

h', the symbol of breath, life. 
Opirit, the Morning Star, 
ta, appi-oaching. 

ahrisha, coming still nearer, but at the same time disappear- 
ing. The word conveys the picture of the morning stai- by 
its increased brilliancj' coming nearer, and then fading, 
disappearing in the light of day. 
585, 58G, 587 See line 584. 

Ex2jlanaiion hy the Kn'rahus 

As we sing this stanza the Morning Star comes still nearer and now 
we see him standing there in the heavens, a strong man shining 
brighter and brighter. The soft plume in his hair moves with the 
breath of the new day, and the ray of the sun touches it with color. 
As he stands there so l)right, he is bringing us strength and new life. 

As we look upon him he grows less bright, he is receding, going 
back to his dwelling place whence he came. We watch him vanish- 
ing, passing out of our sight. He has left with us the gift of life 
which Tira'wa atius sent him to bestow. 

We sing this stanza four times. 
22 ETH— PT 2—04—9 



130 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann. £2 

Tr(tnKlaiion <if Tliird Shuiza 

588 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

589 Resluiru rira rislia. 

Reshuru, the Dawn, 
i-ira, coming toward one. 

risha, something scarcely to be seen because of its distance; 
it eludes, seems to appear and then to disappear. 
590, 5!tl, d'.)2 See line 589. 

Ea'pJunatUm by ihe Ku nihus 

As we sing this stanza we are still standing at the we.st of the 
lodge, looking through the long passageway toward the east. Now 
in the distance we see the Dawn approaching; it is coming, coming 
along the path of the Morning Star. It is a long path and as the 
Dawn advances along this path sometimes we catch sight of it and 
then again we lose it, hut all the time it is coming nearer. 

The Dawn is new born, its breath has sent new life everywhere, all 
things stir with the life Tira'wa atius has given this child, his child, 
whose mother is the Night. 

We sing this stanza four times. 

Tnuislation of Fourth Stanza 

h'X) IIo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
5'.)4 Reshuru ta ahrisha. 

Reshuru, the Dawn, 
ta, approaching, coming. 

ahrisha, coming nearer but only to disappear. The Dawn 
comes nearer, grows brighter, but disappears in the 
brighter light of day. 
595, 596, 597 See line 591. 

E.v phi nation htj the Ku'rahus 

As we stand, looking through the long j)assageway of the lodge, 
watching and singing, we see the Dawn come nearer and nearer; its 
brightness fills the sky, the shadowy forms on the earth are becoming 
visible. As we watch, the Dawn, like the Morning Star, recedes. It 
is following the star, going back to the place whence it came, to its 
birthplace. 

The day is close behind, advancing along the path of the Morning 
Star and the Dawn, and, as we watch, the Dawn vanishes from our 
sight. 

Wc sing this song four times. 



/' 



FLET<'HERl 



TENTH KITI'AL 
Part III. Daylight 

SONG 

IVnrils 1111(1 ^liiftic 



131 



• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed liv Kdwin S. Tracv. 



Ta-he-sha! Ta-he - Hha! Pi- ra- oruxki-rika. Ta-he - slia!.. 

Drum. «.i.i.^. j.i.i.i . ^ 



ei:w tstrtj U Lr U L 



Ta-he - 




oriixki-ri ka. Ta lie-sli; 







Ta 

« 



sha! Ta-he-sha! Ta-he - sha! 

*_r i_r t r tJ f^ ^ i 

I 

.■)9H Tahesha: Tahesha! 

599 Pirao rux kiri ka. Taheshal Tahesha! 

600 Tahesha! Tahesha! 

601 Pirao riix kiri ka. Tahesha! Tahesha! 

602 Tahesha! Tahesha! 

II 

608 Ta ira! Ta ira! 

604 Ira, ta ira! Hern rera, ta ira! 

60.1 Ta ira! Ta ira! 

606 Ira, ta ira! Heru rera, ta ira! 

607 Taira! Ta ira! 

Translafldii of First Stanza 



508 



509 



Tahesha ! Tahesha ! 

tahesha, daylight, the lijiiit of day, befoi-e llie sun i-ises. 
Pirao riix kiri ka. Tahesha! Taheshal 

pirao, child, son. 

rux, let; a command or a bidding, as, let him, or, do this. 

kiri, a part of kiriku, eyes. 

ka, a part of taka, to come out, to be seen by coining ont from 
nnder a covering. The meaning of these words becomes 
clear when the custom of sleeping with the robe over the 
head is remembered; tlie Son is bidden to throw the robe 
off his head and let his eyes be free to behold the day. 

tahesha, the light of day. 

600 See line £98. 

601 See line 590. 

602 See line 508. 



132 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEKEMONY [eth. ann.23 

Explanation hij the Ku'ralius 

We sing this song witli loud voices, we are glad. We shout, " Day- 
light has eonie ! Day is here I" The light is over the earth. As we look 
out through the door of the lodge we can see the trees, and all things 
stand out clearly in the light. 

We call to the Children, we Ijid them awake and throw off the robes 
that covered their heads as thej' slept and let their eyes look out and 
behold the light of day, the day that has come, that is here. 

This stanza is sung four times. 

TraiisJatioii of SecoruJ Stanza 

003 Taira! Ta ira! 

ta, deer, a general term. 
Ira, coming into sight. 

004 Ira, ta ira; heru rera, ta ira. 

ira, ta ira. See line 603. 

heru, there. 

rera, coming. 
COS See line (503. 
G06 See line 604. 
607 See line 603. 

Explanation hij the Kii'rahus 

Still we sing and shout, "Day is here! Daylight has comel" We 
tell the Children that all the animals are awake. The.y come forth 
from the places where they have been sleeping. The deer leads them. 
She comes from her cover, bringing her young into the light of day. 
Our hearts are glad as we sing, "Daylight has come I The light of 
day is here!" 

We sing this stanza four times. 

Part IV. The Children Behold the Day 

SONO 

Woriln and Miisir 
M. M. ^N = 160. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ho-oo! Rux ki - ri ku, lii-ra-ti lia - o! Rii.xkirl ka, bi-ra-ti ba- 



Diutn. ^ , i , i, (r.,^,^ f • r • f • ^ 



11 



mm^i^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



o! Pi-ra - o ra-ti ha - o; Ru.K ki-ri ka, lii-ra - ti ba - ol 





II 


613 


Ho-o-o! 


614 


Ti kiri ka, hirati hao! 


615 


Ti kiri ka, liirati hao! 


616 


Pirai) rati hao; 


617 


Ti kiri ka. Ha! Wita hesha! 



FLETCHER] TENTH KITUAL, PART IV 133 

I 

608 Ho-o-o! 

609 Riix kiri ka, hirati hao! 

610 Rnx kiri ka. hirati hao! 

611 Pirao rati hao: 
613 Rnx kiri ka, hirati hao! 

Translaiion of First Stanza 

608 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

609 Rux kiri iia, liirati hao! 

rux, a command, let him now. 

kiri, a part of the word kirikn, eyes. 

ka, a j)art of the word taka, to become visible, to come out. 

hirati, my or mine. The common word is kurati; the ku is 
changed in this eei-emony to the asjiirate syllable hi, mak- 
ing the word hirati. The idea of breath, as significant of 
life, is united to desire in the change from ku to lii, in 
this word meaning my. 

hao, offspring, my own child. 

610 See line 609. 

611 Pirao rati hao. 

pirao, child, a general term, 
rati, my, mine, 
hao, offsj^ring. 
G12 See line 609. 

Explanation hij the Ku'rahvs 

In this stanza the Son (pirao), the man who is not of our kindred, 
but who through this ceremony is made as our offspring, our own son 
(hao), is commanded by the Ku'rahus to go forth and arouse the Chil- 
dren, to bid them awake, and open their e.yes to behold the light 
of day. 

The Son, who with the Ku'rahus has been watching for tlie dawn, 
receives the order and sends his messengers to the lodges of his n-la- 
tives to arouse them from sleej). 

This is done that the Children may be in readiness to come to the 
lodge before the sun is above the horizon. 

This stanza is sung four times. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

613 Ho-o-o! jVn introductory exclamation. 

614 Ti kiri ka, hirati hao! 

ti, he. 

kiri, a part of the word kiriku, eyes. 

ka, a part of the word taka, to become visible, to be seen. 

hirati, my or mine. See explanation of the word in line 600. 

hao, offspring, my own child. 

615 See line 614. 



134 THE HAKd, A TAWNKE CEKE>I< )NY [eth.ann. 22 

OKI Pirau rati liao. 

pii'ao, child, a general term, aiiyhody's child. 

rati, a part of the word liirali, my. 

hao, iny own child. 
617 Ti kiri ka. Ha! Wita licsiial 

ti kii-i ka. See line 614. 

hal behold! 

wita, coming. 

hesha, a j)art of liic word lalK'.'^ha, dayli.niit. 

E.vphtmitioii hi/ thr KiirnJins 

Wiiile tile mcssengei-s are uiiiiin' fi-om one lodge 1o another toa wake 
the i^eople and bid them come to the lodge where the ceremony is 
being performed, we sing this .second stanza. 

It tells that the Son, now become as our own offspring, has gone 
forth to awake the Children, wlio have heard his call, and now. lieliold ! 
they come forth to look upon the liu'ht of <lay. 

This stanza is sung four times. 

EIjEVEXTH KITIAI. (SE('(iNr> DAV). THE MALE ELEMENT INVOKED 
P.\KT L C'HA.NT To THK SUX 

ExphMuilinii 111/ /III Kn'riiJiiis 

On tliis, the second day of the ceremony, wc remember our father 
the Sun. The sun comes directly from Tira'wa atius, and whoever is 
touched l)y the first vays of the sun in the morning receives new life 
and strength which have been brought straight f I'om the power above. 
'I'he lirst rays of the sun are like a young man, they have not yet 
si)ent their force or grown old, so, to 1)e touched by tliem is to receive 
an accession of strength. 

Tlie door of the lodge wiiere the ceremony is iierfornicd must face 
the east, so that the first rays of the sun can enter and reach the 
C'hildren. I ]>elieve that as we sing this song and as the first rays 
touch the Children they will receive help and strength. I was told by 
my i)reilecessor that it would lie so, and he was taught by tliose ^^•ho 
ha<l rec(dved the knowledge from the fathers ; therefore I tell the same 
to the Children. All the time I am singing this song I remember the 
Sun, liie Moon, the Stars, the Corn; all tliese were made by Tira wa 
jitins. and 1 ask them to give us success and plenty; success in hunt- 
ing; and in war; plenty of food, of children, and of liealth. 'I'he Sun, 
tile .Moon, the Sfai-s, the Corn, are powerful. 

The ChildreiL who have been aroused by the juessengers of the Son, 
gather at the lodge before tlie sun is n\). They must be there when 
the first ray appears if they would gain its blessing. 

.Vs soon as we who are standing at the west of the lodge, looking 
through the doorway, catch sight of the first ray of the sun on the 
hori/.oii, we take up the Hako and move by the north to make a tii-st 
circuit of the lodge, and sing tiu> first verse of this chant. 



FLETCHER] 



ELEVENTH KITUAL, PART 1 

CHANT 

IVor.ls a)i(l ^[ll.•^^c 



135 



M. M. S = 120. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed l>v Edwin S. Tracr. 



rc^^E^^^^n^ii^^E 



:5=3.=iE 



»—'-m—m—m- 

Ho-o-ol Hi-ra ii'A-ars i - ra - a, were liu-ka-wi, hu-ru kaha-a 

Drum, mmimmttm «««• «<««««• ««•<« 

Rattles. L- 1^ ^ ^. b_ >^ ^ ^ L— ' i . 



5=i-3= 



« — * 



35^ 



-w' » « » •— 



hu-ka-wi, liii - ni ka liu-ka-\vi, liu - ka - \vi lui - rii ka ha. 

L__* * r • ' f r f_* f * J 1 i i 

I 

Gl.S Ho-o-ol 

019 Hira h'Aars irr.-a. \\we liukawi. liuru ka lia-a hnkawi. linrn ka iiukaw'i. 
luikawi htirn ka ha. 

II 
62(1 Ho-o-o: 

621 Hira h'Aars ira-a. were hiikawi, ta kusi hi-i Imkawi. ta kusi hukawi. 

hukam ta kusi hi. 

Ill 

622 Ho-o-o! 

623 Hira h'Aars ira-a. were hukawi. ta wira ka-a htikawi. ta wira liukawi. 

htikawi ta wira lia. 

ly 

624 Ho-o-o! 

62.5 Hira h'Aars ira-a. were liu'xawi. ka hakidhihi hukawi. ka hakidhihi 
hukawi. hukawi ka hakidhihi. 



626 Ho-o-o! 

627 Hira h'Aars ira-a. were hukawi. ka waraha ha hukawi. ka waraha Imkawi. 

hukawi ka waraha. 

VI 

628 Ho-o-o! 

629 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were Imkawi. ta wara ka-a liukawi. ta wara hukawi. 

hukawi ta wara ha. 

VII 

630 Ho-o-o! 

631 Hira h'Aars ira-a. were hukawi. ta riki hi-i hukawi. ta riki hukawi. liukawi 

ta riki hi. 

VIII 

632 Ho-o-o! 

633 Hira h'Aars ira-a. were hukawi, ta witspa ha-a hukawi, ta witsjia hukawi, 

hukawi ta witspa ha. 



130 THK HAKO, A TAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 2a 

'I'rdiisJiilioii I if FIrsI I V /'.s-e 

618 TIo-o-o! An iiitrothictory cxclaiiialiDii. 

019 Ilira H'Aars ira-a, were liiikawi, liiini ka lui-a liukawi, liuiii ka 
hukawi, hukawi liuru ka Im. 
liira, will come. Tlie word is ira, 1lii' li is added for cnplioiiy 

and greater ease in singing, 
li', the symbol of l)reath, life, brealhiiig forth, giving life. 
aars, a contraction of atius, fatlier. 
ira, will come. 

a, a prolongation of t.lie last syllal>ie of ira. 
were, at tliat time, when, or tlieii. 
liukawi, the my or beam of the snn. 
huru, entering, 
ka, apart of akaro, lodge. Ka, however, refers In liie open 

space within, around the firci)laee, wlierc the jjeople 

gather, where they sit and ])iirsui' tlieir avocat ions. 
lia-a, a prolongation of ka. 
hukawi, huru ka hukawi, hukawi Imiii ka lia. All the word.s 

are translated above. 

E.rpldiKifioH III/ I he Kii'rahus 

We speak of the sun as Father breathing forth life (h'Aars), causing 
the earth to bring forth, making all things to gi-ow. We think of the 
sun, which eouu'S direct froin 'I'ira'wa alius, tlie father of life, and 
his ray (liukawi) as the bearer of this life. ('\'ou liave seen this ray 
as it comes through a little hole or crack.) While we sing, this ray 
entor.s the dooi' of the lodge to bring strength and ])owei' to all within. 

We sing this verse four tiiiu's as we go ar'ouud tlie lodge. \Vhen 
we reach the west we pause. 

Food, which has lieeu i)repared outside tlu^ lodge, is now brought in, 
and tlie Children are given their morning meal. Then we sing the 
second verse. 

Triiiisldtidii of Fifcdtid ]'('rs(> 

()i'n llo-o-ol \n int roductory exclaniat ion. 

<J2I lliia h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta kusi hi-i hukawi, ta kusi 
hukawi, hukawi ta Icusi hi. 

hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line (il'.i. 

ta, a sjtot; the word refers to the place whei'e the ray touches 
and makes a bright s|>ot. 

kusi, alights upon, I'csts upon. 

hi, a part of hira, will come. See line (U'.i. 

i, a ])rolongation of the syllable hi. 

hukawi, the ray or beam of the sun. 

ta kusi hukawi, hukawi ta kusi hi. Tianslated al)ov(». 

K.fjild iidlidn III/ /III Kii' rdliiiN 
As the sun rises higher the ray, wliicli is its messenger, alights 



FLETCHER] ELEVENTH RITUAL, FART I 137 

upon the edge of the central ojieniug in the roof of the lodge, right 
over the fireplace. We see the spot (ta), the sign of its touch, and 
we know tliat tlie ray is there. 

The fire liolds an important jilacc in the lodge; you renieniher we 
sang about it when we were preparing the sacred objects (first ritnal, 
first song, line 49). Father Sun is sending life by his messenger to 
this central i)Iace in the lodge. 

As we sing we look at the briglit sixil where the vny has alighted, and 
we know that life from our father the Sun will come to us by the ray. 

We sing this verse four times, and wlicu we liave completed the sec- 
ond circuit of the lodge and ha\'e I'eached tlie west we pause. 

Tniiishitioii tif Tliird \'erse. 

(>-2i IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

62;3 Ilira li'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta wira ka-a luikawi, ta wira 
hukawi, hukawi ta wira ha. 

hira li'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line 019. 

ta, the spot, the place that is touched by the ray 

wira, climbing down, descending into. 

ka, a part of tlie word akaro, lodge. 

a, a vowel prolongation. 

hukawi, the ray or lieaui. 

ta wira hukawi, luikawi ta wira. Translated above. 

ha, a vocable to fill (nit the measure. 

EjcpJiuiatinn hij Ow Kn'rahus 

As the sun rises higher we turn toward the north and begin the 
third circuit of the lodge. The ray is now climbing down into the 
lodge. We watch tlie spot where it has alighted. It moves over 
the edge of the opening above the fireplace and descends into tlie 
lodge, and we sing that life from our father the Sun Mill come to us 
by his messenger, the ray, which is now climbing down into I lie sjiace 
witliin the lodge where we are gathered together. 

We sing this verse four times, and after the third circuit wc jjause 
at the west. 

Trandutiuti uf Fourth Verse 

624 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

625 Ilira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ka hakidhilii hukawi, l<a haki- 

dhiki hukawi, hukawi ka hakidhilii. 
hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. Set^ line (jl'.i. 
ka, a part of the word akaro, lodge, particularly the space 

within the lodge, about the fire, 
hakidhiki, walking, moving about the room, the open space 

within the lodge, 
hukawi, th(^ ray. 
ka hakidhiki hukawi, hukawi ka hakidhiki. Ti-anslated above. 



138 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

Ejcpldtiiiiiiin III/ the ICii' rrihii.s 

When the spot wh»}i-e tlie ray has alighted reaches the floor, we 
turn toward the north and begin the fourth circuit of the lodge. 

Now the spot is walking here and there within the lodge, toucliing 
different places. We know that the ray will bring strength and 
power from our father the Sun as it walks within the lodge. ( )ur 
hearts are glad and thankful as we sing. 

When we reach the west the fourth circuit is completed. Then 
we lay the Ilako down upon the holy place and sing the songs which 
tell what that act means." 

The first four verses of this chant are sung in the morning; they 
follow the movements of the ray. WIumi the spot has reached the 
floor we stop singing and do not begin again until the afternoon, so 
that our song can accompany the ray as it leaves the lodge, touches 
the hills, and finally returns to the sun. 

^Vll through the ceremony we must be careful as to the time when 
we sing the songs, for each has its own time of day. If we do not 
observe this teaching of our fathers we shall fail to receive the benefits 
of tlie ceremony. 

Between the two parts other songs caii l)esung; it will not interfere 
with this chant to the Sun. 

Traiislafioii of Fifih Yerstf 

020 lio-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

627 Ilirah'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ka waralia ha hukawi, ka waiaha 
hnkiiwi, hukawi ka waraha. 
hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line Ol'.i. 
ka, a part of the word akaro, lodge, the space within. 
waraha, walked here and there, in ditfei'ent parts of the lodge, 
ha, a repetition and jjrolougation of the last syllable of waraha. 
hukawi, ka waraha hukawi, hukawi ka waraha. Translated 
above. 

Explunutiun by /lii^ Kit'rahuti 

In the afternoon when we observe that the spot has moved around 
the lodge, as the sun has passed over the heavens, we sing the fifth 
verse. The I'ay has touched the Children and all of us as it has 
walked here and there in different parts of the lodge. It has brought 
strength to us from our father the Sun. 

We sing the verse four times as we make the first circuit of the 
lodge, and we pause when the west, is reached. 

aSee pages 111-116 for these songs. 



FLETcHKic) ELEVKNTH RITUAL, PART 1 139 

Trunlaiidii of Sixth Verse 

(il'S IIo-()-(i1 Au intruductoi'y exclamation. 

GiM) J lira h'^Vars ira-a, were linkawi, ta wara ka-a hukawi, Ta wara 
liukawi, hukawi ta wara ha. 

liira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. J^ee line Ol'.i. 

ta, the spot, the place where the ray touches. 

wara, climbing up, ascending. 

ka, a part of akai'O, lodge, the space witliin tlic lodge. 

a, a vowel jjrolongation. 

hukawi, ta wara hukawi, hukawi ta wara. Translated al)ove. 

ha, a vocable to fill out the measure. 

Explannfioii htj the Kii nihiis 

After a little time we see the sjjot leave the floor of the lodge and 
climb i-p toward the opening over the fireplace, where it ha<l entered 
in the morning. As we see it climbing up out of the lodge and leav- 
ing us we sing this verse four times. 

We reach the west at the completion of the second circuit of tiie 
lodge, and there we pause. 

Transldti'tii of Sen iifh Vi-rse 

(!;5ii IIo-o-ol An introductory exclamation. 

G31 Ilira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta rilvi lii-i liukawi, ta riki 
hukawi, hukawi ta riki hi. 

hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line (il!). 

ta, the spot, the place touched by the ray. 

riki, standing. 

hi, a part of hiri, will come. See al>ove. 

ij a vowel prolongation. 

hukawi, ta riki hukawi, htikawi ta riki hi. 'I^ranslated above. 

Explanation htj the Ku'rahiis 

Later, when the sun is sinking in the west, the land is in shadow, 
only on the top of the hills toward the east can the spot, the sign of 
the raja's touch, be seen. Then we sing this stanza as w(> go around 
the lodge the third t-ime. 

The ray of Father Sun, who breathes forth life, is standing on tlie 
edge of the hills. We remember that in the morning it had stood on 
the edge of the opening in the roof of the lodge over the fireplace; now ' 
it stands on the edge of the hills that, like the walls of a lodge, inclose 
the land where the people dwell. 

When the third circuit of the lodge is completed we again i)ause at 
the west. 



140 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH, ANN. 22 



Translation of Eighth Verse 

632 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

633 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukaMi, ta witspa ha-a hukawi, ta witspa 

hukawi, hukawi ta witspa lia. 
hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line 619. 
ta, the spot, the place touched by the ray. 
witspa, destination, the end of a journey, a completion, 
ha-a, a prolongation of the last syllable of witspa. 
hukawi, ta witspa hukawi, hukawi ta witspa ha. Translated 

above. 

Explanation hy tht Ku'rahus 

When the spot, the sign of the ray, the messenger of our father tlie 
Sun, has left the tops of tlie hills and i^assed from our sight, we sing 
this verse as we make the fourth circuit of the lodge. 

We know that the ray which was sent to bring us strength has now 
gone back to the place whence it came. We are thankful to our father 
the Sun for that which he has sent us by his ray. 

At the west we lay the Hako down to rest and sing the songs which 
belong to that action." 

Part II. Day Songs 

E.rptanation by tlie Ku'rahus 

We sing each stanza of the two following songs four times, and we 
make four circuits of the lodge, one stanza to a circuit; then we lay 
the Ilako down to rest witli songs tliat belong to that act." 



SONG 

Words and 3Iusic 



M. M, N = 112. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracv. 




Ha-a-a-a! Ha! Re-ri-re-a-wa; Hal Re-ri-re-a-wa.pi-raski Ka si - ri hii-ra! 



Drum. ;««( ««•« a* •*«• •••• •« m m * f 

Rallies '„ '^ L_' ^ ^ im^ ^' b— ^^ ^' t— ' I— I 



■m- 

Hal Re- 

L- i 

634 
635 
636 

637 
638 
639 



ri • re-a-wa; Ha! Re-ri - rea-wa, pi-ras-ki 

• • f » •••• f» i • 

I 



ka si - ri hu-ra! 



Ha-a-a-a I 

Ha! Rerireawa; Hal 

Ha! Rerireawa: Ha! 

Ha-a-a-a! 

Ha! Rerireawa: Ha! 

Ha! Rerireawa; Ha! 



Rerireawa. piraski ka .siri hitra! 
Rerireawa. piraski ka siri hura! 

II 

Rerireawa. piraski kat tsiri liuwa! 
Rerireawa. piraski kat tsiri huwa! 



a See pages 111-116 for these songs. 



FLETCHER] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART II 141 

Translation of First Stanza 

63-4 Ha-a-a-a! An introdiietory exclamation. 

635 Ha! Rerireawa ; Hal iterireawa, piraski ka siri hura. 

ha! an exclamation directing attention; in this instance, hark! 

listen ! 
rerireawa, the sound made by the flapping of wings, as in the 

alighting of birds, 
piraski, boys. 

ka, now, a form of command, 
siri, you. 
hui"a, come. 

636 See line 635. 

Explanation hij the Ku'rahiis 

This song likens the bustle and stir of the Hako partj' as it comes 
into the village to the flapping of the wings of a flock of birds as they 
come to a place and alight. It refers also to the birds represented on 
the feathered stems — the eagle, the duck, the woodpecker, and the owl. 
The noise of the wings of these birds is what is meant, for they are 
moving with the Fathers toward the Children. 

In this stanza the Fathers speak : ' ' Hark to the sound of wings ! The 
Hako is here. Xow, boys, you are to come forward!" That is, the 
Children are now to send their gifts of ponies to the Fathers as a 
return for the x)romised good brought to them by the Hako. The 
ponies are always led up to the Fathers by a small boy, the child of 
the man making the gift. 

Tninslation of Second Stanza 

637 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

638 Ha! Rerireawa; Ha! Rerireawa, piraski kat tsiri hiiwa. 

ha! hark! listen! 

rerireawa, the sound of the wings of birds as they alight. 

iMraski, boys. 

kat, come, the response to the command ka, come. 

tsiri, we. 

huwa, go. 

639 See line 638. 

Explanafitni tnj the Kii'rahus 

The second stanza is a response to the call made by the Fathers. 
The people in the camp say, "Hark! The Hako comes. Now we go 
to meet the Fathers with our gifts." 



142 



THE HAKo. A PAWNKE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. •?2 



SONG 

TT7;/v/s (I7vl Jfil.sic 
II. M. ^S - -132. 

. = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribetl liv Edwin S. Tracy. 

Ho-o-o-ol I-vil Ila ko ti-we ra-tu li wi-clia; I-ri! Ha-ko ti-\ve ra-tu ri wiclia; 

Drum •«•«•#•• am » m » «•«« •• «« mm 

Rattles. L.' U L— '„-^ LJ '>^ _ '-J L_' I— ! LJ Lj 



^ 



'^m 



=^ 



^mm^^^m^^^^^i^^ 



we ra-tu ri wi-cha; 



I - ri! Ha-kn 



L- is '.-J L-; 



ti - we ra- tu ri wi-cha. 

Lj 5 n I 



I 



lUO Ho-o-o-o! 

(541 Iril Hiiko tiwe ratii ri wkha; 

642 Iri! Hakfi tiwe ratii ri wiclui: we rafu ri wiclia; 

643 Iril Hako tiwe r-atu ri wicha. 

II 

644 Ho-o-o-o! 

645 Iri! Hako tiwe riii> Icori wiclia: 

646 Iri! Hako tiwe rns kori wiclia: we rns ki iri wicha: 

647 Iri! Hako tiwe rns kori wiclia. 

'fn.ui.shifidii (if First Shiiizd 

<Un H(>-()-()-((! All introductory exclamation. 
i>41 Iril Hako tiwe ratii ri wiclia. 

iril a part of iiawairi! an exclamation of i liankfnliie.ss, of urati- 
tude, of coufldence. 

Hako, the general term for the symlxilic objects peculiar to 
llii.s ceremony. 

tiwe, have. 

ratn, to me; 

ri. iiKidified from the word tara, to bring. 

wiclia, reache(l a destination, arrived. 
^'A-2 Iii! Ilako tiwe ratn ri wicha; we ratu ri wi<'ha. 

Iril Ilako tiwe ratn ri wicha. See line 041. 

we, a part of the word tiwe, have. 

ratn ri wicha. See line 641. 
643 See line 041. 



FI.ETIHEHJ KLEVKNTH KTITAL, PART 11 143 

K-riihiii<iii(iii III/ till Kil rilhil.s 

In l!ip tii>t stanza tlie Ftitliers speak. They tell the Children that 
with the Ilako comes the i)romise of good. For this tlianks are given 
to Mother Corn, who lias led lis to the iSon, and also to the birds upon 
the Hako, which cojne from Tira'wa atiiis and make us father and son. 

Tninshd ion (if Second Sfanza 

ti44 llo-o-o-o! All iiii rodnutory exclamation. 
645 Iril llako tiwe ins kori wiclia. 

iri I a part of iiawairil an exclamation of thanivfuluess. 

Ilako, tlie"symbolic objects p(><-nliar lo this ceremony. 

tiwe, have. 

rus, a inodilied form of the woi-cl wasu, you. 

kori. Villi briiiii'. The woi-d implies that wliat yon bring is 
something that is yours, oi' something over which \'on have 
conti'ol. 

wiclia. reached a destination; arrived. 
fi-li'i Iril Ilako tiwe rus kori wicha, we rus kori wicha. 

Iiil Ilako tiwe rus kori wicha. See line 045. 

we, a part of the word tiwe, have. 

ins kori wicha. See line <)45. 
|J47 See line 045. 

Exphniiition hij fhf Ku riihns 

In the second stanza the Children respond. They thank the 
Fathers for liringing the Ilako, and they thank all the powers repre- 
sented on the Ilako. Their hearts aiv glad, for they are to be as 
sons. 

I have explained to j-ou that there are certain songs to be sung at 
certain times and in a fixed order, but there are not enough of these 
songs to fill all the time of the ceremonj-. 

It may be that the Children who wish to make presents will ask 
the Fathers to sing for them, and there are several songs that can 
be sung at such times. 

All songs must be chosen in reference to the time. Songs of the 
visions can only be sung at night. Songs like the following one of 
Mother Corn can be sung in the daytime, and in the night after the 
day when we sing of the earth and have bad the sacred corn cere- 
mony, but can not be sung in anj- other night. None of these extra 
songs can interrupt tliose which have a fixed sequence. 



144 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



EXTKA DAY SONG 

Words unci Music 



M. M. J- 116. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed hy Edwin R. Tracy. 



m^^^i^^=^^ 



^ 



3=3= 



■T 1 



Ho-o-o-o! H'A-ti-ral II'A-ti-ra 

Routes, r 1 r r I 



■ll 



IT'A-ti-ra! Ki - ra i - tsi. 

i . a . ; f i 



P 



=3=3- 



*3= 



E^i=i=i=3z 



m 



H'A-ti - ra!.... 

r r 



H'A-ti - ra! 



Ki - ra i - tsi 

r r r 
I 



wa - na - ra. 

r 1 - 



648 Ho-o-o-o! 

649 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. 
6.50 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi wahara. 

n 

651 Ho-o-o-o! 

653 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. 

653 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi wahara. 

in 

654 Ho-o-o-o! 

655 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. 

656 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi wehitshpa. 

IV 

657 Ho-o-o-o! 

658 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. 

659 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi wehitshpa. 

Tnnisliiiidn 

I 

G48 IIo-o-o-ol An introductory exclamation. 
fj4!) H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. 

ir, tlif sj-mbol of breath, life. 

atira, mother. The term refer.s to the corn. 

kira, now, at this time, under these conditions. 

itsi, let tis. 
H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi wahara. 

H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. See line 640. 

wahara, go. , 



(;.5( 



FLETCHER] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART II 145 

II 

651 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
G5i H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. 

h'Atira. See line 640. 

kira, now. 

taisi, we are. 

653 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi wahara. 

H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. See lines 649, 652. 
wahara, go, going. 

Ill 

654 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

655 See line 649. 

656 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi wehitshpa. 

H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. See line 649. 
wehitshpa, to approach one's destination, the object of one's 
journey, or the end sought after. 

IV 

657 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

658 See line 652. 

659 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi wehitshpa. 

H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. See lines 649, 652. 
wehitshpa, to approach one's destination. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahu,^ 

This song is a prayer to Mother Corn to give life and plenty to us 
all, and to make strong the bond lietween the Fathers and the Chil- 
dren, by the power granted to her by Tira'wa atius. 

In the first stanza we ask Mother Corn, who breaths forth life and 
gives food to her children, to lead us to the Son. 

In the second stanza we sing that she consents, and we start upon 
our way with our mother. 

In the third stanza we ask Mother C'orn if we are drawing near to 
the Son. 

In the fourth stanza we see our journey's end; we are approaching 
our destination, led by her who breathes forth life to her children. 

We sing each stanza four times and make four circuits of the lodge 
as we sing this song; at the west we pause and tliere lay down the 
Hako upon the lioly place, singing as we do so the songs which belong 
to that action." 

« See pages 111-116 for these songs. 
22 ETH— IT 2—04 10 



146 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



lETH. ANN. 22 



EXTRA DAY SONG 

Worilf^ and 21 u sic 
M. M. s = n6. 

• = Pulsation of the rolce. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



s;?i£g=ai3 



"^^sss^^ ^^ 



Ho-0-0 o! 



Ki ru-ni lii? 



Ki ni-ra - a, ki ru-ra-a, 



ki rn - i-:i - a lii ? 



Drum. 
Rattles. 



titi L_' LJ tj !_' -J \-J LJ !_' '— 



-m-^-i^S- 



-^'---"^ ^3_^3__^J: ^. 

Ki 111 - ra lii? Ki ru - ra - a, ki rii - ra - a hi? A - ru - sha - ha? 

r r i_j I ' i ' i ^ t_J Lj' f "^ -i i 

I II 

6G0 Ho-o-o-nl (566 Ho-u-o-ol 

661 Ki rnra hi? 667 Iru ra-a: 

663 Ki rura-a. ki rnra-a. ki mra-a lii? '56S Iru ra-a, iru ra-a. irn ra-a hi; 

663 Ki rura hi? 669 Irn ra-a: 

664 Ki rura-a. ki rura-a hi? 670 Irn ra-a. irn ra-a hi: 
66.5 Arnshaha? 671 Am:<haha. 

Tnnishitkut 
I 
OGO ITo-o-o-uI An iiilroduetory exclaiuation. 
001 Ki rura lii? 

ki? where? ii question. 

rura, moving, traveling. 

hi, a part of the word arushahi, arushaha, horse. 
66- Ki rura-a, ki rura-a, ki rura-a hi? 

ki rura. See line 061. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ki rura-a, ki rura-a hi. See lines 001. 00i\ 
6ij:5 See line 001. 

004 Ki rura-a, ki rura-a hi? See line 001. 
00.5 Arushaha? Horse. 

Transldtioii af Seen ml Sf<ni.z(i 

II 

600 Ho-o-o-ol An intrdductoiy exclamation. 
607 Iru ra-a. 

iru, j'Ondei- moving. 

ra, coming this way. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

668 Iru ra-a, iru ra-a, iru ra-a hi. 

Iru ra-a, iru ra-a, iru ra-a. See line 007. 

hi, a part of the word arusliahi, aru,shaha, horse. 

669 See line 667. 

670 Iru ra-a, iru ra-a hi. See lines 667, 668. 

671 Arushaha. Horse. 



FLET<'HEIl] 



ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH RITUALS 



147 



E-.rpldiiiifiiiii III/ llii- Kii' niliii.s 

It may happen during the ceremony that a young- man of the vil- 
lage wlio is not a relative of the Son ma.y desire to lay up for himself 
an honor wlileh will help him to advance his social position in the 
tribe. He mounts a liorse, rides to the lodge, and there makes a gift 
of the animal to the Fathers. On such an occasion this song is sung. 

The words are few, but the meaning of the song has been handed 
down to the Ku'rahus. It is not intended that everyone should know 
all that these songs implj'. 

The first stanza means: Whence has he comeV Where does he go, 
he who rides his horse so fast? Who is the man? 

The second stanza means: He is coming this way on his liorsc He 
is bringing it to the Fathers; he is in earnest to make them a gift. 

TWELFTH RITUAL (SECOND NIGHT). THE RITES CAME BY A VISION 

FIKST SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. ;^-126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S, Tracy. 




=33 



ko - o! 



Wh 



--It- 



mwt 



-J=t)i4zs - J^^s^^^-IeIesz 






tit ka-sha-ni, ha! ki-ra re-hra wi; 

f r I ^ ^ r f f fi 

I 

()72 Ho-o-o-o! 

ai'd Whitit kasliaru. hal kira rehra wi; 

(iT4 Whitit kashartt, hal kira rehra wi: 

675 Ta hao! 

676 Hiri! Hako-o! 

677 Whitit kasharu. hal kira rebia wi: 

678 Ta }iao! 

II 

679 Ho-o-i>-o! 

680 Kutit kasharii. hal kira rehra wi: 

681 Kutit kasharti. ha! kira rehra wi: 

682 Ta hao! 

68::J Hiri! Hak<i-(i! 

084 Kutit kasharu. lial kira rehra wi: 

68r) Ta hao! 



Ta lia-ol 



148 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. akn. 22 

Translation of First Stanza 

672 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

673 Wliitit kasharu, ha I kira rehra wi. 

whitit, it is believed, it is supposed. The word implies a ques- 
tion with the desire to know the truth of the ])elief. 

kasharu, a composite word; ka, from rotkaharu, night; sharu, 
dreams, visions. 

ha! behold! 
I kira, accomplished or brought to pass. 

' rehra, I hold standing; present tense. 

wi, from wirit, an article swinging. The word tells that the 
article which the jjerson stands holding is swinging in his 
hand ; this refers to the rhythmic swaying of the feathered 
stems during the singing of the songs of the ceremony. 

674 See line Cu'-\. 

675 Ta hao ! 

ta, a part of kutati, my. 

hao, offspring; my own child. The term refers to the Son. 
670 lliri! Ilako-o! 

hiri! give heed; liarken. 

Hako-o; Hako, the sacred articles of tne ceremony; o, vowel 
prolongation. 
677 See line 673. 
67S See line 075. 

Explanation by tlie Kn'ralnis 

This stanza asks about tlie origin of the llako, about the account 
which has come down to us that the Hako and its ceremonies were 
sent by the powers above to our fathers through a vision. 

We have been tauglit that in a vision our fathers were told how to 
make the feathered stems, liow to use them, how to swaj' tliem to the 
songs, so that they should move like the wings of a bird in its flight. 
It was in a vision that oxir fathers were told how they could cause a 
man who w;is not their bodily offspring to become a Son, to be bound 
to them by a tie as strong as the natural tie between father and son. 

For this knowledge our fathers gave thanks and we give thanks, 
for by this ceremony peace and plenty, strength, and all good things 
come to the people. 

Tninstotion of Second Stanza 

6711 IIo-o-o-o! An iiitroductory exclamation. 
680 Kutit kasharu, ha I kira rehra wi. 

kutit, it is; an assertion. The word gives a definite answer to 
the implied question in the first word of the first .stanza, 
whitit. The belief, the supposition, is declared to be the 
truth, 
kasharu, ha! kira rehra wi. See line 673. 



FLETCHER] 



TWELFTH RITUAL 



149 



681 See line 680. 

682 See line 675. 

683 Hiri! Hako-o! See line 676. 

684 See line 680. 
68.5 See line 675. 

E.rplrnnttion htj the Kn'ralms 

This stanza tells the Cliildren that it is true that tlie knowledge of 
this ceremony was i?iven to our fathers by the powers above through 
a vision. We speak of the vision as kasharu, because visions are apt 
to come in the night when all is still; they then descend, pass over 
the earth, and come to man. 

This stanza also tells that the man to whom we have brought the 
Hako is to be made a Son in the way our fathers were directed in the 
vi.sion. 

Xone of the songs of this ceremonj^ can be changed; they must be 
sung accurately, just as they have been handed down to us, for the 
words speak of the powers above and their gifts to us, and we must be 
careful of such words. 

SECOND SONG 

Words uiiil Music 



• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed bv Edwin S. TracT. 




Ho-o-o-o! He! Hit-ka -sba-ru; He! Hit-ka - sha- ni; Ta ki - ra ni te • 

Drum i.l.i. % m ^ m m » i t 

Rattles. Cj L- L T '■ ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 



L-T 



- -^ w- ^ .. .. 

lie; HelHit-ka-sha-rii; He! Hit-ka-sba-ru; Ta ki-ra ru te - rn be; 

4^#» •••• f m i m f t ■* m i, t 




He! Hit-ka - sba-rn; He! Hit-ka - gba-rn; Ta ki-ra ni te - rn be. 

C r r f I f i, I I 



I 

686 Ho-o-o-o! 

687 He! Hitkashani: He! Hitkashani 

688 Ta kira ru teru he; 

689 He! Hitkashani; He! Hitkashani 

690 Ta kira ru teni he; 

691 He! Hitkasharu; He! Hitkashani 

692 Ta kira ni teni he. 



150 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



II 



693 


Ho-u-o-ol 






694 


He! Hitkasharn; 


He: 


Hitkasharn: 


695 


Ta kira te ra-a lie : 






696 


He! Hitkasharn: 


He: 


Hitkasharn: 


697 


Ta kira te ra-a he; 






698 


Hel Hitkasharn: 


He: 


Hitkasharn: 


699 


Ta kira te ra-a he. 








Tranda 


ilun 





fisr, IIo-o-o-o! An introductory exelamatioii. 
GS7 He! Ilitkashani; He! Ilitkasliaru. 

he, au exclamation calliuji' attention to a sul)ject or a teachinjj:. 
hitkasharn ; liit, from hittu, feather, referrinji- to the l)ir(l.s that 
attend the Ilako; ha, part of rotkahai'u, night; sharu, 
dreams, visions. This composite word refers to the visions 
or dreams brought liy tlie birds that are associated with 
the Ilako. 
(JS8 Ta kira ru tern lie. 
ta, verily. 

kira, brought to pass, 
ru, it, the rite, or ceremony, 
teru, is; the entire ceremony with its promises 
he, vocable. 
089 See line 687. 

690 See line 688. 

691 See line 687. 

692 See line 688. 

II 

69;j llo-o-o-o! Au introductory exchimation. 
69-t See the first stanza, line 687. 
69.5 Ta kira te ra-a he. 

ta, verily. 

kira, brought to pass. 

te, it; the good promised through the ceremony. 

ra-a, is coming. 

he, vocable. 

696 See line 687. 

697 See line 695. 

698 See line 687. 

699 See line 695. 

Explaiiafioii hij fit' Ku'niliNn 
In this song we are told that verily it is a truth that everything per- 
taining to this ceremony came through a vision. All the good, all the 
happiness that conies to those who take part in these rites have been 
I^romised in a dream, and the dreams which brought this cei-emony 
and its promises came from the east; they always descend from al)Ove 
by that path. 



FLETCHER] 



TWELFTH RITUAL 



151 



Were it not tnie tliat these dreams eome to us and ln-iii^- us all the 
good things promised our fathers, we should long ago luive abandoned 
the Ilako and its ceremonJ^ 

This song says to the Children : "As you listen you will have dreams 
brought you by the birds represented with the Ilako. The visions 
will bring you help; they will bring you happiness. They are coming 
to you from the east." 

SONQ TO THE PLEIADES 

Words and Music 



M. M. ^^ = 116. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



--5- 



IIo-o-o-o! 

Drum, trim 
Hatiles.',— '__ 






Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



—-f^-'i-^ 



AVe 



ta ra-clia; 



We - ta ra 



L-ha; 



We - ta ra-c'lia, 



•('•.„,, 




roo 



701 

70:3 



704 
7(10 
7(iCi 



HatWe-ra; ha 

t ^ i I 



700 Weta racha; ha I 

701 Weta racha: weta racha: 
703 Chaka-a! 

703 Ruto chirao! Ha! Wira; hal 

704 Weta racha; weta racha: 

705 Chaka-a! 

706 Ruto chirao! Ha! Wera; ha! 

Traualafiun 

M'eta i-acha, ha! 

weta, coming, advancing. 

racha, rising, moving upward. 

ha! look! behold! 
Weta i-acha; weta racha; 

weta racha. See line 7(Ht. 
t'haka-a ! The name of the Pleiades. 
Rutochiiao! Ha! Wira, ha! 

ruto, it is. "It" refers to the coming of the constellation. 

chirao, good, well. 

ha! behold! 

wira, wera, them coming. 

ha! behold! 
Weta racha; weta racha; See line 700. 
Chaka-a! See line 702. 
lla! Wera; ha! See line 703. 



152 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE C'EEEMONY [eth. an.n.22 

E.rphuiafion hi/ fhe Ku'rahii.s 

When, during the ceremony of the Ilako, tlie Pleiades appear above 
the liorizon, this song must be sung. If, when the coming of these 
stars is reported, we should be singing, we must break off at the third 
stanza and sing this song for the fourtli circuit of the lodge. 

This song to the Pleiades is to remind the people that Tira'wa has 
appointed the stars to guide their steps. It is very old and belongs 
to the time when this ceremony was being made. This is the story to 
exijlain its meaning which has lyeiMi handed down from our fathers: 

A man set out upon a journey; he traveled far; theu he thought 
he would return to his own country, so he turned about. He traveled 
long, yet at night he was always in the same place. lie lay down 
and slept and a vision came. A man spoke to him; he was the leader 
of the seven stars. He said: "Tira'wa made these seven stars to 
remain together, and he fixed a path from east to west for them to 
travel over. He named the seven stars Chaka. If the people will 
look at these .stars they will be guided aright." 

"When the man awoke he saw the Pleiades rising; he was glad, and 
he watched the stars travel. Then he turned to the north and reached 
his own country. 

The stars have many things to teach us, and the Pleiades can guide 
us and teach us how to keep together. 

"We .sing this song four times as we make the circuit of the lodge; 
then we lay the Hako down to rest upon the Imly place and sing the 
songs which belong to that action. 

T\w following songs can be sung at night after the regular song has 
been completed, if the Children should call for them: 

EXTRA NTGHT SONG 

Words (iivl Miisii- 
M. M. ^ ■= 132. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed b_v Edwin S. Tracy. 






Ho-o-o! Hi-ri! Ka-sha-rii kata-sba-a; ha! Hi-ri! Ka-sha-ra ka-ta-sha-a - a; 

Drum, itatltmt* m » «• ««•*«• •• «• 

Rattles. L L ■ LJ '■ " L-T L^ Lj L— — ' L_; 



=3^Es^=3^:=i-5£ 



^E5E5E^-^^ 



lial Ha-wa! Ka-ta-sba-a; hal Hi - ri! Ka-sha- ru kata-sha-a - a; hal 

't_"t_r t ' Lj* Lj* L-* L_' f •' i i 

I 

707 Ho-o-o! 

708 Hiri! Kasharu katasha-a: ha! 

709 Hiri! Kasharu katasha-a-a: ha! 

710 Hawa! Katasha-a: ha! 

711 Hiri! Ka.sharu katasha-a-a; ha! 



rLETCHEB] TWELFTH RITUAL 153 

II 
713 Ho-o-o! 

713 He! Hitkasham shkataslia-a; ha! 

714 He! Hitkasham shkatasha-a-a: ha! 

715 Hawa! Shkatasha-a: ha! 

716 He! Hitkasliaru shkatasha-a-a; ha! 

Ill 

717 Ho-o-o! 

718 Hiri! Kashani katata-a: ha! 

719 Hiri! Kasharu katata-a-a: ha! 

720 Hari! Katata-a: ha! 

721 Hiri! Kasharii katata-a-a; ha! 

IV 

722 Ho-o-o! 

723 He! Hitkasham shkatata-a; ha! 

724 He! Hitkasham .slikatata-a-a; ha! 

725 Hari! Shkatata-a; ha! 

726 He! Hitkasham shkatata-a-a; ha! 

V 

727 Ho-o-o! 

728 He! Hitshkasharn kitta sha-a; lia! 

729 He! Hitshkasharn kitta sha-a-a; iia! 

730 Hari! Kitta sha-a; ha! 

731 He! Hitshkasham kitta sha-a-a; lia! 

VI 

732 Ho-o-o! 

733 He! Hitkasliaru shkitta sha-a: ha! 

734 He! Hitkasham shkitta sha-a-a: ha! 

735 Hari! Shkitta sha-a; lia! 

736 He! Hitkasham shkitta sha-a-a; lia! 

Translation of 
I 

707 Ho-o-o! An introductory explaiiation. 
70S Hiri! Kasharu katasha-a; ha! 

hiri! an exclamation, give heed! liarken! the word implies 
reverent feeling. 

kasharu; ka, from rotkahai'u, niglit; sharu, vision, dream. 

Katasha, the place where the visions dwell. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behokl! 

709 See line 708. 

710 Hawa! Katasha-a; ha! 

hawa, truly; the word refers to something singular in numbei-. 
Katasha-a; ha! See line 70S. 

711 See line 708. 



154 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEKEMONY [eth. axx, 22 

II 

71- II()-(>-(>! Au introductory exelamatioii. 
71:1 Ilel Ilitkasliaru shkatasha-a; ha! 

lie! au exflaiiiatioii calling attention to a subject or teaching-. 
Ilitkasliaru; liit, from hittu, feather; ka, from rotkaharu, 

night; sharu, dream, vision; the visions In-ouglit by the 

birds of tlie Ilako. 
Slikataslia; sh, a prefix denoting feminine gender; Katasha, 

the place wliere the visions dwell when they are at rest, 
a, ^•o^vel prolongation, 
ha I behold! 

714 See line 713. 

71."i llawal Shkatasha-a; hal See lines 710, 7i:!. 
71 li See line 713. 

Ill 

717 IIo-()-(il An introductory exclamation. 

715 lliiil Kasharu katata-a; ha. 

hiri! liarken ! give heed 1 

kasharu, niglit visions or dreams. See line 70S. 

katata, climbing. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

lia! behold! 
7r.t See line 718. 
7i(i Ilari! Katata-a; ha! 

hari, truly. The word refers to more than one; it is plural. 

katata-a; ha! See line 718. 
721 See line 71S. 

IV 

7-1' llo-o-o! Au iiiti-oductory exclanialion. 
723 lie! Ilitkasharu slikatata-a; ha! 

he! an exclamation calling attention to a teaching. 

Ilitkasharu, feather night dreams. See line 713. 

shkatata; sh, feminine prefix; katata, climbing. The word 
implies that the visions which were climbing were femi- 
nine, those which belonged to the brown eagle feathered 
stem. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 
7-24 See line 723. 
72."> Ilari! Shkatata-a; lia! 

hari, truly. The word is j)lural. 

slikatata-a; ha! Translated above; see line 723. 
720 See line 723. 



FLETCHER I 



TWELFTH RITUAL 155 



727 rio-o-o! An introductoiy exclamution . 

728 lie! Ilitshkushani kitta slia-a; hal 

lie! an exclaination calling attention to a teaehinc;. 
liitslikasharu ; hit, from hittu, feather; sh, feminine prefix; 

ka from rotkaharu, night; sham, dreams, visions. The 

composite word refers to the visions which pertain 1o the 

promises of the I lake ceremony. 
kitta, the top; refers to the locality of Katasha, the dwelling 

place of the visions, 
sha, lying down, as to rest, 
a, vowel prolongation, 
ha! behold! 

729 See line 728. 

730 Hari! Kitta sha-a; ha! 

hari, truh-; plural number, 
kitta sha-a; ha! See line 728. 

731 See line 728. 

YI 

732 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

733 He! Hitkasharu shkitta sha-a; ha I 

he! an exclamation calling attention to a teaching, 
hitkasharu, feather night dreams. See line 713. 
shkitta, sh, feminine prefix; kitta, the top. 
sha, lying down, reposing, 
a, vowel prolongation. ' 
ha! behold! 

734 See line 733. 

735 llari! Shkitta sha-a; ha! See lines 730, 733. 
73G See line 733. 

Explanatinn by the Ku'rahus 

Visions come in the night, for spirits can travel l)etter by night than 
by day. Visions come from Katasha, the place where tln'V dwell. 
This place is up in the sky, just below where Tira'wa atius appointed 
the dwelling place of the lesser powers (eighth ritual, part i, second 
song). Katasha, the place where the visions dwell, is near the dwelling 
place of the lesser powers, so they can summon any vision they wish to 
send to us. When a vision is sent by the powers, it descends and goes 
to the person designated, who sees the vision and hears Mhat it lias to 
say; then, as day approaches, the vision ascends to its dwelling place, 
Katasha, and there it lies at rest until it is called again. 

This song tells about Katasha, where the visions dwell. This is its 
story : 



15fi THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. an-n.23 

A holy man who lived long ago, no one knows how long, for there 
have been many generations since, had a dream. He was taken up to 
the place where all the visions dwell, those that belong to Kawas, the 
brown eagle, and those that belong to the white eagle, the male. 
Wliile he was there the day began to dawn and he saw the visions that 
had been sent down to earth come climbing up, and he recognized 
among them some of the visions that had visited him in the past. 
Then he knew of a truth that all visions of everj' kind dwell above 
in Katasha, and that they descend thence to us in the night, and that 
as the day dawns they ascend, returning to i-est in their dwelling place. 

The holy man made this song al)()ut his dream and told its meaning, 
and the song and the story have been handed down to us that we 
might know where visions come from, where thej' dwell and where 
they go to when they dejiart fi-om us. 

Among the Pawnees thei'c are shrines, in the keeping of certain men, 
which contain ai'ticles that are used in the sacred ceremonies of the 
different bands of the tribe. These shrines are very old, they were 
given by the lesser powei's to our fathers with a knowledge of their 
contents and how to use them. 

An ear of corn belongs to one of the.se shrines. It is a peculiar ear. 
It is white, with perfect and straight lines of kernels, anil there is a 
tassel on its tip. In the fall the priest of the shrine tells the women 
to look carefully for such ears when they gather their corn, for 
Tira'wa causes such ears to grow in the fields for the purposes of 
this shrine and they belong to it. The little tassel on the tip of the 
ear of corn represents the feather worn on the head of the warrior. 
The sacred ear of corn is sometimes borrowed from the priest by the 
leader of a war party. The ear of corn is liorn of Mother Earth, she 
knows all places and the acts of all men who walk the earth, so she is 
a leader. 

SoTnetimes a young man who proposed going to war would request 
the following song to be sung. He desired success and wished Mother 
Corn to lead him. ■ After the Ilako ceremony was over he would 
borrow a sacred ear of corn and put it in a pack which the leader of 
the war party would sling upon his back. When the party was suc- 
cessful, he would thrust into the ground the stick iipon which the ear 
of corn was tied and as this ear stood before him he would give thanks 
to it for having led him in safety. 



FLETCHER] 



TWELFTH RITUAL 



157 



EXTRA NIGHT SONG 

TVorcLs and Music 



M. M. Melody. J =60. 
M. M. Drum. J= 120. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Drum. 2 i 
Battles. 4 » 



Ha - a a - a-a-al A - 

• * ^tr. 




I 

737 Ha-a-a-a-a-al 

738 Atira! Atira hira i; 
789 Hiri! Hiri! Ri whie ri; 

740 Sawi rare ka wara, sawi rare ka wara; 

741 Atira! Atira hira-a. 

II 

742 Ha-a-a-a-a-a! 

743 Hitkasharu, hitkasham. iril 

744 Hiri I Hiri! Ri rai i: 

74.5 Sawi rare ka wara, sawi rare ka wara; 
746 Hitkasharu, hitkasharu. iri! 

Translation 

I 

737 Ha-a-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

738 Atira! Atira hira i. 

atira, mother. The term applied to the ear of corn. 

hira, coming. 

i, it; refers to the corn. 
730 Hiri! Hiri! Ri whie ri. 

hiri! harken! give heed! 

ri, has, possesses. 

whie, it, within itself. 

ri, has. 
740 Sawi rare ka wara, sawi rare ka wara. 

sawi, part of asawiii, a ti-ap or snare. 

rare, it has a likeness to. 

ka, part of akaro, the open space bounded by the horizon. 

wara, walking. 



158 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

7-11 Atira! Atira liira-a. 

Atiral Atira hira. .See line 7:J8. 
a, vowel prolongation. 

II 

742 Ha-a-a-a-a-a I An introdnctorv exclamation. 

743 Ilitkasliaru, llitka.sliaru, ii-il 

hitkasharu, a compo.site word; liit, from liittu, feather; ka, 
from rotkaharu, night; sliarn, dream. The word refers 
to dreams lirought l)y the birds tliat attend the Ilako. As 
the song refers to war, the word refers to the white eagle 
stem, the male, the warrior, the dream that attends that 
eagle. 

iril a part of the exclamation nawairi! expressing thankful- 
ness that all is well. 

744 lliril Iliri! Ri rai i ; 

hiril harken! give heecl! 

ri, has. 

rai, coming; in tlie futui'e. 

i, it. 
74.T Sawi rare ka wara, .sawi rare ka wara. See first stanza, line 740. 
74(j See line 743. 

Expl(in(tfi(in hij till- Kn' riiliii!^ 

There are not many words to this song, but the meaning ami the 
story have been lianded down from our fathers. 

The first stanza tells of a war party wliich started out carrying- 
Mother Corn. As the warriors left the village the old men wi.shed 
them good luck, and said: "Mother Corn will be like a snare to 
entangle the enemy, so that they will fall easily. Mother Corn will 
be like a trap into which tlic enemy will fall and out of which there 
will be no escape." 

The young men started and took a straight course for the enemy's 
country; they knew the land and 1 hey went directly there, but they 
found nothing. They went to the east, there was nothing. They 
turned to the west, there was nothing. They traveled to the noi-th, 
there was nothing. They went to the south, there was nothing. Then 
they made their way back to the point from which they had started 
on the border of the enemy's land. 

The leader said: "I am worn out, our moccasins are in holes, we 
ai-e without food, we must turn back. AVe will return to our home 
tomorrow." 

Tliat night they lay down and slept. The leadei' placed the pack 
with the ear of corn under his head, and witli a heavy heart he fell 
asleep. 

The .secoml stanza tells that in the night the ear of corn spoke to 
the leader in a dream and said: "Tii-a'wa bade me test you, and I 



FLETCHER] TWELFTH RITUAL 159 

have been pnttin.u- yon ou trial. I am able to bring strength to the 
people, the gift of life, and good fortune and success in war. I caused 
all your misadventures that I might try your courage. Now, you 
shall not go home on tlie morrow. If you should, the people would 
saj', 'Mother Coi'u is i)Owerless.' In the morning you must do as I tell 
j'ou. You must go toward the soulheast; there j^ou will come upon a 
village where the people have many ponies; these yoci shall capture 
and return safely and in triumph, and lea.rn that I have power to lead 
to success." 

The leader did as Mother Corn had directed, and everything c^ame 
to pass as she had said. 

This song has uo fixed place in the ceremony but it must be sung 
at night, because the dream came at that time to the warrior. 

The next song is about a man to whom Mother Corn came in a dream ; 
it happened very long ago. The song and the story are very old and 
have come down to us from our fatheis, who knew this ceremony. 

Mother Corn spoke to this man in his dream. We are not told what 
she said to him, but when he awoke he started out to find the man in 
whose keeping was a shrine contaiuing the ear of corn. As he walked 
he met a man and asked him, "Is it far to the lodge where the corn 
is?" The man pointed to a lodge some distance off and said, "It is 
within." Then the man who had had the dream walked toward the 
place. As he entered the lodge he saw a shi'ine hanging on one of the 
IJoles and he asked the keeper if it contained the sacred ear of corn, 
and he was told that it did. Then he took his pipe and offered smoke 
and prayer in the pi-esence of the corn; because Mother Corn had 
appeai-ed to him in a dream and had spoken to him he came to offer 
her reverence. 

EXTRA NIGHT SONG 

Tfc^/v/.s- and ^lusic 
M. M. ,N = 126. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Drum. 
Battles. 






mM 



hi ru - ra e; Kit3 8ti-ra ka-ra-kn - we? Kits Sti-ra ka-ra-ka - we? 

^ ' 1*1* r*,*'*' f • m m ^ m ^ « 






Hi I'U - r-i e; E- ni! Ra lii ra hi ru - ra e. 

Lj t-: i^ L^ L-j LJ t - I I 



160 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

I 

747 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rnra e; 

748 Eru! Ra lii ra hi rura e: 

749 Kits Stira karakawe? Kits Stira karakawe? Hi rura e; 

750 Eru I Ra hi ra hi rura e. 

II 

751 Erul Ra hi ra lii rura e; 
753 Erul Ra hi ra lii rnra e; 

753 Kits Stira karatawi: kits Stira karatawi: hi rura e; 

754 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rnra e. 

Traiislatiun 

I 

747 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rura e. 

eru! an exclamation of reverence. 

ra, part of rura, coming. 

hi, it. 

ra, coming. 

hi, it. 

rura, coming. 

e, vocable. 
7-t8 See line 747. 
74'J Kits Stira karakawe? Kits Stira karakawe? Hi rura e. 

kits, an abbreviation of kerits? is it? 

stira; s, feminine sign; tira, part of atira, mother; refers to 
the ear of corn. 

karakawe? is it inside? 

hi rura e. See line 747. 
750 See line 747. 

II 

751, 752 See the first stanza, line 747. 

753 Kits Stira karatawi; kits Stira karatawi; hi rura e. 

kits? is it? See the first stanza, line 740. 

stira, she who is the mother, the coi-n. See the first stanza, 

line 749. 
karatawi, it is hung up. Refers to the shrine in which the 

sacred ear is kept being hung on one of the posts within 

the lodge of the priest, 
hi rura e, translated above. See the first stanza, line 747. 

754 See line 747. 

Explrni(ttio)i of Kit' rahus 

About niiduight the Children disperse to their homes and all the 
members of the Father's party except those who must remain in the 



FLETCHER] TWp:LFTH AND THIRTEENTH RITUALS Kil 

lodge in clinrge of the Ilako go to their tents. Soon all is quiet witiiin 
tlie lodge, the tire l)uriis down to coals and every one sleeps except 
the man on guard, lie must watch through tlie night and give warn- 
ing of the first sign of a change in the appearance of the east. As 
soon as this is seen the skins that liang over the doors of the lodge 
are lifted and the Ku'rahus makes ready to rejjeat the songs to the 
Dawn (tenth ritual). We sing these sacred songs at the dawn of the 
second day, the day when we chant to our father the Sun, and we 
sing them again at the dawn of the third day, when we sing 1o our 
mother the ICarth. 

THIRTEENTH RITUAL (THIRD DAY). THE FEMALE ELEMENT INVOKED 

Part I. Thk Sacred Feast of Corn 

Explanation by the Ku'rahufi 

With the morning sun the Children gather at the lodge to receive 
their morning meal given them by the Fathers. Soon afterward the 
sacred feast of the Corn takes place. For this feast the Children pre- 
pare the food in the manner our fathers did. The.y pound tlie dried 
corn in a wooden mortar and boil tlie coarse meal until it is thoroughly 
cooked. They do this in their own homes and then carry the food 
in the kettles in which it has been cooked to the lodge where the 
ceremonj- is l)eing performed, and set them near the fireplace toward 
the southeast, where wooden bowls and horn spoons have been pro- 
vided for the occasion. 

When all the companj- have been seated the Fathers ladle out the 
food into the Ixjwls. The Ku'rahus takes up a little of the food on 
the tip of a spoon, offers it toward the east, flipping a particle toward 
the horizon line. He then passes to the north, drops a bit on the rim 
of the fireplace, and goes to the west, wliere, facing the east, he lifts 
the spoon toward the zenith, pauses, waves it to the four quarters and 
slowly lowers it to the earth and drops a bit on the rim of the fire- 
place. After this ceremony of offering thanks the filled bowls are 
placed before the people. Two or more persons take a few spoonfuls 
from the same bowl, then, hanging the spoons on the edge to prevent 
their falling into the food, they pass the boM'l on to the next group 
at the left. In this way all tlie people partake of a common feast. 

Part II. Song to thk Earth 

JExplanati(Jii Inj the Ku'rahus 

On the third day of the ceremonj- it is the duty of the Ku'rahus to 
teach tlie Children concerning h'Uraru, Mother Earth, and of those 
22 ETH— PT 2—04 11 



162 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY Ieth. ann.32 

things which she brings fortli to sustain the life of the people. The 
Ku'i'ahus has i-eceivcd these teachings fi-oiu ohler Ku'rahus, who also 
received them, and so on through generations back to the time when 
they were revealed to oiii' fathers through a vision from the myste- 
rious powers above. A Ku'rahus must devote his lil'e to learning 
these songs and tlieir meaning and llie ceremonies whicli ac-company 
them. He must sf)end much of his time in thinlving of these things 
and in praying to the mighty poweis above. 

The Ku'rahus sj)eaks to the Children and tells tliem that Tira'wa 
atius is the father of all things. Then the feathered stems are taken 
up and we sing again the song which we sang the first day before the 
Children had partaken of 1-lie food prepared for them by the Fathers. 
We sang it then remembering Tira'wa atius, the father of all, of whose 
gift of food we were about to receive. Now we sing it, remembering 
that he is the father of the sun which sends its ray, and of the earth 
which brings forth. 

FIBST SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. J =126. 
• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 







=1= 



! H'A-:irs Ti- ra - wa lia - ki; II'A-ars Ti - ra - \va ba - ki; 

r r r ^ r ^ r P r r I ^ r r r r r 



?3f5=f3^^=i^p^^^^^=g^=^ 



H'A-ara Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; H'A-arsTi-ra-wa ha -ki; 11' Aars Ti -ra-wa ha ki. 

^ r ^ r r r ^rP f f r f r ^rr r M - 

755 Ha-;i-!i-a! 

756 H'Aars Tira'wa haki: 

757 H'Aars Tirawa haki I 

758 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

759 H'Aars Tira'wa haki: 

760 H"Aars Tira wa haki. 

For translation, see eighth ritual, tirst song, p;ige 107. 

Explanation hy fhe Ku'rahus 

On the second circuit of the lodge we sing the song which follows 
the first. It tells us that all the lesser powers are from Tira'wa atius, 
the father of all. As we sing we remember the power given tt) Mother 
Earth. 



FLKTCHEH 



THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 163 

SECOND SONG 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transciibtd by Edwin S. Tracy. 



M. M. J=]26. 



Ha -a - a - a! 

Drum, i e i m 
Matties. I I I I 



II'A- ara e lie! Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; II'A-ar.s e hel 

f r I* r f r f r ^ r f r ^ r ^ r 




Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; 



n'A - ars Ti-ra-wa ha-ki. 



frPr f ff n^ f nr f - I- 



761 Ha-a-a-a! 

763 H'Aars e lie! Tirawa haki; 

763 H'Aars e lie! Tirawa hakl; 

764 Hidhi! Tirawa hald: 

765 H'Aars Tirawa haki. 

For translation, see eighth ritual, second song, page 108. 

Explanation bij the Ku'ralms 

Now we begin the song of Mother Earth, making a circuit of the 
lodge to each of the eight stanzas, but not laying down the Hako at 
the close of the fourth circuit, nor at the end of the song. 

THXRD SONG 

TFo;v/.s- 07(1:7 Mufiic. 



M. M. jN-l?6. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 

A A _ 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



a— 1_ 



'm^g^^mm^^^M^^^^M^^m 



IIo-o-o! I- ri! irU-ra-rii 



Drum, i , i , i 

Rattles. L.' LJ 



ti ra - slia-a; ha I I 

'I I I ~ I 



ril H'U-ra-ru ti ra - sha a; 

U IJ Lj U 



ESk- :s^;==j 









ha! A-wa! Ti ra - slia-a; ha! I - ri! H'U-ra-ru ti ra - sha-a; lia! 

I i 



tj 



U L 



U 



I 



I 



III 



766 
767 
768 
769 

770 

771 
773 
773 

774 
775 



Ho-o-o! 

Tri! H'Uraru ti rasha-a; ha! 

Iri! H'Uraru ti rasha-a; ha! 

Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 

Iri! H'Urarn ti rasha-a; ha! 

II 

Ho-o-o! 

Iri! H'Urarn ko ti sha-a; ha! 

Iri! H'Uraru ko ti sha-a; ha! 

Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

Iri! H'Uraru ko ti sha-a; ha! 



776 

777 



780 

781 
783 
783 
784 
785 



Ho-o-o! 

Ka-a kaharu ti rasha-a; ha! 
Ka-a kaliarit ti rasha-a; ha! 
Awa! Kaharu a; ha! 
Ka-a kaharu ti rasha-a; ha! 

IV 
Ho-o-o! 

Ka-a kaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 
Ka-a kaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 
Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 
Ka-a kaharu ko ti sha-a; hal 



164 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



796 


Ho-o-o! 




797 


Iri' Chahaim ti rasha-a; 


ha! 


798 


Iri! Chaharu ti rasha-a; 


ha! 


799 


Awa! Ti rasha-a: ha! 




MOO 


Iril Chah ir 11 ti rasha-a; 

yiii 


h,.! 


SOI 


Ho-o-o 1 




.S03 


Iri! Chaharu l;o ti sha-a 


: ha! 


803 


Iri! Chaharu ko ti sha-a 


; ha! 


804 


Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 




805 


Iri! Chaharu ko ti sha-a 


; ha! 



V VII 

786 Ho-o-o! 

787 Iri! Toharu ti rasha-a; ha! 

788 Iri! Toharn ti rasha-a; ha! 

789 Awa! Ti rasha-a; lia! 

790 Iri! Toharu ti raslia-a; lia! 

VI 

791 Ho-o-o! 

792 Iri! Toliaru ko ti sha-a; ha! 

793 Iri! Toharn ko ti sha-a: ha! 

794 Awa! Ko ti sha-a: ha! 

795 Iri! Toharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

Translation of First Stanza 

7<i(J Ho-o-ol All introductory exclaiiiation. 

707 Iri! ITUraru ti rasha-a; ha! 

iri, a part of nawairi, an exijression of thaiikfuliiess. 

h'Uraru, the Earth, the fruitful Earth. 

ti, tliis liere. 

rasha, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold. 

708 See line 707. 

700 Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ti raslia-a; ha! See line 767. 
770 See line 7G7. 

Explanation hij the Kn'rnhus 

In the first stanza we sing: "Behold! Here lies Mother Earth, for a 
truth she lies here to bring forth, and we give thanks that it is so." 

Translation of Second Stanza 

111 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

772 Iri! H'Uraru ko ti sha-a. Ila! 

iri, a j)art of nawairi, an expression of thankfulness. 

h'Uraru, Mother Earth. 

ko, I am reminded to think of. 

ti, here. 

sha, a part of rasha, to lie, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

773 See line 772. 

774 Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ko ti sha-a; ha! See line 772. 

775 See line 772. 



FLETCHER] TniBTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 165 

Expluiuiilon hy the Kii'nihiis 

In the second stanza the Children respond. They say tliat now 
they know of a truth that Tira'wa atius causes Mother Earth t(j lie 
here and l)ring forth, and they give tlianks that it is so. 

Tniiishitloti of Third Stanza 

776 IIo-o-o! An introductorj- exclamation. 

777 Ka-a kahani ti rasha-a; ha! 

ka, part of akaro, the stretch of land between the horizons. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

kaharu, a cnltivated patch, as an aboriginal field of maize. 

ti, here. 

rasha, lying, lies. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

778 See line 777. 

779 Awa! Kahai-u a; ha! 

awa, true, verily, 
kaharu, cultivated patches, 
a, vowel prolongation. 
ha! behold! 

780 See line 777. 

E.rplanaiion hy ilie Kii'rnhus 

There are patches here and thei-e over the land which are cultivated 
by the different families, where seed is put in Mother Eai'th, and she 
brings forth corn. In the third stanza we sing of these fields that 
lie on Mother P^arth, where she brings forth corn for food, and bid the 
Childi'en behold these fields and remember the power of Tira'wa atius 
with Mother Eartli. 

Translation of Fourtli Stanza. 

781 llu-o-o! An introduetoiy exclamation. 

782 Ka-a kaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

ka, part of akaro, the stretch of land between tiie horizons. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

kaharu, cultivated patches, where the corn is planted. 

ko, I am reminded to think of. 

ti, here. 

slia, iiart of rasha, lies, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

783 See line 782. 

784 Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ko ti sh{i-a; ha! See line 782. 

785 See line 782, 



166 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. asn.22 

Explanation hy the Kii'raluts 

In the fourth stanza the Children answer that the fruitful fields are 
brought to mind, and now they are taught about the gifts of the corn 
from the powers above and Mother Earth. 

Translation, of Fiftli Stanza. 

78G Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

787 Iri! Toharu ti rasha-a; ha! 

iri, from nawairi, thankfulness. 

toharu, trees, forests. 

ti, this here. 

rasha, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

788 See line 787. 

789 Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ti rasha-a; ha! See line 787. 

790 See line 787. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahus 

In the fifth stanza the Fathers give thanks for the trees and forests 
which lie on Motlier Earth, which Tira'wa caused her to bring forth, 
and tell the Children that truly it is so, and that we give thanks 
because it is so. From the trees we gain shelter and fire and many 
other good things. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

701 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
7!)2 Iri! Toharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

iri, from nawairi, thankfulness. 

toharu, trees, forests. 

ko, I am reminded to think of. 

ti, here. 

sha, from rasha, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

793 See line 792. 

794 Awa! Ko 11 sha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ko ti sha-a; ha! See line 792. 

795 See line 792. 

Explanation hy tlie Kn.'ra.li.ns 

The Children respond in the sixth stanza, and give thanks for the 
forests that lie on Mother Earth. They rememlter that Tira'wa atius 
caused Mother Earth to bring tliem forth, and they give thanks that 
it is so. 



I'l-KTCHEB] THIRTEENTH RITQAL, PART 11 l(i7 

Translafinn of Seventh Stanza 

796 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

797 Iri! Chaliaru ti i-asha-a; ha! 

iri, from nawairi, thanlcfulness. 

chaliaru, rivers, streams, water. 

ti, here. 

rasha, lyint;'. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

798 See line 797. 

799 Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ti rasha-a; ha I See line 797. 

800 See line 797. 

Explanation hij the Ku'rahus 

In the seventh stanza the Fathers give thanks for the water, the 
springs, streams, and rivers which flow over Mother Earth. Of a 
truth she brings them forth by the power of Tira'wa atius. I have 
told you of the meaning of running water. We give thanks for it 
and all it promises to us. 

Translation of Eight! i Stanza 

801 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

802 Iri! Chaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

iri, from nawairi, thankfulness. 

chaharu, rivers, streams, springs, water. 

ko, I am reminded to think of. 

ti, here. 

sha, from rasha, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

803 See line 802. 

804 Awa ! Ko ti sha-a ; ha ! 

awa, true, verily. 

ko ti sha-a; ha! See line 802. 

805 See line 802. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the eighth stanza the Children answer, giving thanks for the 
water, the springs, the streams, and the rivers that flow over Mother 
Earth. Of a truth the Children now know that Mother Earth brings 
them forth by the power of Tira'wa atius. (I did not sing these last 
two stanzas loud, for if I had done so they would have brought rain. 
As it is I think it will rain soon.) 



168 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Part III. Offeking of Smoke 

At the close of the song to Mother Earth the chief spreads tlie wild- 
cat skin on tlie holy place and the assistant lays upon it the white 
feathered stem, resting one end on the erotohed stick. 

Then tlie Kn'rahus says: "My Cliildren, your fathers are listening 
to what I have to say. Yesterday wc remembered our fatlu'r tlic Sun, 
today we remember our mother the Earth, and today Tira'wa has 
appointed that we should leaiu of those things which have been 
handed down to us. Tira'wa is n<jw to smoke from the brown eagle 
stem, Kawas, the mother, and you are to smoke from it also." 

The bowl from tlie pipe belongiiig to the Rain shrine is i)ut on 
the brown-eagle stem and the priest of the shrine fills it and calls 
on some one to light it. lie also directs in what order the smoke 
shall be offered. I can not remember the order — if I .said anything 
about it I might tell it wi-ong, for it is not my business to remember it, 
the priest alone knows it. 

After the offering of smoke as directed by the priest, the feathered 
stem is taken to the Son, who sits near the door, and after he has 
smoked the pipe is offered to everyone; all the men, women, and 
children of the Son's party smoke. This is a holy act and giv( s long 
life to the people. 

When the we.st is reached, the feathered stem is lifteil four times 
and the ashes are emi^tied on the edge of the fireplace. The Ku'i-a- 
hus then hands the feathered stem to his assistant and returns to his 
seat, where he takes the feathered stem fi-om his assistant, removes 
the bowl and replaces it upon its own stem. Then he puts the 
feathered stem beside its mate on tlie wildcat skin, resting it against 
the crotched stick. 

Part IV. Songs of the Birds 
Explanation Jnj flic Ku'raliufi 

The songs about the birds begin with the egg, so the song of the 
bird's nest where the eggs are lying is the first to be sung. Tlien 
comes the song about the wren, the smallest of birds. After that we 
sing about the birds that are with the Ilako, from the smallest to the 
largest. 

These songs are to teach the jjcople to care for their chihlren, even 
before they are born. They also teach tlie people to be happy and 
thankful. Tliey also explain how the birds came to be upon the 
feathered stems and why they are able to help the people. 

Tliere is no fixed time foi* these songs to be sung, but they belong 
to the third day of the ceremony — the day when we sing the song to 
Mother Earth. Sometimes the songs of the nest and the wren are 
sung early in the day, as these songs were made in the morning. 
Tile song of the owl must be sung toward night. 



FLKXPHKRl 



THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 



169 



The words of these soujis are few, but the story of each has come 
down to us, so that we know what they mean. 

THE SONG OF THE BIUD'S NEST 

Words a?i(l Music 



M. M. *y - 



160. 



Graphoplione sounn one fourth lower in pitch. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by KHwin S. Tracy. 

No drum. 

Ho - o-o - o-o! 'Ha - re, 'ha - re, i - ha - re 



'Ha - re, 



E 



'ha 



-r|— t 



mmm 



- ha - rel 



Be 



wha- ka, 'ha - re. 



re 'ha - re, 









AVha-ka 



»^i 



'ha - re, 



' ha - re, 



Re 



wha-'ka 'ha - re, re 'ha - re. 



SOU Ho-0-o-o-oI 

80" 'Hare, 'hare, iha rel 

808 'Hare. "bare, ilia rel 

809 Re wbaka liare, re 'hare, 

810 Whaka 'hare, re 'hare, 

811 Re whaka 'hare, re 'hare. 



813 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

81;^ 'Hare, 'hare, iha're! 

814 'Hare, 'hare, ira're! 

815 Re whari 'hare, re 'hare, 

816 'Whari 'hare, re 'hare. 

817 Re whari 'hare, re 'hare. 



Translation 
I 

800 Ho-o-o-o-o ! An introductory exclamation. 

807 'Hare, 'hare, iha're! 

'hare, a part of tlie word iha're, young, as the j'ouns of ani- 
mals. The term is also applied to children. 

iha're, young. The word in the song refers to the young 
birds as yet unhatched, still in the egg. 

808 See line 807. 

809 Re whaka 'hare, re 'hare! 

re, they. 

■whaka, wha, part of wliako, noise; ka, part, of akaro, inclo- 

sure, dwelling place; ka refers to the shell of the egg and 

to the nest iu which the eggs lay. 
'hare, young. 
re 'hare. Translated above. 

810 Whaka 'hare, re 'hare. See line 8U9. 

811 See line 809. 



170 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

II 

81-2 Ho-o-o-oo! An introductory exclamation. 

813 'Hare, 'hare, ilia're! See line 807. 

814 See line 813. 

81.5 Re whari 'hare, re 'hare, 
re, they. 

whari, moving, walking, 
'hare, part of iha're, young, 
re 'hare. Translated above. 

816 Whari 'hare, re 'hai'e. See line 815. 

817 See line 815. 

Explanation, hy the Ku'rahns 

One day a man whose mind was open to the teaching of the powers 
wandered on the prairie. As he walked, his eyes upon the ground, 
he spied a bird's nest hidden in the grass, and arrested his feet just 
in time to prevent stepping on it. He paused to look at the little 
nest tucked away so snug and warm, and noted that it held six eggs 
and that a peeping sound came from some of them. While he 
watched, one moved and soon a tiny bill pushed through the shell, 
uttei'ing a shrill cry. At once the parent birds answered and he looked 
up to see where they were. Thej^ were not far off; they were flying 
about in search of food, chirping the while to each other and now and 
then calling to the little one in the nest. 

The homely scene stirred the heart and the thoughts of the man as 
he stood there under the clear sky, glancing upward toward the old 
birds and then down to the helpless young in the nest at his feet. As 
he looked he thought of his people, who were so often careless and 
thoughtless of their children's needs, and his mind brooded over 
the matter. After many days he desired to see the nest again. So 
he went to the place where he had found it, and there it was as safe 
as when he left it. But a change had taken place. It was now full 
to overflowing with little birds, who were stretching theii- wings, bal- 
ancing on their little legs and nuiking ready to fly, Avhile the parents 
with encouraging calls were coaxing the fledglings to venture forth. 

"Ah!" said the man, "if my people would only learn of the birds, 
and, like them, care for their j'oung and provide for their future, 
homes would be full and happy, and oui- tribe be strong and pros- 
perous." 

\Vhen this man became a priest, he told the story of the bird's nest 
and sang its song; and so it has come down to us from the days of our 
fathers. 



PLBTCHKK] 



THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 



171 



TETE SONG OF THE 'WrBEN 

TT'orr/s and Music 



M. M. Melody, j^ ■= 54. 
M. M. Drum. \'= 108. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tiacy. 



Ki - clii ru-ku wa-ku,Wlii'ke re re we chi; Ki-clii rii-ku wa-ku, 



m » m m m ,. ^ _^ .^ .^ .^ ^ .^ ^ .^. .^ .^ 



Whe ke re re we obi; Ki-cbi ru - ku wa-ku, Wheke re re we chi; 



t 



s=:=s^zsiE: 



I3«» S ==iv 



as:t__x — ^=Ei 



_ _ _ „ _ _ ___ __ _ -m- -»■ -m- -m- -m- :^. 

Ki-clii ru-ku wa-ku, Wheke re re we chi; Ki-chl ru-ku wa-ku, 

r 1 1 , 1 , r , ! : ! I ! 




818 Kichi mku waku, Whe ke re re we chi 

819 Kiclii ruku wakii. "Whe ke re re we chi 

820 Kichi rukii waku. Whe ke re re we chi: 
831 Kichi ruku waku, Whe ke re re we chi 
823 Kichi rnku waku, Whe ke re re we chi 
833 Kichi ruku waku. Whe ke re re we chi. 

Translation 

818 Kichi ruku waku, Whe ke re re we chi. 

kichi, so it; but thi.s one. 

ruku, sang. 

waku, sound from the mouth, speech. 

whe ke re re we chi, syllables imitative of the sound of the 
bird. 
819-823 See line 818. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The wren is always spoken of as the laughing bird. It is a very 
happy little bird, and we have .stories about it. p:very oue likes to 
hear the wren sing. This song is very old: I do not know liow old, 
how many generations old. There are very few words in the song, 
but there is a story which has come down with it and which tells its 
meaning. 

A priest went forth in the early dawn. The sky was clear. The 
erass and wild flowers waved in the breeze that rose as the sun threw 



172 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Axx. 22 

its first beams over the eartli. Bii-ds ot all kinds vied with one 
another as they sang their joy on that beautiful morning. The priest 
stood listening. Suddenly, oil' at one side, he heard a trill that rose 
higher and clearer than all the rest. He moved toward the place 
whence tlie song came that he might see what manner of bird it was 
that could send fartlier than all the others its happy, laughing notes. 
As he came near he behelil a tiny l)rowii l)ird with open bill, the 
feathei's on its throat rippling with the fervor of its song. It was the 
wren, the smallest, the least powerful of birds, that seemed to lie 
most glad and to pour out in ringing melody to the rising sun its 
delight in life. 

As the priest looked he thought: " Here is a teaching for my people. 
Everyone can be happy; even the most insignificant can liave his 
song of thanks." 

So he made the story of the wren and sang it; and it has been handed 
down from that day, a <lay so long ago that no man can remember the 
time. 

THE SONG OF THE WOODPECKER AND THE TTJKKEY 

W'ord.v and JSlitsir 
M. M. ^ = 108. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



:d^: 



IIo-o o! I - ra - i-i ha-o ra; i - ra - ri lia-o ra; i ■ ra-ri lia-o ra; 



Ka ko-ra-she liao? Reku-tati lia o; I ra-ri ha-o r:i; i - ra-ri ha - o i. 

^ ' r_f rj [ ' fj fj [ • [_r fj j r f 1 i I i i 

824 Ho-o-o: 

825 Irari hao ra: irari liai) ra: irari lia<i ra: 

826 Ka korashe lia<V? Re kutati hao; 

827 Irari hao ra: irari hacii. 

Trunshd 11)11 

82i Ho-o-ol An introductory exclamation. 
8io Irari hao ra; irari hao ra; irari hao ra. 

irari, brother. 

hao, offspring, child. 

ra, coming. 
82<i Ka korashe hao? Re kutati hao. 

ka? is? a question. 

korashe, your. 

hao, offspring. Is it or are tln-y your offspring? 

re, they. 

kutati, my or mine. 

hao, offspring, 'i'hey are my otfspring. 



FLETCHEK] THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 173 

8i'7 Irari liao ra; iraxi hao i. 

Irari hao ra; irari liao. See line 825. 

i, • 

Explanation hij ihe Kn' rahus 

We are told that in old times, long, lonif ago, the feathers of the 
turkey were used where now the feathei-s of the brown eagle are 
placed on the blue feathered stem. In those days the turkey, nol tlie 
brown eagle, was leader, but, through tlie mysterious power of th(> 
woodpecker, tlie turkey lost its position. This song refei-s to the dis- 
pute between tlie woodpecker and the turkey, which resulted in tlie 
supplanting of the turkey by the brown eagle. 

The woi'ds of the song are few, but the story of their meaning has 
come down to us from the fathers. 

Both the turkey and the woodpecker desired to be the jirotector of 
the children of the human race, and there was trouble between them 
on that account. One day the woodpecker was flying about looking 
for its nest when the turkey chanced that way and the woodpecker 
called out: "Brother, where are my eggs?" 

The woodpecker talked of his eggs, but he meant the children of 
the people on the earth and the turkey knew that was what he was 
talking about. 

"They are not your eggs (offspring) ; tlie.y are mine," said the wood- 
pecker. 

"They are mine to take care of," answered the turkey; "for in my 
division of life there is great power of productiveness. I have more 
tail feathers than any other bird and I have more eggs. Wherever I 
go mj^ young cover the ground." 

"True," replied the woodpecker, " but you build your nest on the 
ground, so that your eggs are in constant danger of being devoured 
by serpents, and when the eggs hatch the young become a prey to the 
wolves, the foxes, the M'easels; therefore, your number is continually 
being reduced. Security is the only thing that can insure the con- 
tinuation of life. I can, therefore, claim with good reason the right 
to care foi- the human race. I build my nest in the heart of the tall 
oak, where my eggs and my young are safe from the creatures that 
prey upon birds. Wliile I have fewer eggs they hatch in secui-ity and 
the birds live until they die of old age. It is my place to be a pro- 
tector of tlie life of men." 

The woodpecker prevailed, and the turkey was deposed; for, 
although the turkey had nioi'e children, they did not live; they were 
killed. 

Then the brown eagle was put in the turkey's place, because it was 
not quarrelsome, but geJitle, and cared for its young, and was sti'ong 
to protect them from harm. 

The woodpecker was given an important place on the stem, where 
it presides over the path along which the help that comes from the 



174 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



Hako travels— the red path. The woodpecker is wise and careful, 
and, that it may not get angry and be warlike on the Hako, its upper 
mandible is turned back over its red crest. 

The Hako ceremony was given in a vision, and all these things, 
such as the dispute between the turkey and the woodpecker, were 
made known to our fathei'S in a vision. 

THE SONG OF THE DUCK 

Words (ind Music 
M. M. J- 104. 
• ^=^ I'lilsation of the voice. 



m^ 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



i^f-^? 



Drum. 

Rattles. 



Ho-o-o-ol Till ka wa-re. lin-ka ware 

tjU tJ U L: Lj 



lio ' ra; Ha! Wi - ri liuka-lia- 

A A A \ (\ 

1 ! I " I ' I r I 




828 H-o-o-o! 

829 Huka wai-e, liuka ware hora; 

830 Ha! Wiri liukaharn we: 

831 Hao e! 

832 Huka ware, huka ware hora: 

833 Ha! Wiri aha ha rawe we: 

834 Hao e! 

Translation 

828 llo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

829 Iluka ware, huka ware hora. 

huka, a part of the word hukaharu, valley, a valley through 

which a stream is flowing, 
ware, a part of teware, flying, 
hora, a part of the word horaro, the earth, the land 

830 Ha! Wiri hukaharu we. 

ha! behold! 

wiri, it is. 

hukaharu, a valley through which a stream flows. 

we, they; refers to tlie young of the duck. 

831 Hao e! 

hao, offspring, 
e, vocable. 

832 See line 829. 



FLETCHER] THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 175 

833 Ha! Wiri aha ha rawe we. 

ha! wiri; behold! it is. 

aha, a part of kiwaliaru, a pond, a small body of water. 

ha, a part of iha're, young; refers to tlie young of the duck. 

rawe, living in. 

we, they. 

834 See line 831. 

Explatiation by the Ku'ralius 

The words of this .song about the duck are few, and if the story had 
not come down to us from the fathers, we should not know all that 
the song means. 

The duck has great power. The story tells us about this power. 

Long ago wlien the feathered stems were being made, the hol.y man 
who was preparing these sacred objects had a dream. In Ids vision 
the duck with the green neck appeared and said to him: 

"I desire to have a place upon the feathered stem, for I have power 
to help the Children. This is my power: I la.y my eggs near the water 
and, when the j'oung are hatched, straightway thej' can swim ; the 
water can not kill them. When they are grown thej'^ can go, flying 
througli the air, from one part of the earth to the other. No place is 
sti'ange to them; they never lose their way; thej' can travel over the 
water without harm and reach safelj^ their destination. They can 
walk upon the land and find the springs and streams. I am an uner- 
ring guide. I know all paths below on the earth, and on the water and 
above in the air. Put me on the featliered stem where it is grasped by 
the hand, that the Children may take hold of me and not go astray." 

When the holy man awoke, he did as the duck had told him, and 
so to this day we put the duck with the green neck on the feathered 
stem where it is held by the hand. 

This is the meaning of the song. 

THE SONG OF THE OWIi 

Words and Music 
M. M. ^N = 1fis. 



• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



*^^ 



4-~ 






He! Hi - ri \va - )io - nil Hi, hi - ri w:i - ho - nil 

Drvm. i.'tmimtmim i t i , i 

Battles, r I ' " 1 l__r [ I " I " |__ 



176 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.SS 

835 He! Hiri wahorni Hi. hiri walioni! 

836 He! Hiri wahoru! Hi, hiri wahoru! 

837 He! Waliorn. 

Trunshttion 

835 He! Hiri wahoru ! Hi, hiri walioru! 

he I an exclamation signifying tliat somethintr has Iwen brought 

to one's mind tliat sliould be reflected on. 
hiri; iri, a part of nawairi, an expression of thankfulness, of 
appreciation of good promised, or of some benefit to be 
derived; the initial lette.r h is added for euphony and ease 
in singing, 
wahoru, owl. 

hi, the same as hiri, translated above. 
83(1 See line 835. 
837 He! Wahoru! See line 835. 

Explanutkiti bij tlie Ku'rahns 

In this song we give thank.s to the owl, for it gives us help in the 
nigjit. We sing it twice; the first time it is sung very slowly; the 
second time it is sung very fast, as we sing a dance song. 

The meaning of the song lias come down to us from the fathers; 
the words tell very little about the song. 

To the .same holy man to wliom the duck came in a vision, the owl 
.spoke in a dream and said: 

"Put me upon the fe<athered stem, for I have power to help tlie 
Children. The night season is mine. I wake when others sleep. I 
can see in the darkness and discern coming danger. The human race 
must be able to care for its j'oung during the night. The warrior 
must be alert and ready to protect his home against prowlers in the 
dark. I have the power to help the people so that they may not 
forget tlieir young in sleep. I have jjower to help the people to be 
watchful against enemies while darkness is on the earth. I have power 
to help the people to keep awake and perform these ceremonies in the 
night as well as in the day." 

When the holy man awoke, he remembered all that tlie owl had said 
to him, and he put the owl's feathers upon the stem, next to Ihe duck. 
So the people are guided by (lie duck and kept awake bj- the owl. 



FLETCHER] 



THIRTEENTH RITI^iL, PART IV 



177 



SONG OF THANKFULNESS 

II (irils mill 3lii.<<if 



M. M. ^S = 132. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



mm 



Ho-o-o-o! I-ri!Ha-ko 

i. ^ . i , 



Drinn.^ 
Rattles.'L 



ti re-lira re-ki; 

'* • A « «• 

I 1 rill 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracv. 
I-rilHa-ko ti re-hra re-ki; 



H2= 



r - ri! Ha-ko ti re-hra re-ki; 

:_• i^ L' L-T Lj u 
I 

S.38 Ho-o-o-o! 

839 Iri! Hako ti rehra reki; 

840 Iri! Hako ti rehra reki: 

841 Iri! Hako ti rehra reki; 

842 Iri! 



I - ri! Ha ko tire -lira re-ki. 

■Lj* LS ^ ' c 1 i 
II 

843 Ho-o-o-o! 

844 Iri! Hako ti re.sstah riki 
84.5 Iri! Hako ti resstah riki 

846 Iri! Hako ti resstah riki 

847 Iri! Hako ti resstah riki, 



Hako ti rehra reki. 

Traii.sJation of First Stanza 
80S Ho-o-o-o! An inlrodiietory exclamation. 
839 Iri! Hako ti rehra reki. 

iri I a part of tlie word nawairi, an expression of tliankfiil- 

ne.s.s; " It i.s well I" 
Hako, all the synibolie objects peculiar to this ceremony, 
ti, me d) resent time), 
rehra, a part of rehrara, I have. 

reki; re, isertaining or belonging to me; ki, a j)art of riki, 
standing. 
840-84;^ See line 839. 

Ejcpkmaiion J>i/ the Kii'rahus 
This stanza means that it is well, a canse of thankfulness, that all 
the birds and all the .symbols are here with the Hako and able to 
bring good. The Fathers now stand with the complete Hako extend- 
ing to the Children the promised blessings. So we sing: "I stand 
here before you with the Hako!" 

Transliitiou of Herond Stanza 

843 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

844 Iri! Hako ti resstali riki. 

iri! it is well! An exclamation of thankfulness. 
Hako, all the symbolic articles belong to this ceremony. 
ti, me (present time), 
resstah, you hold, 
riki, standing. 
845-847 See line 844. 

•Zi ETH— IT 2—04 12 



178 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 

Explanatioti hi/ ilii- Ku'raJius 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



•It is well for us that vou ai'e 



In this .stanza the Children I'eply: 
here with the complete Hako!" 

The Fathers sing these words, but thej^ are really from the Children. 



FOURTEENTH RITtTAL (THIRD NIGHT). INVOKINti THE VISIONS OF THE 

ANCIENTS 

Exjilcmatioii 111/ ihe Kii' minis 

This ceremony was given to our fathers in a vision, and to our 
fathers the promise was made that di'eams bringing happiness would 
be brought to the Children by the birds that are with the Hako. 
This ])romise given to onr fathers is always fulfilled; happiness always 
comes with the Hako, and the Children have visions. 

When the ceremony is near the end (the third night) we sing this 
song, for we rememlier the visions of our fathers, the holy men to 
whom was taught this ceremony. We ask that the visions which 
came to them may come again to us. 

80NG 

fVorils mill ^fllsic 



M. M. ;^ = 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 




Transrritied by Edwin P. Traev. 



Haa-al Ra 



Drum, i 
Battles. L 



ra wlia-ri; Hit-ka - slui-rii, ra 



ra wha-ri; Ilit-ka - slia 

L.' 't! i- Lj Li 






a! Hi-ri! H'A-ti-a si. 



lia- \va ra - ra wlia-ri, 



==■^=5-: 



riit-ka - slia-ru. 



UtJ t^ U U U L: 



I I 



III 



848 


Ha-;i-a! 


.StilJ 


849 


Ram whari: 


861 


S.'iO 


Hitkasbarn, rara whari: 


863 


851 


Hitkasharu! 


86H 


852 


Hiri! H'Atia si liawa rara wliari, 


864 


853 


Hitkasharu. 

II 


865 


854 


Ha-a-a! 


866 


855 


Rara wha-a: 


867 


856 


Hitkasharti. rara wha-a: 


868 


857 


Hitkasharu! 


SfiO 


858 


Hiril H'Atia si liawa rara wlia-a 


S70 


859 


Hitkasharu. 


871 



Ha-a-a 1 

Rara wliiclia; 

Hitkasharu. rara whicha: 

Hitkasharu! 

Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rara wliiclia. 

Hitkasharu. 

IV 
Ha-a-a! 
Rara ruka: 

Hitkasharu. rara ruka: 
Hitkasharu ! 

Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rara ruka. 
Hitkasharu. 



flktcherJ 



BXJURTEENTH RITUAL 



179 



VII 



873 Ha-a-a: 

873 Werih kawa; 

874 Hitkasharu. werih kawa: 
873 Hitkasharu! 

876 Hivil H'Atia si hawa werih kawa. 

877 Hitkasharu. 

VI 

878 Ha-a-a! 

879 Werih teri; 

880 Hitkasharu. werih teri: 

881 Hitkasharu: 

882 Hiri! H'Atia si hawa werih teri, 

883 Hitkasharu. 



884 


Ha-a-a! 


885 


Rarah whara: 


886 


Hitkasharii. rarah wliara: 


887 


Hitkasharu! 


888 


Hiri! H"Atia si hawa rarah whara. 


SiSil 


Hitkasharvi. 




VIII 


890 


Ha-a-a! 


891 


Rarah whishpa: 


892 


Hitkasharu. rarah whishpa: 


893 


Hitkasharu: 


894 


Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rarah whi 




shpa. 


895 


Hitkasharu. 



848 
849 



850 



851 
852 



853 



Tr(insl(tfii)u of First Stanza 

Ha-a-a! An introductDry exclamation. 
Rara whari. 

rara, coming this way, approaching. 

whaii, walking. 
Ilitkasharn, rara whari. 

hitkasharu, a composite word; hit, from hittu, feather; ka, 
from i-otkaharn, night; sharu, dream, vision. The word 
feather refers to the birds that are with the Ilako. 

rara whari. See line 849. 
Hitkasharu. See line 850. 
Hiri! IFAtia si hawa rara whari. 

hiri! an exclamation telling one to give heed, to harken, and 
also to be thankful. 

h', the sign of breatli, breathing, giving life. 

atia, a modification of atius, father. 

si, part of sidliihi, you are the one. 

hawa, again. 

rara, connng this way, approaching. 

whari, walking. 
Hitkasharu. See line S50. 



Explanation by the Ku' ralius 

As we sing this stanza we think of the visions which attend the 
Hako and we are thankful that these visions, which gave life, success, 
and lilenty to our fathers, are again coming this way to us. 

After we have sung this stanza four times and have passed around 
the lodge and reached the west we pause. 



18U THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann .22 

TratiKhitioii of Second Stanza 

854 Ha-a-a! An inlroductorv exclaiiiatioii. _ 

855 Rara wha-a. 

rara, coining this way, approacliiny. 
wha-a, coming nearrr. 
S5(; Ilitkasharu, rara wlia-a. 

hitkasharu. See the first stanza, line 850. 
rara wlia-a. See line 855. 

857 llitkasharn. See line 850. 

858 Hiri! II'Atia si liawa rara wha-a. See lines 852 and 855. 

859 llitkasharn. See line 850. 

E'j-planation hij lln- Kx'nilius 

On the second circuit of the lodge, as we wave the feathered stems, 
we sing that the visions granted to our fathers are coming nearer and 
nearer to us and to the t'hihlren. We are thankful as we sing. 

Four times we repeat this stanza and when we reach the west we 
pause. 

Traiislofiiin of Tliinl Sfanza 

SfiO Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
8G1 Rara whicha. 

rara, coming this way, ai)proac]iing. 

whielia, arrived, reached the destination. 
862 llitkasharn, rara whicha. See lines 850 and 8iil. 
86:J Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

804 Iliri! II'Atia si hawa rai'a whicha. See lines 852 and 801. 

805 Hitkasharu. See line 85n. 

Exphi mil Kill hi/ tlie Ell' raJiKs 

The tliirdtime we go around the lodge we sing the tliinl stanza four 
times. It tells that the visionsof our fathers liave arrived at the lodge 
door. .Vt the west we pause. 

Tronshiiiou n/Fdiirth Stanza 

800 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

807 Riira I'uka. 

rara, coming this way. 
ruka, entered the lodge. 

808 Hitkasharu, rara ruka. See lines 85i) and 807. 

869 Ilitkasharu. See line s.jo. 

870 Hiri I II'Atia si hawa rara ruka. See lines 852 and line 807. 

871 Ilitkasharu. See line 850. 



FLETCHER] FOURTEENTH KITUAL 181 

Explanation hy tin Ka' rahus 

The visions of our fathers have entered tiie lodge as we sing the 
fourth stanza, and our hearts are tlianlvful that they have come. 

At the west we pause and lay the llako down with ceremonial songs 
and movements. Then we rest a while and are quiet in the presence 
of the visions. 

Translation, of Fifth Stanza 

872 Ha-a-a! An introductorj- exclamation. 

873 Werih kawa. 

werih, the owner of the lodge. The Son is regarded as tlie 
owner of the lodge in which the ceremony takes place and 
the word refers to him. 

kawa, the open space wiihin the lodge between the fireplace 
and the conches around the wall. In this space the cere- 
mony takes place. 

874 llitkasharu werih kawa. See lines 850 and 87:1 

875 llitkasharu. See line 850. 

870 Iliri! IFAtia si hawa werih kawa. See lines 852 and 87.3. 

877 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

E.rplanation tiij the Ku'rahus 

After a time we take up the feathered stems and move around the 
lodge, singing the fifth stanza. 

The Son, into whose lodge the visions of our fathers have now 
entered, gives thanks in his heart, for he knows that the}" have come 
in fulfilment of the promise given generations ago, and that he is rec- 
ognized 1)}' them as a Son. 

When we reach the west we jjause. 

Translation of Si-xHi Stanza 

878 Ha-a-a ! An introductory exclamation. 

879 Werih teri. 

werih, the owner of th<^ lodge, the Son. 
teri, hovering over. 

880 Hitkasharu, werih teri. See lines S5o and S7'.i. 

881 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

882 Iliri : H'Atia si hawa werih teri. See lines 852 and 879. 

883 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

Explanaiiun hij tJi/r En' rahus 

Again we go around the lodge and sing the sixth stanza. The 
visions of our fathers, received from the birds of the Ilako, are now 
hovering over the Children in the lodge of the Son. Ever3-one is 
thankful as we sing. At the west we pause. 



182 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

Translation of Serenfli Slanza 

884 Ha-a-a! An inti-oductory t-xclamatlon. 

885 Karah whara. 

rarah, walking- from one. 

whara, goinpj away, goins from a person or place. 
880 llitkasharn rarah whara. See lines SW and 885. 

887 Ilitka-sharii. See line 850. 

888 Iliri! H'Atia si hawa rarah whara. See lines 853 and 885. 

889 Hitkasharu. See lino 850. 

Explanation by the Ku' raluta 

The visions are walking away from us as we sing the seventh stanza. 
We are thanking them in our hearts as we sing, and while they are 
leaving the lodge. At the west we pause. 

Translation of Eighth Stanza 

890 Ha-a-a! An introductorj' exclamation. 

891 Rarah whishpa. 

rarah, walking from one. 

whishpa, arrived at the place from which one started. 

892 Hitkasharu rarah whishpa. See lines 850 and 891. 

893 Hitkasharu. See line 85f). 

894 Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rarah whishpa. See lines 852 and 891. 

895 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

Explanation hij the Ku-'rahus 

In a little while we start and go again around the lodge and sing 
the eighth stanza. The visions of our fathers have left the lodge; 
they are walking away from us, passing over the sleeping earth, and 
at last they reach their dwelling place, the place from which tliey . 
descended when they started to come to us. As we think of them we 
again thank them for coming to us. 

At the west we lay the ITako down to rest with the songs and move- 
ments belonging to that action." 

After singing this song the Children usually rise and go to their 
homes and the Fathers take a rest daring the remainder of the night. 

There are no ceremonies at the dawn of the fourth day. During 
the forenoon the Fathers are busy unpacking the various articles they 
have brought for their final gifts to the Children. They place in a 
pile the robes, embroidered shirts, leggings, and ornaments. 

About noon the food is cooked for the last meal to be given by the 
Fathers to the Children. After the Fathers have served the food, 
they put the cooking utensils beside the pile of gifts and then present 
the heap to the Children and walk out of the lodge, leaving the Chil- 
dren to distribute the gifts among themselves. 

" See pages 111-116. 



FLETCHER] FOURTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH RITUALS 183 

There is a very general scattering of the gifts, and songs of thanks 
are sung by tliose who receive them. When this ceremony of distri- 
bution and acknowledgment is over, the Children return to their 
several lodges. By this time the afternoon is well advanced. 

The Fathers now enter the empty lodge and begin preparations for 
the last night of the ceremony and for the following morning. At 
this time the.y partake of their last meal before the close of the cere- 
mony at abont noon the next day. 

The best dancers in the party are chosen to perform the final dance, 
which occurs on the morning of the fifth day. The songs which 
accompany this dance are rehearsed and everything necessary for 
the closing acts of the ceremony is put in readiness. 

If a tent has been used for the ceremony, the Fathers on this aftei-- 
noon must build around the tent at a little distance from it a wall 
of saplings and brush, to keep oif outsiders and prevent anyone from 
looking in. If the ceremony takes place in an earth lodge, then both 
the outer and inner doors are closed, for on this last night no one is 
allowed to be present but the Fathers, the Son, and his near relatives. 

On this night a sixth man is added to the five who carry the sacred 
ob,iects — the two feathered stems, the ear of Corn wrapped in the wild 
cat skin, and the two eagle wings. The sixth man has a whistle, 
made from the wing bone of the eagle, which he blows in rhythm of 
the songs. The whistle imitates the scream of the eagle over its 
young. 

Second Division. The Secret Ceremonies 
fifteenth ritual (fourth night) 

P.\RT I. THK FljOCKINCi OF THE BlRDS 

Explanation, hij flir Kn'ralvus 

At sunset the Fathers call the Children to the lodge. When all 
have been seated, the Children on the south side, the Fathers on the 
north, the Ku'rahus, who sits at the west, back of the holy place 
where the Hako are at i-est, addresses the Children in the name of 
the Fathers. lie explains the meaning of the ceremony about to take 
place, for on this last night and the following morning everything 
that is done refers to the nest and to the direct promise of Children 
to the Son, who is also to be bound by a symbolic tie to the Father. 



184 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEKEMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



When the talk. is over the feathered stems are taken np and we 
sing the following song, which pr(>figures tlie joy that is coining to 
the peojile. 



SONG 

TT^V'/v/.s (111(1 ^[(islc 



M. M. ^N-IOS. 



• — Pulsation of the yoice. 
No drum. ^ 



Transcribed by Edwin 8. Tracv. 






Ho-0-o-ol We-re ko-sha ho sha wi-ki ri - ra; We-re ko-slia hn-slia wi-kl ri-ra: 



^^^l;^i^^ 



Ko - slia ho - sha wi - ki ri - ra; 

I 

896 Ho-o-o-ol 

897 Were kosha }iosha wiki i-ira: 

898 Were kosha liosha wiki rira: 

899 Kosha hosha wiki rira: 

900 Were kosha hosha wiki rira. 

II 

901 Ho-o-o-o! 

902 Wera kosha hoshta wiki rira; 
908 Wera kosha hoshta wiki rira: 

904 Kosha hoslita wiki rira: 

905 Wera kosha lioshta wiki rira. 

Ill 

90(5 Ho-o-o-ol 

907 Wera kishpa hosha wiki rira; 

908 Wera kishpa liosha wiki rira: 

909 Kishpa lioslia wiki rira: 

910 Wera kishpa hosha wiki rira. 



We - re ko - sha ho - sha wi - ki ri - ra. 

IV 

911 Ho-o-o-o! 

912 Wetn kishpa hoshta wiki rira: 

913 Wetu kislipa hoshta wiki rira: 

914 Kishpa lioslita wiki rira: 

91.5 Wetir kishpa hoshta wiki rira. 

V 

916 Ho-o-o-ol 

917 Were kaksha hosha wiki rira: 

918 Were kaksha hosha wiki rira: 

919 Kaksha hosha wiki rira: 

920 Were kaksha hosha wiki rira. 

VI 

921 Ho-o-u-o! 

922 Wetu kakslia hosha wiki rira; 

923 Wetu kakslia hosha wiki rira: 

924 Kaksha hosha wiki rira: 

925 Wetu kaksha hosha wiki rira. 



Trdiishiiidii iif First Stanza 



•6'M 



llo-o-o-o! Au introductory exclamation 
807 Were kosha liosha wiki rira. 
were, thej'. 

kosha, a flock of birds, 
hosha, a comi^osite word; ho, coming; sha, part of kosha,' 

flock, 
wiki, a desci'iptive term indicating the maunei' of tliglit; the 
birds do not move in a straight line or course; they waver 
from one side to the otlier, now higher, now lower, 
rira, coming. 
See line 897. 
Kosha hosha wiki rira. See line 897. 



898 
899 



900 See line 897 



FLETCHER] FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 185 

ExpJaiKition luj the Ku'rahus 

In the early sprintf the birds hiy their eggs in their nests, in the 
Slimmer thej' rear their yonng, in the fail all the young ones are grown, 
the nests are deserted and the birds fly in flocks over the country. 
One can hear the fluttering of a startled flock, the birds suddenly rise 
and their wings make a noise like distant thiindei-. Everywhere the 
flocks are flying. In the fall it seems as tliough new life were put into 
the people as well as into tlic birds; there is niucli activity in coming 
and going. 

This song tells of the flocking of birds. We do not use the drum as 
we sing it, but we blow the whistle. The whistle is made from the 
wing bone of an eagle. In this song we are singing of the eagle and 
the other birds, so we use the whistle. 

When the eggs are hatched and the young are grown, the birds flock ; 
the pi-omise of young has been fulfilled. In this song, which we sing 
toward the close of the ceremony, we are thinking of the fulfilling of 
the promise given by the llako, that children will be granted to the 
people, so that they may be many and strong, and we sing that the 
great flocks are coming. 

Traiishition iif Sefond Stanza 

901 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

902 Wera kosha hoshta wiki rira. 

wera, they yonder; ra gives the idea that the flock is at a 

distance, 
kosha, flock, 
lioshta, the noise made by tlie birds in flying an<l in alighting; 

hosh, the noise; ta, to alight, 
wiki, descrijitive of the manner of flight. See translation of 

the word in the first stanza, line 897. 
rira, coming. 

903 See line 902. 

90-1 Kosha hoshta wiki rira. See line 902. 
905 See line 902. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza we are thinking of the great flocks 
of birds. The noise of their wings is a mighty noi.se. As they flj' 
from one tree to another they shake the branches as thej' alight, and 
the tree quivers as they rise. The flocks are many and powerful; so, 
through the promi.ses of the Ilako, the people will become many and 
powerful. 



186 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEKEMOJSTY [eth. ann,22 

Trcmslatioii nf Third Stanza 

OOG I[(i-u-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
007 \V^ei-a Ivislipa lioslia wilii !-ira. 

wera, they yonder. 

kishpa, scream (singular number). 

liosha; on account of the singular number of the verb kishpa, 
the word as here used indicates that a bird out of the 
flock is flying toward the people. 

wiki, descriptive of the manner of flight. See line 897. 

rira, coming. 
90S See line 907. 

909 Kishpa lio.sha wiki rira. See line 907. 

910 See line 907. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahus 

In this stanza we sing tliat a single l>ird,.an eagle, comes out of the 
flock and flies toward the people. It is Kawas that comes flying 
toward us, the messenger of the powers, the hringer of the promises 
of tlie llako. Kawas comes to us as the eagle leaving the flock goes 
to her j'oung. 

Traimlation of Fourth. Stanza 

911 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

912 Wetu kishpa hoshta wiki rira. 

wetu, it lias. 

kishpa, screaming noise made by the eagle. As the eagle has 

come near its cry is likened to a scream, 
hoshta, a composite word; hosh, the sound made by the wings 

of a bird when flying; ta, to alight, 
wiki, a word descriptive of the manner of flight. See line 897. 
rira, coming. 
9i;! See line 912. 

914 Kishpa hoshta wiki rira. See line 912. 

915 See line 912. 

E.vpla)iation hi/ the Ku'ralius 
As the mother eagle comes near, flying to her nest, her cries are 
like screams, so we sing this stanza with the whistle, for now Kawas 
is coming to ns as to her nest. The lodge of the Son is her nest: 
there she will alight; there she will bring the gift of children. Our 
hearts are glad and sti'ong as we sing. 

Translaiion of Fifth Stanza 

916 Ho-o-o-o! An intioductory exclamation. 

917 Were kaksha hosha wiki rira. 

were, they. 

kaksha, a liimulluous noise. 

kosha, flock. 

wiki, a word descriptive of the nuinner of approach. SeelineS97. 

rira, coming. 



FLETCHER] FIFTEENTH RITUAL 187 

918 See line '.il7. 

919 Kaksha lioslia wiki rira. See line iUT. 

920 See line 'J17. 

Explanation hi/ the Ku'rahus 

This stanza tells us that the noise made by the people as they gather 
together on the morniug: of the fifth day for the presentation of gifts 
to the Fathers is like the coming of a great flock of birds. The peojile 
move like the birds; they do not come in a straight line to the lodge 
of the Son, but they come from this side and from that just as the 
birds gather togetlier in a flock. 

Tnnislutiou of Sixth Stanza 

921 IIo-o-o-o! An introductorj' exclamation. 

922 Wetu kaksha hosha wiki rira. 

wetii, it has. 

kaksha, a tumultuous noise, 
hosha, flock. 

wiki, manner of approacli. See line 897. 
rira, coming. 
92.3 See line 922. 

924 Kaksha hoslia wiki rira. See line 922. 

925 See line 922. 

Explanation hi/ the Ku'rahus 

As the people approach the lodge they make a great noise. All is 
bustle; the neighing ponies to be given to the Fathers are brought 
forward, and the people are calling to one another; there is the sing- 
ing of songs and the shouts of pleasure ; all these sounds mingling 
make a noise like distant thunder. This stanza lefers to this joyous 
tumult. 

Just before I came on to Washington I performed this ceremony, and 
now as I sit here and tell you about the meaning of tliis song, I can 
hear the happy shouts of the people as I heard them some weeks ago. 
Their voices seemed to come fi'om everj'where! Their hearts were 
joyful. I am glad, as I remember that day. We are always happy 
when we are Avith the Hako. 

Paut II. The Sixteen* Circuits of the Lodge 
Explanation hij the Kii'rnhus 

The last act of the last night is the making of four times four 
circuits of the lodge. 

I have told you that the four circuits of the lodge which we have 
been making are in recognition of the four paths down which the 
lesser powers descend to man. We have been asking for help from 
these powers and so we have remembered the paths down which they 



188 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 2:J 



travel to reach us with the gifts \ve desire. In the four tiiii. s lour 
circuits we remember all the powers represented in the Hako. 

We must begin with the Corn, which comes from our Mother Earth, 
for she has been the leader ever since the time when she sought the 
Son and opened the path for us to travel sjifely to him. She led ou 
our journej' to his village; she led as we entei-eil his lodge and dur- 
ing its consecration, and she has led us through all the days and 
nights of the cei'emony. So when we take up the feathered stems 
and turn to the north to begin the flrst circuit of this series M-e sing 
the foUowinsj song: 



FIRST SONG 
TT'u/v/.S 1111(1 ^Tlislc 



M. M. J =116. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. TracT. 




II^"lllpiilsi^ig^P-^=iiEi^i^wii^l^i 



Ilii! A-ti-ra! Ha! .\-ti-ra! Ila! .\-ti-ra 

II I I 1 I rill 



Ha! 



I I 



A-ti-ra! Ha 

« it t m 

I III 



A-ti 
i 



1 I 



y'.'G Ha-a-a-al 

927 Ha! Atira! 

928 Ha! Atira! 

929 Ha! Atira! 



I 

Ha! Atira! 
Ha! Atira! 
Ha! Atira! 



Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! 
Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! 
Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira. 



9:^0 Ha-a-a-a! 

931 Nawahiri! 

932 Nawahiri! 

933 Nawahiri! 



n 

Nawahiri! 
Nawahiri ! 
Nawahiri! 



Nawahiri: 
Nawahiri ! 
Nawahiri! 



Nawahiri! 
Nawahiri! 
Nawahiri! 



Trdnsliitiiiii nf First Sliinut 



Oif'i Ila-a-a-a! An introduction exclamatory. 

927 Ha! Atiral Ila! Atira! Ila! Atira! Ha! Atira! 

ha ! look on ! 1 )ehold ! 

atira, mother. The term is applied to the ear of corn. 
928, 929 See line 927. 



FLETCHER] FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 189 

ExplaiKttiou hij th( Ku' rahus 

"Behold Mother Corn!"" we sing; and we think iind the Children 
think, as they sing witli ns, of all that Mother Corn has done, how 
she sought the Son, led ns to him, and now is here witli the power of 
life and plenty. 

Four times we sing this tirst stanza as we make ihe first circuit of 
the lodge, moving by the north, east, and south back to the west. 
After a jjause we start upon the second circuit and sing the second 
stanza. 

Trunslafioii i)f Secoiul Stanza 

930 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

931 Nawahiri! Xawahiri! Nawahiri! Nawahiri! 

uawahiri, a ceremonial term signifying thanks; a recogni- 
tion that all is well. The usual form is nawairi, but an 
h is prefixed to the third syllable to give greater ease and 
euphony in singing. 
932, 933 See line 931. 

ExiDlanafion hij flw Ku'-rahus 

Mother Corn is leading toward the fulfilment of the promises made 
through the Ilako, and as the Children behold her they sing with 
thankful hearts, "All is well!" 

SECOND SONG 

M. M. ^ = ll^,. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracy. 









Ho-o-ool E-ru!irA-ti - ra! E-ra! H'A-ti ra! He! I-ril E ru! H'A-ti-ral 

Dnim ;«£•&. •« ^ m •«^<.« i , i , 

Battles. l_i U ■ —^ L^J^ L^ '^ L_ I,— ^_' 






E-ni! H'A-ti-ral He! I-ri! E ru! H'A-ti - ra! E-ru! H'A-ti-ral He! 

I 

9:J4 Hi)-o-i)-()! 

53.1 Era! HAtira! Ernl HAtiral He! Iri! 

936 Ern! HAtira! Era! HAtira! He! Iri! 

937 Era! H'Ath-a! Era! H-Atira! He! 

II 

93M Ho-o-o-(3! 

939 Nawa! H'Atira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! Iri! 

940 Nawa! H'Atira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! Iri! 

941 Nawa! H'Atira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! 



190 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Trnnslntion of First Stanzn 

Ito-t Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
1»:]5 Era! IFAtira! Era! IPAtira! He! Iri! 

ei'u! an exclamation of reverence. 

h', the symbol of breath, the life-giving power. 

atira, mother. The term refei's to the ear of corn. 

he! a pari of i'hare, an exclamation calling on one to reflect 
upon a subject now brought to inind. See line 1. 

iri! a ijart of nawairi! an exclamation of tlianks and of 
trustfulness. 
93() See line !)35. 

937 Eru! IFAtira! Eru! II'Alira! 11.'! See line 1)35. 

Ea'plautifidii hy till Jvii' riiJnis 

The life of man depend.s upon the eartli (irAtira). Tira'wa atiu.s 
works through it. The kernel is planted witliin Mother Earth and 
she brings forth tlie ear of corn, even as ciiiiiiren are Ijegotten and 
borji of women. 

We sing the first stanza as we make the third ciicuit of the lodge. 
We give the crv of iwerence (Eru!) to Mother Corn, .she who bring.s 
the promise of children, of strength, of life, of plenty, and of j^eace. 
As we reflect upon her gifts we sing our thanks and bid the Children 
join us. 

When the circuit is complete we pause at the west. Then we turn 
toward the north and begin the fourth circuit, singing the second 

stanza. 

Translntion of Second Stanza 

938 llo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

939 Nawa! IFAtira! Nawa! IFAtira! He! Iri! 

nawa, a part of imwairi, a ceremonial word for expressing 

thanks, confideiu-e, ti-ust. 
h', the symbol of breath, life, V)ringing forth or into, 
atira, mother. The term is applied to the ear of corn, re^jre- 

sentative of Mother Earth, 
he! a part of i'hare, an exclamation calling ujjon one to 

reflect upon tjiat which is now brought to mind. See 

line 1. 
iri! a part of nawaii'i! thanks! all is well! 

940 See line 939. 

941 Nawa! IFAtira! Nawa! IFAtira! He! See line 939. 

Explduotioii of tJif- fCii'rnJnis 

"Nawa! IFAtira!" It is Tira'wa alius who causes Mother Earth 
to bring forth the corn, who gives fruitfulness to man, who sends the 
gifts whicli Mother Corn breathes upon us. As we reflect upon this 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 



191 



we give thanks 1o Tira'wa, and witli the Children sing "NaAva! 
IFAtira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! Iri!" over and over nntil we com- 
plete the fourth eirciiit. 

In these first four circuits we have remembered the power of 
Tira'wa atius with Mother Earth; in the next four circuits we shall 



sing of the eagles. 



THIRD SOUa 

Words and Musi( 



M. M. ^S = ]38. 
= Pulsation of the voice. 



?fc«.ij 



i^= 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



3E^=3z 



Drum. 
Rattles 



Ho o-o-o! Ti - ra whe ru - wa lio - ka - we ta wi - ra, ho - 

^ ^ -1 i r ' j • r ' r • 



l^^ 



-3=*:: 



^==r 






sr^- 



ka - we ta wi-ra, lio - ka - we ta wi - ra. Ti - ra whe rii - wa ho ■ 






za= 






ka - we la wi - ra. ho - ka - we ta wi ra. lio - ka - we ta wi - ra. 

L/ L^ L^ Lj t-: LJ L^ t - I 

I 

942 Ho-o-o-o! 

943 Tira whe ruwa hokawe ta wira, hokawe ta wira, hokawe ta wira. 

944 Tira whe ruwa hokawe wira. hokawe ta wira. hokawe ta wira. 

II 

945 Ho-o-o-o! 

946 Tias we ria kishpa ka wia. kishpa ka wia, kishpa ka wia. 

947 Tias we ria kishpa ka wia. kishpa ka wia, kishpa ka wia. 



Trdiislation 
I 

942 IIo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

943 Tira whe ruwa hokawe ta wira, hokawe ta wira, hokawe ta wira. 

tira, a part of atira, mother. The term refers to Kawas. 

whe, it. 

ruwa, flying toward the speaker. 

hokawe, shadow. 

ta, a part of wita, coming. 

wira, it is coming. 

944 See line 943. 



192 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY Jeth. ann. 22 

II 

945 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exelaniation. 

94<) Tias we ria kishpa ka win, kishpa ka wia, kishpa ka wia. 

tias, a part of atius, father. The term refers to the white 
eagle, tlie male feathered stem. 

we, it. 

ria, hovering. 

kishpa, the loud cry of the eagle. 

ka, a part of akaro, lodge, <lwi'lling place. 

wia, coming, moving. 

kishpa, the scream of the eagle. 

ka, the word has here a double reference, to the lodge, and to 
the nest. The lodge represents the nest. 

wia, moving about, coming. 

kishpa, the scream of the eagle. 

ka, a part of akaro, lodge. Refers to the nest. 

wia, coming. 
9-47 See line 946. 

Explanation Inj flw Kii'rnhus 

This song has very few words, but a story goes with it to explain 
its meaning. 

One daj- a man was walking on the prairie; he was thinking, and his 
eyes were upon the ground. Suddenly he became aware of a shadow 
flitting over the grass, moving in circles that inclosed his feet. He 
stood still, wondering what this could mean ; then he looked up and 
beheld a brown eagle flying round and round over his head. As he 
gazed the bird paused, looked down upon him, then flapped its wings 
and flew away (first stanza). 

Again the man was walking and thinking, when he caught sight of 
a tall tree about which a great white eagle was flying, ai'ound and 
around as if it were watching over something. As it flew it screamed, 
making a great noise. It was the father bird guarding its nest (sec- 
ond stanza). 

The browu eagle which the man saw was Kawas; where she went 
when she flew away is told in the next song. The blue-feathered 
stem, with the brown eagle feathers upon it, is carried next to the 
Children and waved over their heads, for she is the mother and cares 
for the young. 

The white eagle is the male; the green-feathered stem, with his 
feathers upon it, is carried upon the outside, for he guards the nest. 

The lodge where the Children are (the lodge where the ceremony is 
being performed) is the nest. 

The white eagle which the man saw protecting the nest teaches all 
men to be brave and vigilant, to guard their children and ni.ake safe 
theii- home. In token of this duty, the warrior father wears the white 
eagle feather. 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 



193 



The wliistle is used wlicn we sing- the tsecoud stanza, because the 
white eagle whistle<l wlien he flew around liis nest. 

FOURTH SONG 

If (iriJs anil ^f/i.sl<- 



M. M. ^s = 144. 

• ^= Pulsation of the voice. 



zal-zm: 



^£KSz^i=i- • - jKsij 



TranscribeJ by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ha-a-aa! Ka-wasrn-a, Ka-waarn-a, Ka-w.isrn-a, Ka-vvaa rn - a wlie-e rn - a 

Drum, i a i> e i t i o H o i a t m ^ gmimit'i. 

Matties.,^ L. L— < bJ L^ '1— ' ^ L—l ° ' ' 1 i^j 

]yhi.itle. 




^y^^^^^i^h^i^^^^^ -Tri^ 



Ka-wasrn-a, Ka w.is rn - a wlie-e rn - a e; Pie! Ka was wlie-e rn - a 

' • • > ' • ' • ' i ' i , H i , i . i . 



m 



e; He! Ka-was whe-e rn-a e; 



r=ty*jJE|=s=sE 



liigi 



m~&~^-ar^m—m—w~a0af 



Ka-was ru-a, Ka-wasru-a whe-e ru -a e. 



L.' — .' L.' 'ij' LT L^ 



t - I I i 



I 



948 Ha-a-a-a! 

949 Kawas rna, Kawas rua, Kawas rna. Kawas rua whe-e rua e; 

950 Kawa.s rna. Kawas riia whe-e rna e: 

9.51 He! Kawas whe-e ma e; He! Kawas whe-e rua e: 

9.")3 Kawas rua. Kawas rna whe-e rna e 

II 

9.j:j Ha-a-a-a 1 

9.54 Kawas tia. Kawas tia. Kawas tia. Kawas tia wheri ria e: 

9.5.J Kawas tia. Kawas tia wheri ria e; 

9.56 He! Kawas wheri ria e; He! Kawas wheri ria e; 

957 Kawas tia, Kawas tia wheri ria e. 



TriinsJdiinn 



I 



948 Ha-a-a-a I An Introductory exclamation. 

940 Kawas rua, Kawas rua, Kawas rua, Kawas rua whe-e rua e, 

Kawas, the brown eagle, symbol of the feminine powers. 

rua, flying towar(l an object. 

wlie, it. 

e, vowel prolongation. 

rua, flying toward. 

e, vocable. 
950 Kawas rua, Kawas rua whe-e rua e. See line 949. 
22 ETH— PT 2—04 1:; 



1U4 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.22 

951 lie! Kawas whe-e J'ua c; He! Kawas whe-e rua e. 

lie! a part of i'liaiv, an exolaination calling oue to reflect. 

See line 1. 
Kawas whe-e rua c. See line ',)4'.). 

952 See line 950. 

II 

953 Ha-a-a-a! An introdnctory exclamation. 

954 Kawas tia, Kawas tia, Kawas tia, Kawas tia wlieri via e. 

Kawas, the Ijrown eagle, the feminine i)ower. 

tia, fljing overhead. 

wheri, it here. 

ria, above and very near. 

e, vocable. 

955 Kawas tia, Kawas tia wiieri ria e. See line 954. 

956 He! Kawas wlieri ria e; Kawas wheri ria e. 

he! a part of i'hare, an exclamation calling one to reflect 

upon a suliject. See line 1. 
Kawas wheri ria e. See line 954. 

957 See line 955. 

K.rphiniition Inj iht Ku'ntliiis 

The story of this song wliich lias come down to ns is that when 
the man saw the shadow on the gras.s and beheld the brown eagle 
flying over him, the eagle, recognizing the man, flapped its wings 
and fl^ew away. The brown eagle was Kawas, tlie mother bird, and 
she flew straight to her nest, to her j^oung, who cried out with joy as 
she came near. We use the whistle when we sing this song because 
the young eagles scream as the mother returns to them. 

When we sing the second stanza we remember tliat the lodge of 
the Son is the nest of Kawas, tliat she is liere flying over tlie heads 
of the Children, bringing near to them the fulfilment of the promises 
of tlie Hako. 

The whistle which accompanies this stanza represents the cry of 
the Children in recognition of the fulfllinciit which Kawas is bring- 
ing. With this song we complete the fourth circuit of the eagles 
and the eighth circuit of the lodge. 

The songs of the next four circuits refer to the rites. 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 



195 



FIFTH SONG 

Words and Muaic 



M. M. Melody. J. = 69. 
M. M. Drum. ;n=138. 
• = Pulsiation of tlie voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ho-o-o-o ol H'A-ti-ra, ru! Il'.V-ti-ra. nil Ka lii - sha: H'A ti - ra. rul Ka 

RrilllfX.H _^_ "^■~ "" *" I i I ' r ! 






hi-slia- a; H'A - ti-ra, rii! H'A- ti-ra, ru! Ka hi-slia -a; H'A- 

i» • i > ,i . f « £ . i • i . i • i 



r^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



ti-ra, ru! H'A-ti-ra, rul Ka hi-slia; H'A-ti-ra, nil Ka. hi - sba. 

^ . ^ . i . i . i . 4 . 4 . ; - 4 ^ , 



9.58 Ho-o-o-f)-ol 

9.59 H'Atira. ni! H'Atira. ru: Kahisha: H'Atira. ra! Ka hi.sba-a: 

960 HAtira, ru! H'Atira. Ta\ Ka hisha-a: 

961 H'Atira. nil H"Atira. ni! Ka hisha: HAtira. rul Ka hisha. 

II 

962 Ho-o-o-o-ol 

963 Hra shira ko: hra shira ko, ka hisha: hra shira ko. ka hisha-a; 

964 Hra shira ko: hra shira ko. ka hisha-a: 

965 Hra shira ko: hra shira ko. ka hisha: hra shira ko. ka hisha. 

Translaiion 
I 

958 Ho-o-o-o-ol An exclamation introductory to the .song. 

959 H'Atira, ni! H'Atira, rul Ka hisha; H'Atira, ru! Ka hisha-a. 

h', the symbol of breath; life-giving. 

atira, mother. The term refers to all the feminine powers 
represented with the Hako. 

rul an exclamation of joy. 

ka. a part of akaro, lodge, dwelling place. 

hisha, reached, entered. 

h'Atira, ru I Translated above. 

ka hisha-a. Translated above. The final a is a vowel pro- 
longation. 

960 H'Atira, rul H'Atira, ru! Ka hi.sha-a. See line 959. 

961 See line 959. 



19<'> THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth.anx.32 

II 

962 Ho-o-o-o-o! An oxolainatidii iiitfoductoi'y to the song. 

903 Hi-ii sliira ko; lira sliira ko; kaliisha; lira shira ko, ka liislia-a. 

lira, ;ui abbreviation of liai-as, yon, plural. 

sliira, caine brini>iiig. 

ko, a part of Ilako. 

ka, a part of akai'o, lodge, (hvclling. 

liisha, reached, entered. 
9(U lira shira ko; lira sliira ko, ka hisha-a. See line '.)i;3. 
9C.T See line WA. 

E.rpldiiiifinii liij (lie Ku'riiJiiis 

In the first stanza of this song, the Fatliers giv(( the cry of joy that 
the}" have entered the lodge of tlie Son witli the Mother breathing 
forth life. 

In the second stanza the Children respond: ''Truly you have i-onie, 
bringing the Ilako with its gifts and its promises of joy." 

SIXTH SONG 

TI'o/v/.s- <inil ^fllsil■ 
M. M. S = 144. 
' = Pulsation of tlie voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



ii^:^ 



:-I-=^■Ld^=^ 



m 



ir^-Jz 



-0>~m-"-^-m-»—m~a — — »-D-a_ 



:?5 



■'-^ 



q-S: 



m 

IIo-o-o! Ka-ka-tichi-ii \va ka-ripi-ra - ii Ti ni a; Ka - ka-ti chi ri wa-ka-ri [lira- 
Dntm.iti, it &• <«£« i t i00m ^ » ia i m ^ t 



f-S^ 



a Ti-ra-a; K 



mi 



3ilil£ 



^Elfi^^E^^^E^EiS 



~ ^-T — |>r 



ka - ti clii-i i \va-k:i - ri pi - ra - u Ti - ni-a; Ka- 

L^ Uu LJ Lj Lr L-: L^ Lr Lr 



g |jb -«= 



^ 



m 



ka-ti clii-ri wa-ka-ri jii - ra - ii Ti la-a; Ka - ka-ti clii-ri wa-ka-ri jii-ra- 



I M^j ^^j^j"^ 



Br; 



^^^=e^=Me^=S^^^^ 



u Ti-ra-a; Ka - ka-ticlii-ri \v,i-ka- li pi - ra - u Ti-ra - a. 

t ' L* i/ Lj Lj Lj t - i. II 

I 

!»(J0 Ho-o-o! 

967 Kakati cliiri wakari plran Tira a: 

968 Kakati cliiri wakari jrirau Tira'a: 

969 Kakati cliiri wakari piraii Tira'a; 
^ 970 Kakati chiri wakari piran Tira a: 

971 Kakati cliiri wakari piran Tira'a; 

972 Kakati chiri wakari pirau Tira'a. 



FLETCHEH] FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 19? 

II 

973 Wetati t-liiri wakari piran ta hao: 

974 Wetati cliiri wakari piran ta hao: 

975 Wetati chiri wakari piran ta liao: 

976 Wetati c-liiri wakari piran ta liao: 

977 Wetati chiri wakari jiiran ta hao: 

978 Wetati chiri wakari piran ta hao. 

Trdiislatioii 
I 

000 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
967 Kakati chiri wakari pirau Tiraa. 

kakati, I do not. 

cliiri, a part of titichiri, to know. 

wakari, a modified form of wakow, voice, witU the pluial sii^n, 
ri;" the word wakari refer.s to chanted prayens. 

piran, children; a general term. 

Tiraa, a modificatioii of Tira'wa, the mighty power. 
968-972 See line 907. 

II 

973 Wetati chiri wakari piran ta hao. 

wetati, I now. 

chiri, know. See line 967. 

Avakari, chanted prayers. See line 967. 

pirau, children. 

ta, my. 

hao, offspring; my own son or child. 
974-978 See line 973. 

Explanation hij ihe Ku'rnhns. 

The old men who made these songs so long ago thought much upon 
Tira'wa atius and they jn-ayed to him out on the hills nights and days 
at a time. They observed all the sacred ceremonies, for they knew 
that the rites were given to help the people. This Hako ceremony 
was given by the great power. The old men were careful in teaching 
its songs to those who were to come after them, and they explained 
their meaning. I am singing these songs and explaining them .just 
as they were taught me, and as they had been handed down to the 
Ku'rahns who gave them to me. I did not make them." 

This song is very old and this is tlie story that came with it: 

«Tlie recording of this ceremony occupied several weelcs in each of four years, and the reiter- 
ations of the Ku'rahus as to the fidelity of his communications were not apparent to him. They 
were natural expressions of his earnestness and his desire to be faithful. I have deemed it best 
to follow my original notes, giving these reiterations just as they were made. 



198 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth.ann.23 

Long ago ;i Kii'ialius went with a Ilako party to a distant tribe to 
make a Son. On the hist niylit of iho, t-ereniony he said to tlio people: 
"Children, tliere is a powei' al)ove wliicli knows all tliinj;s, all that is 
coming' to pass. I (h) not know what will hapixMi, hut I liopt^ good 
will eonu! to yon. I have prayed thati loiig lifti and children and 
ph^nty may l)e given to you, bnt I know not if my xjrayers are heard 
or if they will be answered." 

He went with the Ilako a second time to the same tribe, bnt he said 
nothing. lie went a third time, but he said nothing. He went the 
fourth time, and he was then a very old man. On the last night of 
the ceremony he spoke and said: " Children, I look over you and see 
the little boys whom I held in my arms wdien they were painted" now 
grown to manhood. I see that many children have been given to 
them; I see that your people liave iJrospered and now I know that my 
prayers for you when I first came with the Hako have been answered. 
I know and am sure that the great power to which I prayed hears and 
answers the praj'ers of a man." 

The first stanza refers to the prayer of th(^ Ku'i'ahus when he first 
carried the Ilako to the Children. 

The second stanza s|)eaks of the od'spring that had been given to the 
Children, that he saw when he went the fourth time with tlie Ilako. 

We sing these stanzas on the last night of tiie ceremony, because 
it was on tiie last nighir that the Ku'rahus spoki^ to the Children. As 
we sing we remember what he said he had been taught, tiiat Tira wa 
atins hears us pray for the Cliildren and will ;uiswer oui' prayers. 

We now begin the last four circuits of the lodge. The first song 
refers to Tira'wa atius, the father of all. The second speaks of the 
lesser powers, those which can l)e seen or heard or felt by man. 

Wo have sung these two songs befoi-e; the first time was on the 
first day, when we made t he first circuit of the lodge, in the presence 
of all the (Hiildren, before they partook of the food prepared for 
them (eighth ritual). We sang them a second time on the third 
day, after the saered feast of corn, and before we sang to jNIother 
Earth and made the offering of smoke (thirteenth ritual). Now 
we sing them for the tliird time, at the close of the fourth and last 
night. They are our apix'ul before we begin tlie secret ceremonies 
IJertaining to the little child. 

«Tliis is a reference to the ceremonies with the little child which take place on the fifth 
morning. 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PAKT II 



li»9 



SEVENTH SONG 

]]^or(Js- (111(1 .V//.v/r 



M. M.J- 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

A _A A A A 

Ha-a-a-a! II'A-ars Ti - ra - wa ba - ki; H' A-ars Ti - ra - \v;i b^i !<i; 




H'.\-ars Ti - ra-wa ba -ki; IP A arsTi- ra-wa lia - ki; H'.V-ar.sTi - ra-\va ba - ki. 

? r r r ,* r ,* r N- f r I* r r r ^ r M - 



97!) Ha-a-;i-a! 

980 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

981 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 



983 H'Aars Tii-awa haki ; 

983 H"Aars Tira'wa haki: 

984 H'Aars Tira'wa haki. 



For tniuslation, sco eiglitli ritual, liues i'A7-4:4.-2. 

EIGHTH SONG 

^V()l■(ls (1)1(1 3Iusic 



U. iM. J=]26. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by lOdwin S. Tracy. 



(=^^=ii^3 



—I. 



=1 — J-. 1*-^: 



^E^l 



q=z:|— z]^4= 



=3==l- 



Ila-a- a- a! 



Driim. ^ 
Matties. I 



I I 



II'A- ars 



r r 



e liol Ti- ra-wa ba-ki; 

r ^- f r N- P r 



H'A-ars e lie! 

i , i . 

I I r I 



i-S=i=a 






m=^^^=:^^ 



'^Se^^^PP 



Ti-ra-wa ba-ki; Ili-dbi! Ti-ra-wa ba-ki; II'A-ars Ti-ra-wa ha-ki. 



985 Ha-a-a-a! 

986 H'Aars e he! Tirawahaki; 

987 H'Aars e he! Tira'wa haki; 



^ r tr 



988 Hidhi! Tirawahaki; 
9.S9 H"Aar.s Tira'wa haki. 



For translation, .see eiglitli riliiul, lines 4-l:o-4-l:7. 

EjjjhtiKillo/i hij Ute Kii'rahus 

Tlie song.s we sing during the last two circuits are the same that we 
sang when we prepared the llako (first ritual). The first was 
when we painted the stem blue, the color of the sky, representing the 
abode of the pow(irs above. The other was when we painted the stem 
green, the color of the covering of the fruitful earth. When we sang 
these songs we called upon the powers to come and give life and 
potency to the stems, and now we call upon them again asking for 
the fulfilment of the promises of the liako. 



200 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH, ANN. 23 



NINTH SONG 

TT'c/v/.s ((//(/ Jfusic 



M. M. ^S = 126. 

• — Pulsution of the voice. 



==)= 






Transcrilied l)_v Edwin S. Tracy. 



Drum 
Hattles. 



Ho o-o u! H' a-re - I'i, li'a - re ri. He! H' a - re - li, h'a-re-ri. li'a-re- 

m 9 'i f 9 • o a • m '• m f • ^0«« 






ri, re - ri. li'a-re-ri. Hel IF a-re - ri, li'a- re ri. He! Ee-ri, li'a- 



^^^e:^^ 



^irpr^-:^^: 



m^^^z^^m 



re-ri, h'a ■ re - ri, le - ri, h'a-reri. He! H' a-re - ri, li'a-re-ii. Hel 

• « a » i . . » • » * « i » ,D» 4 ^ jj 



'J'.tO Ho-o-o-o! 

991 H'areri, h'areri. He! 

992 H'areri, h'areri, li'areri, reii, h'areri. He! 

993 H'areri, h'areri. Hel 

994 Reri. h'areri, h'areri. reri^. h'areri. He! 
99.5 H'areri, h'areri. He! 

For translation, see the first ritnal, lines 00-71. 



TENTH SONG 
^Vtl|■(ls (lllll ^fl(Sic 



n. M. >^ = i2&. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Tran8cril)eil by Edwin R. Tracv. 



?riti; 



?=^^£^'E^?^iE^E*'=^^^E?£^^ES=^=feE^^E^Z^E^ 



Drum. 
Rattles. 



ir a-rc - ri, li'i". - re 

* r ' ' ' 



H' a- re - ri, 'ha - re' I' - ha - re 



"^-^, 



rel H' a re - ri, 'li;i-re! I'-hare re! H' are - ri; Hu - re - e! 



^^^ 



__» — 0-'^ — 0~ 



^ 



==]tr.= 



ir a re - ri, 'ha-re! I' - ha-re rel H' a-re - ri; Hu - re - el 



FLETCHER] FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH EITUALS 201 

906 Hareri. h"areri; 

997 H'areri, hare! I'hare re! 

998 H'areri. 'hare! Ihare re! H'areri: 

999 Hure-e! 

1001) H'areri. 'hare. I hare re! H'areri; 
1001 Hure-e! 

For translation, see the first ritual, lines 72-77. 

ExpliDiution kij the Kit'rahus 

We have now made four times four circuits of tlie lodge. In the 
first four we remembered Motlier Eartli thro>i<?h the corn. In the sec- 
ond four we sang of the eagles, wliicli are the messengers of the pow- 
ers above. In the third four we spoke of the prayers we send to Tira'wa 
through this ceremony. In the last four we lifted our voices to the 
powers themselves, the might}- power above and all tliose which are 
with the Ilako. 

Four times four means completeness. Now all the forces above 
and below, male and female, have l)ceu remembered and called upon 
to be witli us in the sacred ceremonies which will take place at the 
dawn. 

The night is nearly over wlien the last circuit is completed; then 
the Children rise and go liome. 

SIXTEEXTH RITUAL (FIFTH DAY, DAWN) 

Part I. Seekino the Child 

ExjjJa nation hij the Ku'raluifi 

After the C'hildren have gone, tiie Fathers lie down and wait for 
the first sign of dawn. They liave eaten nothing since tliey last fed 
the Children slioi-tly after noon, and they must fast until the close of 
the ceremony. 

At the first sign of dawn the Fatliers rise and, preceded by the 
Ku'rahus with the featliered stems, the chief with the corn and wild- 
cat skin, tlie doctors witli their eagle wings, and the singers with the 
drum, go forth to tlie lodgi^ where the family of the Sou is living. 
As they march they sing the following song; the words mean that the 
Father is now seeking his child. 

The child referred to is usually a little son or daugliter of the Son, 
the man who has received the Ilako party. Upon tliis little child we 
are to put the signs of the promises which Mother Corn and Kawas 
bring, the promise of children, of increase, of long life, of plenty. 
The signs of these promises are put upon this little child, but they are 
not merely for that particubir child but for its generation, that the 
children already born may live, grow in strength, and in their turn 
increase so that the familj' and the tribe may continue. 

In the absence of a littl ■ cliild of the Son an older ])crson or a mother 
and her baby may be substituted. 



202 



M. M. ^N = 126. 

• = Pulsutioii of tlie voice. 



THE HAKO, A PAWNP^E CEREMONY [kth. ann. 82 

FIRST SONG 

\ 

TI'o/-(/.s (tiid Music 

Transcriiierl liy Kclwin S. Tracy. 







Ho-o-o-o! Tah ra - slipe, tali ra - slipe 

Drum, i p « • « • « * • * f 



t! ll: 



Pi 



^^ 




ra-u, ti ha-o; Tah ra-slipe 

ij Ls U Li Lj 

1003 Ho-o-u-(i! 

1008 Tah rasliiie, tali rashpe ti liao; 

1004 Plnm. ti luiu; 

1005 Tah rawhiie ti hao; 

1006 Pirau. ti hao. 



7V 



s/a// 



WO-2 
1003 



1004 



1005 
lOOG 



IIo-o-o-ol Au iutroduclory exclamation. 
Tah rashpe, tah rashpe ti hao. 

tah, I. 

rashpe, am seeking. 

tah rashije, I am seelting. 

ti, my. 

liao, cliild, offspring. 
Pirau, ti hao. 

pirau, children, a general term. 

ti, my. 

hao, child, offspring. 
Tah rashpe ti hao. See line lOOo. 
See line 1004. 



Expla initio II In/ till- Ku' rahiis 

As we approach the lodge of the Son we pause and sing the follow- 
ing song. It is the same that we sang when we halted on the border of 
the village at the end of our journey (sixth ritual, part ii). Tlien we 
were about to enter the village and go to the lodge which the Son had 
prepared for us. Now we have been four days and nights in that lodge, 
singing the songs and performing the rites of the ceremony and at 
the dawn of this the fifth day we oiu-e more seek the lodge where the 
Son and his family are dwelling, that we may carry these sacred 
objects to his own fireplace and there touch with them one of his 
children, that the promises we have l)rought may be fulfilled. So we 
sinij; the first stanza as we lialt. 



FLETCHlCitJ 



SIXTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 



203 



SECOND SONG 

IVords 011(1 J/^».s/r 



M. M. ^^-^116. 



— Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




I 
Idor Ho-o-o-ol 

1008 Kimrakawi? 

1009 Kiru raka \vi. ti hao? 

1010 Kiru raka \vi, ti hao'f 

1011 Kirti raka, kiru raka wi? 



II 
1(11'-' Ho-o-o-o! 

1013 Tiwirekawi! 

1014 Tiwi reka wl, ti hao! 
101.^ Tiwi reka wi, ti hao! 
1016 Tiwi reka, tiwi reka wi! 



For translation, see the sixth ritnal, lines StJS-.iT-l. 



E.v'planation hij flie Kii'ralius 

After singing the first stanza we move on, and when we are near 
the lodge we jiause and .sing tlie second stanza, " Here is tlie lodge of 
my Son wherein he sits waiting for me ! " 

"When we are close to the lodge of the Son we halt, and all the party 
of the Fathers who can not count war honors remain witli the two 
Ku'ralms, the chief, and the singers wlio carry the drum, f(n- the Ilako 
can not take part in anything that refers to strife or war; its mission 
is to unite the people in peace. 

The Ku'ralms chooses two men, a chief rejpresenting tlie brown 
eagle and a warrior representing the white eagle, to accompany the 
warriors as they step stealthily around the lodge, as if to surprise an 
enemy, and rush in through the entrance waj'. 

The two chosen tnen go at once to the child and stand beside it, tlie 
chief on the right, tlie wari-ioi- on the left, while the warriors gather 
around the cliild and count their honors over it, all talking at once. 
When they have finished, the warrior touclies the child on the left 
shoulder, then turns and faces it and speaks of the good gifts he has 
received from Tira'wa. His touch means the imparting to the child 
of that which he has received from Tira'wa. Then the chief touches 
the child on the right shoulder, turns and faces it and tells of the 
honor and favor Tira'wa has granted him. His touch means impart- 
ing to the child of that granted him by Tira'wa. 

Tlie touch of the warrior and the chief, representatives of the white 
and the brown eagle, signify the approach of the Ilako. 



204 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



Part II. Symbolic Inception 

K.rpltt niifidii hi/ till Kii' rahiis 

Now the Ku'nilms witli the feathci'ed stems, the chief with tlie 
corn and the wildcat skiu, and the singers witli the drum, advance to 
the door of the lodge, enter, and walk down the long passageway into 
thedwcliiiig. They go around the fire to the west, where the Son and 
his little child await them. 

As we stand before the little chilil we sing this song (first stanza). 
We have sung it once before (sixth ritual, part i), at the time when 
the messenger representing the Son came to us outside the village. 
We sing it now as we look on the little cliild who represents the con- 
tinuation of the life of tlie Son. 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. ;n- 116. 

• = PuUatioii of the voice. 
No drum. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Hii-o-o-o! 
Battles ^ t. 



3r4=pi=:3- 






Ti-we ra-kii-slif 1ki-w:i ti ha-cil Ti we ra-kii-slie ti lia-o! Ti we ra-kn slie! 
^(,.„ ,,^ , „,^.,-.,.„.^., P (,■ ^^^^^.^^^^^^^ f tr.^^^. ,„,. 

101? Ho-0-o-ul 

1018 Tiwe rakushe ti liaul 

1019 Tiwe rakushe ti haol 

1020 Tiwe rakushe hawa ti hao! 
1031 Tiwe rakushe ti haul 

10'32 Tiwe rakuslie! 

For translation, see tlic sixtli ritual, lines .'i.io-ooS. 



K.fjiliiiHdiiin III/ Ihi Kii raliiis 

The Ku laiiiis takes from the hands of the chief the wildcat skin, 
in which the ear of corn and the crotclied plum tree stick are wrapped, 
and while he holds tlie eai- toward tht^ little child, we sing the song. 

Wt' liave sung this song once befor(>, at the time the ear of corn was 
painted (lirst ritual, part III). The ear of corn represents h'Urarn, 
Mother Earth who bi'ings foith; the power which causes her to bi-ing 
forth is from above, and the blue paint represents that power. 

We hold the painted ear of corn toward the little child that tlie 
powei's from above and from Ixdow may conic near it. 



FLETCHEl!] 



SIXTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 



205 



SECOND SONG 

IVonls (111(1 Music 



M. M. ^^ = 138. 

• = I'ulsatioLi of tlie voice. 



Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracv. 



^^=3:^^^Pa^^ 



=IS=a=r::^zsi:::^ 



W^i 



Dnini. 2 
Hatlles.'^ 



Ha-a-a-aal H'A-ti ra, we- ri lua ri - ki! II'A-ti-ra, we - ri 



=3<=a= 



r.» __ C-^ ^ J, ff— c_s B, ^T — 3 



lira li - Ijil H'A-ti - r:i 



we - ri Ilia ri - ki! II'A-ti - ra, lira 

a o m t ^ « d » m 9 




n lira n 



ki! II'A 



1024 
1025 
1026 
1027 
1028 
1029 



1030 
1031 
1032 
1033 
1034 
1035 
1036 



1037 
1038 
1039 
1040 
1041 
1042 
1043 



Ha-a-a-a-a! 1044 

H'Atira, weri bra riki! 1045 

H'Atira, weri lira riki! 1040 

H'Atira, weri hra riki! 1047 

H'Atira, hra riki re! 1048 

Weri hra riki! 104!) 

H'Atira. weri hra riki! 1050 

II 

Ha-a-a-a-a! 1051 

H'Atira, weri ruata! 1052 

H'Atira, weri ruata! 1053 

H'Atira. weri ruata! 1054 

H'Atira ruata re! 1055 

Weri ruata! 1056 

H'Atira. weri ruata! 1057 



HI 
Ha-a-a-aal 

H'Atira. weri tukuka! 
H'Atira. weri tukuka! 
H'Atira. weri tukuka! 
H'Atira tukuka re! 
Weri tukuka! 
H'Atira. weri tukuka! 



- ti - ra, we- ri lira ri - ki! 

i ^ ? 1 1 i 

IV 
Ha-a-a-a-a! 
H'Atira, weri taiwa! 
H'Atira, weri taiwa! 
H'Atira. weri taiwa! 
H'Atira taiwa re! 
Weri taiwa! 
H'Atira, weri taiwa! 

V 
Ha-a-a-a-a! 

H'Atira, weri tawawe! 
H'Atira, weri tawawe! 
H'Atira, weri tawawe! 
H'Atira. tawawe re! 
Weri tawawe! 
H'Atira. weri tawawe! 



For tniuslatioii, see tli( 



VI 

1058 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

10.59 H'Atira, weri tawit.shjja! 

1060 H'Atira, weri tawitshpa! 

1061 H'Atira, weri tawitslipa! 
10G2 H'Atira tawitshija re! 

1 063 Weri tawitshpa ! 

1064 H'Atira, weri tawitshpal 

lirsl ritual, lines 82-123. 



Explunation by the Ku'rahus 

As "we sing the second stanza, the Ku'rahus moves the ear of corn, 
as if it were flj'ing towarfl the child. I exphvined this movement wlien 
I told you about the painting of tlie corn (see the first i-itual, part ill, 
explanation of second stanza of tlie song by the Ku'rahus). 



206 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY rETn.ANx.25 

While we sing the third stanza, the Kii'rahus touclies llie little ehild 
on the forehead with the ear of corn. The spirit of Mot her Corn, with 
the power of Mother Earth, granted from above, has tonehed the ehild. 

The touch means the promise of fruitfulness to the child and its 
generation. 

As we sing the fourth stanza, the Ku'rahus strokes the child with 
the ear of corn, down the front, down the right side, down the back, 
and then dowii the left side. 

These motions, corresponding to the four lines on the ear of corn, 
represent the four paths down which the powers descend to man. 
The four lines stroked upon the little child make the paths and open 
the way for the descent of the powers upon it. Every side of the cliild 
is now open to receive the powers, and as he goes through life, where- 
ever he may be, on every side the powers can have access to him. 

As we sing the fifth stanza, the Ku'rahus touches the child here 
and there with the ear of corn. 

This movement signifies that Mother Corn with the powers are 
spreading over the child and descending upon it. 

The sixth stanza tells that it is accomplished; the child is now 
encompassed by the spirit of Mother Corn and the powers and has 
received tlie promise of fruitfulness. 

The Ku'rahus hands back to the chief the wildcat skin, inclosing the 
crotched stick and the ear of corn, and takes the two feathered stems. 
He wraps the wiiite-eagle feathei-ed stem within the feathers of the 
brown-eagle stem and, holding with both hands the bundle, he stands 
before the little child, and, while the first stanza of the following song 
is sung, he points the stems toward it. 

This movement means that the l)reath of life is turned toward the 
child. The breath passes through the stem. 

THIRD SONG 

IVonJ.s and Music 
M. M. ^S = 126. 
• = Pulsation of tlie voice. Transcriber! by Edwin S. Tracy. 

-I- 






IIa-a-a-a-;i! Ka - was we-ri lira ri - ki, re lirari-kil Ka - was we - ri 

Drum. 2 4 t i m •<•« • •«• •«•« ••;•• 
i£at<Ie$.4u_i L— 'bi_ L^ L^^ L— J L^ ',—- \—i L— I 









lira ri - ki, re lira ri - ki! Ka - was we - ri lirari-ki, re lira ri - ki! 

1* • .* f ? • f r ^ r f f rr ^^r s •> I 

I 
Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1065 Kawas weri lira riki, re lira riki! 

1066 Kawas weri lira riki, re bra riki! 

1067 Kawas weri lira riki, re bra riki! 



FLETCHER] SIXTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 207 

II 

1068 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1069 Kawas weri ruata. re niata! 

1070 Kawas weri ruata. re rnata! 
lOTl Kawas weri ruata. re rTiata! 

Ill 
1072 Ha-a-a-a-a! 
1078 Kawas weri tukulva. re tukuka! 

1074 Kawas weri tuknka, re tnknka! 

1075 Kawas weri tukuka. re tukukal 

IV 

1076 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1077 Kawas weri taiwa, re taiwa! 
1()7'S Kawas weri taiwa. re taiwa! 
1070 Kawas weri taiwa. re taiwa! 

V 

1080 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1081 Kawas weri tawawe. re tawawe! 

1083 Kawas weri tawawe. re tawawe! 
108:^ Kawas weri tawawe. re tawawe! 

VI 

1084 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1085 Kawas weri tawitshpa, re tawitshpa! 

1086 Kawas weri tawitshpa, re tawitshpa! 

1087 Kawas weri tawitshpa, re tawitshpa! 

Triiiisliifion of First St(i/i,~a 

1064 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

1065 Kawas weri lira riki, re bra riki. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, representing the female forces, 
weri, I am. The singular pronoun refers to Hako party, not 

merely to the Ku'rahus? 
hra, a modification of rararit, to hold, 
riki, standing, present time. 
]-e, plural sign, indicating the two feathered stems which have 

been folded together, the united male and female, 
hra, holding. 

riki, standing, the present time. 
10(3G, 1067 See line 1065. 



208 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. axn. 23 

Trtiiishiiioii ttf Sei-ond Slauzii 

lOiiS ria-a-a-a-;il An iiitroduetoiy exclamation. 
lUUy Kawas weri I'liata, re ruata. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, the female. 

weri, I am. 

ruata, flying. See line !H). 

re, plural sign; the two featheied steins. 

niata, flying. 
107(1,1(171 See line lOOO. 

K-vpJn iKilidii III/ tlir Kn' rahus 

As we sing tiie seuoud stanza the Ku'ralius moves the feathered 
stems as if Ihey were flying through space toward the child; Ihe 
united male and femali' stems are di'awing neai-. 

Tniii.sI((lioii of Third Slniizu 

1U7l' Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
1U73 Kawas weri tukuka, re tukuka. 

Kawas, the brown eagle; the female. 

were, I am. 

tukuka, touching, now touches. 

re, plural sign; refers to tlie two feathered stems. 

tukuka, now touches, are now touching. 
1(174:, 1(175 See line 107:!. 

E.rplanaJinii hi/ ihi Kii'nilnis 

^Vhile we sii'.g the third stanza Ihe Ku'rahus touches the little child 
on liie forehead with tlie united feathered stems. The breatli of 
promised life lias now touched tlie child. That is the meaning of the 
touch of the feathered stems. 

Tnumhifinn iif Fourth Shnizo 

107(j Ila-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
bi77 Kawas weri laiwa, re taiwa. 

Kawas, the brown eagle; the female. 

weri, I am. 

taiwa, to rub dow^iward, making a mark. 

re, i)lural; the two fe.itliered stems. 

taiwa, making a mark with a downward motion. 
1078,107'.) See line 1077. 

Esiihuiitfioii hi] tilt; Kii'riihiis 

As we sing the fourth stanza the Ku'rahus makes with the united 
feathered stems the four paths by downward strokes upon the child, 



FLETCHER] SIXTEENTH RITUAL 209 

as was done with the ear of corn. These movements mean that all 
the powers which bring life have access to the child, so that the promise 
of fruitfulness may be fulfilled. 

Tmnshtfioii i>f Fifth Stanza 

1080 Ha-a-a-a-a! An inti'oihictory ('.xclamation. 

1081 Kawas weri tawaAX'e, re tawawe. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, 
weri, I am. 
tawawe, to spread. 

re, plural; refers to the two feathered stems, 
tawawe, to spread. 
1082, 108.3 See line 1081. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the fifth stanza the Kn'rahus touches the child here 
and there with the united feathered stems; this means the spreading 
over it of the powers represented by the male and female stems. 

Translation of Si-rth Stanza 

1084 lla-a-a-a-al An introductory exclamation. 

1085 Kawas weri tawitshpa, re tawitshpa. 

Kawas, the lirown eagle. 

weri, I am. 

tawitshpa, a word denoting the accomplishment of a purpose, 

the attainment of an end. 
re, plural; refers to the two united feathered stems, 
tawitshpa. Translated above. 
1086, 1087 See line 1085. 

Explanation tnj the Kit'i-ahus 

This stanza means that it is accomplished, that the child has been 
encorajjassed by the powers represented by the united stems. It is a 
promise of procreation. 

Part III. Action Symbolizi.vo Life 
Expta nation hij the Kii'ralins 

At the close of the song the Ku'ralius, separating the two stems, 
hands the white-eagle feathered stem to his assistant and retains the 
brown-eagle stem. The father of the child makes it sit upon the 
gi-ound. The chief choo.ses a man to carry the child from the lodge 
of its father, the Son, back to the lodge where the cei'emony of the 
preceding four days has been performed. 
22 ETH— PT 2—04 14 



210 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[eth. axn. 22 



Th(^ ciioseii man takes liis position a little distance in fi-ont of the 
child, the Ku'rahus and liis assistant stand on each side of the man, 
facing the child, and the chief, carrying the cat skin and tlie corn, 
stands in front, facing the child (flgnre 177). 




Fig. 177. Diagram of the Son's lodge during the sixteenth ritual, part in. 

1, the enti'ance to the lodge; 2. the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the Ku'rahus; .'>, the Father (a chief i; 6, the Ku'rahus's assistant; ", the one chosen to carry 
the child; 8, the child; 9, the father of the child, the Son. 



The following song is then sung in a gentle tone, that the child may 
be willing to be taken up and carried by a stranger. Tlie words are: 
"Come and fear not, my cliild; all is well." 



FLETCHER] 



SIXTEENTH RITUAL, PART III 

FIKST SONG 

JVarch and Muaic 



211 



M. M. J.=58. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracy. 




1 - ra ta iia - o. 

i - I I 

1088 Ho-o-o-o-o-o.' 

10S9 Ihisira, ihisira. ihisira, ira ta hao; 

1090 Ihisira. ihisii'a. ira ta hao. 

Translation 

1088 Ho-o-o-o-o-o 1 All introductory e.xelamation. 
1080 UiLsira, ihisira, ihi.sira, ira ta hao. 

ihisira; isira, come; an invitation to advance. The syllable 
hi, which follows i, is used to fill out the rliytlim of the 
music and to arive a coaxing- effect. 
ira, a part of the word uawairi, a word imijlyinu- conlidence, 
among- its other meanings; it means here, it is all right, 
fear not. 
ta. a part of the word kntati, my. 
hao, child, offspring. 
1090 Ihisira, ihisira, ira ta hao. See line 1089. 

Explancdiiin hi/ fJie Kii'ruhus 

The man who is to carry the child turns his back toward it and 
drops upon one knee. The child, lifted to its feet by its father, takes 
four steps forward, while we, still facing the child, sing this song: 
"I am ready; come, my cluld; have no fear!" 

The four steps taken by the child represent the progress of life. 



212 



IHE HAKo. A PAWNEK CEREMONY 

SECOND SONG 
]f'n;-(/.v (Uul Music 



M. M. J -58. 

• =^ Piilsatidii of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



IIo-o-o o! K- lie -si - ra, e - lie - si - ra, e-he-si - ra, 



16 - si - ra, 



Dnim. 

Matties. 



rtr 



r t,:. 



ir.. 



w'^^^m^^-^^^^^- 



1 - ra ta ha - o; 



E-he-si - ra, e - lie - si 



ra^ 



'<;-.- 



i - ra ta ha - o. 

t : i i 



lOUl Ho-o-o-o! 

lOlli Ehesira, ehesir<i. ehesira. ehesira. ira ta liao: 

1098 Ehe.sira, ehesira. ira t:i lian. 

Translaiioti 

lOitl IIo-o-o-o! An iiil roduelory ('X[)l;iiiat ion. 
1002 p^lie.sira, ehesira, ehesira, eliesira, ira ta hao. 

ehesira; esira, come, I am ready for you or to i-eeeive yon. 

Tlie syllal)le li<', whicli follows e, is to till out tlie rhytlini 

and (lie movement of the sonj;. 
10'.):i Elhe.sira, ehesira, ira ta hao. See liin* ]()'.t2. 

Kxpld iictttdii III/ flir tCii riiltii.s 

Tiie man takes tlie ehild upon his l)aek and rises to his feet. The 
chief steps aside and the man l)earino' the child moves forward 
toward tlie door of the lodge. The Ku'rahus and his assistant and 
the chief walk behind him, and the rest of the company follow. 

As we walk back to the lo(li;(; in the early daylight we sing this 
song: " Behold voni- father walking with the child I" 



THIRD SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. J -.'•16. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 






=3=5- 



Transcribed by Edwin S, I'racy. 



Ilii-o-o-o-o! I -ha -ri, lu 

Dnnn.'Z, , « • c^/„ A « 

Battles.-it \ C_J I "^■'~ f L. 



IT'ars si - le ra • ta; 



I - lia-ri. 



W^ 



=a<c=|- __^__,_^ __ 

Iia! H'ars si ■ re ra - la; 



"^^^^^^^^^m 



I 



l-i Lj L^ 1-: 



ha - ri, 



H'ars si - re ra-ta. 



t_' L-j t-J Lj L-! U Lj p 



FLETCHER] SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH RITUALS 213 

1094 Ho-o-o-o! 

1095 Ihari, hal H'ais sire rata; 

1096 Ihari, ha! H'ars sire rata; 

1097 Ihari. ha! H'ars sire rata. 

'rrunslatiiD) 

1094 Ho-o-o-o! An exclaniHtioii iiitroduftory to the song. 

1095 Ihari, ha! IFars sire rata. 

ihari, a term for young; it here refers to tlie little eliikl. 
ha! an exclamation, calling attention, 
h', an abbreviation of ha, your, 
ai's, a modification of H(-ius, fatlier. 
sire, carrying, refers to the child, 
rata, walking with. 
1090, 1097. See line 1095. 

SEVENTEENTH RITUAL 

Part I. TorcHixo the Child 

K.rjiliindt/iin In/ flie Kii't'iiJiu.s 

When the Ilako party, led by the man carrying the child, arrived 
at the lodge, the child was taken to the west, behind the holy place, 
and set upon the ground, facing the east, and clad in gahi dress. 

The warriors ranged tliemselves in a curved line, botli ends of which 
touched the walls of tlie lodge, thus inclosing a space within which 
was the holy place, the child, the singers and the drum, the Ku'i'ahus 
and his assistant, the chief, tlie doctors, and an old man selected by 
the Ku'rahus. The wai-riors stood close together, letting their roI)es 
drop until the lower edge touched the ground, making a screen over 
which no one could look to see what was taking place within the 
inclosure. 

On the preceding evening, before the Children had gathered within 
the lodge, the Ku'rahus had sent a young man to fill a vessel fi'om a 
running stream. The vessel was at once covered closely and put 
beside the holy place and no one was permitted to even touch it. (In 
old times pottery vessels made by our women were used. They were 
shaped small at the bottom, larger in the middle, and smaller again 
at the neck. The handles on the sides had holes thiough which sticks 
could be thrust to lift the vessel from the fire. They were ornamented 
b.y lines drawn by a stick in the soft elaj'.) 

The chief now approachei'l the vessel, lifted the cover and poured 
so)ne of the water into a wooden bowl set aside for this purpose, and 
put it down before the old man. This man had been chosen liecause 
of his long life, and his having received many favors from the powers 
above, in order that similar gifts might be imparted to the child. 

The i^reparation of the child, which took place within the line of 
warriors, was concealed from their view by an inner group closely 



214 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ICTH, ANN. 32 



surrounding it. The old man sat before the child, a little to the 
south, the chief (the Father) directly behind it with the cat skin 
and ear of corn, the doctor with the left eagle wing toward tlie 
nortili, the doctor witli the right eagle wing toward the south, and the 




Fig. 178. Diagram of the Son's lodge during the seventeentli ritual, jiurt i. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; :!, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof: 
4, the Ku'rahus; .5, his assistant; H, the bearers of the eagle wings; 7, the Father la c;liief i; S, the 
okl man who prepares the child; (•, the little child; 10, the line of warriors; 11, the Son, father 
of the littk' cllild; 12, memliers of the Hako party. 



Kurahus witli his a.ssistant in front, all facing tlic cliild (ligurc 17S). 
During the singing of the following songs the cat slvin with the 
crotched stick and the ear of corn, the feathered stems, and tlie 
eagle wings are waved to its rhythm. 



FLETCHEK] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 215 

FIRST SONG 

Tl'orJ.s (iiid Music 

M. 11. > = ]L'ti. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracy. 



llE^^liE^^-55E 



Ho o-o! Hi - ri! 'Ha-ri; Ili-ri! Kitzu were Iireku-si hi! 



^=3E?^y 



Hi- 



Drum, i 



L_r Lj 



__j_ — ._jj_. 



SE 



ra^zzTT^z 



z= q~ _|— ^-^— =i>:z: 



ri! 'Ha - ri; Hi - ri! Ki-tzu we re hre kii - si Id!... Hi- 
• • • • J . i . p - I . ^ I f 




I 

1098 Ho-o-o! 

1099 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we re lire knsi hi! 

1100 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re hre kiisi hi! 

1101 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re lire kusi hi! 

II 

1102 Ho-o-o! 

1103 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we re ru ata ha! 

1104 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re ru ata ha! 
110.5 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

110<) Ho-o-o! 

HOT Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we ri tukuka ha! 

1108 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitzu w<- ri tukuka ha! 

1109 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we ri tukuka ha! 

IV 

1110 Ho-o-o! 

1111 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta iwa ha! 

1112 Hiri: 'Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta iwa ha! 

1113 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta iwa ha! 

V 

1114 Ho-o-o! 

111.5 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta wawe he! 
1116 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta wawe he! 
HIT Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta wawe he! 

VI 

1118 Ho-o-o! 

1119 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1120 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1121 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta witshpa ha! 



216 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEKEMONY [eth. akn. 23 

Trii iishihiin i if First Stuitzu 

10!)8 IIo-o-o! An iiitroiltu'tory cxclaiiiation. 
109'J Iliri! 'Hari; Iliril Kitzu we re lire kusi hi! 

liiri! ji'ive heed! 

'hari, a part of ilia'ri, child, young. 

hiri! an extdaination callinu' to give heed. 

kitzu, a modified form ot kiitzu, water. 

we, now. 

re, am. 

hre, lidding. 

kusi, sitting. 

hi! part of liiri! give lieeil ! liarken! 
1100, 11(11. See line lOfi'.i. 

E.rplii iKifioii hi/ flu- Kii' minis 

As we sing the first stanza llie old man takes up tiie howl and holds 
it in both hands. 

Water is for susteuanee and the mainteiiaiii'e ot health; it is one of 
the great gifts of Tira'wa atius. 

The white man speaks of a heavenly Father; we say Tira'wa alius, 
tlie Father above, but we do not think of Tira'wa as a person. We 
think of Tira'wa as in everything, as the power wliieli h<is arranged 
and thrown down from above everything that man needs. What tlie 
power above, Tira'wa alius, is like, no one knows; no one has lieen 
there. 

'Jlie water is in ;i l)owl shapeil like the dome of the sky, beeause 
water eomes from Tira'wa atius. The little ehild is to be cleansed 
and prepared for its future life by the water — sustained and made 
strong by tlie water. 

Tf(iiisl(tli(in iif Sccnnil Siuuza 

110-' llo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
llo.'J liiri! 'Ilai'i; Iliri! Kitzu wc re lu ata ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! 

liari, a part in iha'ri, child. 

hiri ! give heed! 

kitzu, water. 

we, now. 

re, am, or is. 

ru, it. 

ata, flying. 

ha! behold! 
11(11, 1105 See line 1103. 



FLKTCHER] SEVENTEENTH RITrAI,, PART I 217 

Expht iKil mil Jiij IJi, Kii' niliiis 

When we sing the second stanza the old man sets the bowl down 
and dips the finfxer of liis riuht hand in Ihe water anil inoves it toward 
the child. 

This means tliat the water is moving tlirougli the air, coming from 
above toward the child witli its gifts. 

Tniiislnfiiin of Third Stfiuza 

HOG lio-o-o! An introductory- exclamation. 
1107 liiri! 'Hari; Iliri! Kitzu we ri tukuka ha! 

hiril give heed! 

'hari, a part of iha ri, child. 

liiri! give heed! 

Ivitzu, water. 

we. now. 

ri, it. 

tnkuica, toncliing. 

]ia! ))ehold! 
lios, IIOO See line 1107. 

Expli.niarmii In/ fhe Kii' niJius 

As we sing the third stau/.a the old man tonches the foreliead of 
the child with the water. 

The power of the water Ims now reached the child. 

TninsUifion nf Fourth Stanza 

1110 IIo-o-o! An introdnclory exclamation. 

1111 Iliri! 'Ilari; Iliri! Kitzu we ri ta iwa ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a jmrt of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
kitzu, water. 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a jiart of taokut, to touch, 
iwa, running down. 
ha! behold! 
1112, 1113 See line 1111. 

E.vpluiKtt ion hij th<^ Kii'nihiis 

While we sing the fourth stanza the old man makes certain wet 
lines on the face of the child. These signify that the sustaining of 
life through the power of water comes from Tira'wa alius. 



218 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY rETii. a.nn. 22 

TrdUfiliitioii of Fifth Slunzu 

1114 Ho-o-o! An inlroduclory cxolfUiuition. 

1115 Hii'i! 'llari; Iliri! Ivitzu we ri tii wjiwe he! 

liiri! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of ilia ri, cliild. 
hiri! g\xe heed! 
kit 7,11, water, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokiit, to touch, 
wawe, spreadinii' over, 
he! fi'oni hiri! give heed! 
im;, 1117 See line 1115. 

E.rj)liniiifii)ii hij fill Kn' i-it]ius 

Duriiig the singing of the tilth staii/.a the okl man touches the face 
of the chikl with water liere and thei-e .so as to make it wet. 

Tliis is to signify that tlie cle.iiising power of water, whicli brings 
licallh, is fi'om Tira'wa. 

Traiisldfidu <if Si.rth Slanza 

Ills IIo-o-o! An inti'oductorv exclamation. 

1110 lliri! llari; Hiri! Kil/.u wi' ri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri! give heed! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 

hiri! give heed! 

kitzu, water. 

w(\ now. 

ri, i1. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch. 

witshpa, accomplished, completed. 

lia! behold! 
lli'ii, llu'l See line Ul'.i. 

ExphiiKitiim III/ IJir Kii' riihiis 

III the sixth stiinza we sing tlia,t it is accomplished, that water lias 
come with ;ill its power from Tira'wa alius to the child. 

Tlie old man takes up a brush of stiff grass and holds it while we 
sing the lii'st stanza of the following song. 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTEENTH EITUAL, PART I 



219 



SECOND SONG 



(a) M. M. ,^ = 126. 

• ^= Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcriljed by Edwin S. Traiy. 




Ho-o-ol Pli - ri! 'Ha-ri: Hi-ii! Pi-ehtits we re lirekn-si 



Drum, i t i , i 
Battles. L^ L_ L. 



? 



^^-;^-^EEE:4^^=-^Ei=3^-^ 




1123 Ho-o-o! 

1123 Hiri! "Hari; Hiril Pichuts we re hre kusi hi! 

1124 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichvits we re hre kusi hi! 

1125 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we re hre kiisi hi! 

II 

1126 Ho-o-o! 

1127 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Picliiits we re ru ata ha! 

1128 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Pichtits we re rn ata ha! 

1129 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

1130 Ho-o-o! 

1131 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri tulvuka ha! 

1132 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri tukuka ha! 

1133 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Pichvits we ri tnkuka ha! 

IV 

1134 Ho-o-o! 

1135 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta iwa ha! 

1136 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta iwa ha! 

1137 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta iwa ha! 



1138 Ho-o-o! 

1139 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta wawe he! 
1141) Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Piclivtts we ri ta wawe he! 

1141 Hiri! Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta wawe he! 

VI 

1142 Ho-o-o! 

1143 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1144 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1145 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta witshi)a ha! 



220 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. axs. 2:i 

Trunslotiou of First Sfanzfi 

11-2- IIo-o-ol All intniductory exehimutioii. 
11:23 Iliri! 'Ilari; Iliril Picliuls wo iv liiv knsi hi! 

hiri! s'ivc heed ! 

"liari, a pari (if ilia ri, child. 

hiri I ,!i■i^•e liccd. 

picliuts, a brush )iia<lc of still grass. 

we, now. 

re, am. 

hre, holdiun'. 

kusi, sittiii.u'. 

hil part of hiril i^ivc heedl liarkciil 
ll-'4, 11:25 See line 112:!. 

E.i'plnnuliiiii bij /111 Kii' ralius 

The ,i>'rass of which the brush is iiia<l-.' is gathered during a cere- 
mony l)elonging to the Kain shrine. It represents Toharu, the li\ing 
covering of ;Mother Earth. Tiie power wliich is in Toharu gives food 
to man and the animals so that they can live and become strong and 
able to perform the duties of life. This power represented by the 
brush of grass is now standing before the little child. 

'rnnisliitiiiii of Si-foiiil Stanza 

lli'i; llo-o-ol An introductory exclamation. 

11:.'7 Ilari! llari; Hiri! Pichnts we I'O ru ata ha! 

■ 

hiri ! give heed ! 
"hari, a part of ilia'ri, child, 
hii'i ! give heed ! 
pichnts, a brush of grass, 
we, now. 
re, am or is. 
ru, it. 
ala, flying, 
ha! behold! 
llL'8, lliO See line lli'7. 

E-vpliUiatioii hij till Kn riiliuH 

As we sing tlie second stanza, the old man moves the brush toward 
the child. This means ihat the power of Toharu is flying through the 
air toward the child. 



PLETCHEii] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 221 

TriiDsldhiiii of Tliird Sfanzn 

1130 IIo-o-oI An iiitroduetoi-y oxclamation. 

1131 Iliri! 'Ilari; lliri! Pichfits wo ri tiikuka ha! 

hiril li'ivo lu-cdl 
'hari, a part of iha ri, cliild. 
lliri! give lieed! 
pichiits, a linish of i;rass. 
■we, now. 
ri, it. 

tukuka, toiicliiiii;. 
ha! behold! 
li;!i, 1133 See line 1131. 

ExpJinKtlioii hi/ tltp Ivii'rnlnis 

Wlule we t^iiig- tlio tiiird stanza the old man lonelies the foivhcad 
of the cliild with the brusli of grass. The power of Toliaru has 
reached the cliild, has come in contact Avith it to impart the strenglh 
that comes from food. 

Trdiisliilioii of Fourth Stanza 

1131 lIo-o-oI An int rodnctory exelaniation. 
113.5 lliri! "Ilari; liii-i! I'ichnls we ri ta iwa ha! 

lliri! give heed! 

'hari, a jiart of iha ri, child. 

hiri! give heed! 

pichiits, a brush of grass. 

we, now. 

ri, it. 

ta, a i)art of taokut, to touch. 

iwa, a downward moveuient. 

ha! behold! 
1130, 1137 See line 113.5. 

K.ri>l<niiit ion tnj tin' Kii' rahns 

During the singing of the fourth stanza the old mau makes certain 
lines upon the face of the child with the brush of grass. These lines 
mean tliat the power by which Toharu gives strength tlirough food 
comes from above, and that man should always remember that when 
he eats. 



222 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

TrcniNhilioii of Fifflt Stanza 

1J.'38 IIo-o-ol ^Vn inti'odiiclurv c.Kclaiiialiou. 
1130 Iliri! 'llaii; Iliril I'iehuts we ri Ui ware he! 

liiri! ji'ive heed! 

'liari, a iiart of ilia'ri, chilil. 

hiri! give heed! 

piehuts, a bi'usli iiiaile nf grass. 

we, now. 

)-i, it. 

ta, a part of taokiil, (o toiicli. 

wai'e, spreading over. 

he! from liiri! give lieed! 
1140, 1111 See line IV-VJ. 

JiJ.i-pJdiinfiiJii hij ilip Ku'rahus 

As we sing this stanza, the old man touches tlie liead of the child 
and smootlis its haii- witli the brush of grass. In this act the brush 
l^repares the hair foi- tlie sacred symbols wliieh are to be put upon it. 

In tliis act we are thiiilcingoiil}' of tlie brush aud its usefulness, and 
not of Toharu, as represented by the grass. 

Tni nshitiiin (if Si.r/Ii Stiinzu 

114l' IIo-o-o! An introductory e.xclamat ion. 

1143 Iliri! 'Ilari, Hiri! Piehuts we ri 1a witshpa ha! 

hiri! give heed! 

'hari, a pai't of iha/i-i, child, 

hiri ! give heed ! 

piehuts, a brusli made of gr.iss. 

we, now. 

ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch. 

wilshpa, accomplished; completed. 

lia! behold! 
1144. 1145 See line 1143. 

Ki-phuKi/ioii hi/ till' Ku'rahus 

In tills stanza we sing that it Is accomplished, the power of Toharu 
has nourished and prepared the child for the ceremonial acts which 
ari" now to lake place. 

Part II. Axi)ixTiN(i the Child 

K.rphiiKtl Kill III/ /lit- Kii' rahus 

The ointment used in this act of anointing the child Is red claj'' 
mixed with fat from a deer or buffalo which has been cons(^crated or 
set apart at the time it was killed as a sacrifice to Tli-a \va. The first 
animal killed on a hunt belongs toTira'wa. 



FLETCHER) 



SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 



223 



The ointment is kept in a Icind of bai;: made of the coveriuir of the 
animal's heart, dried ami prepared for this purpose. (It i.s said that 
insects do not attack this skin covering.) 

Before anyone can take part in a religious ceremony he must l>e 
anointed with this sacred ointment. 



soNa 
TT'cj/v/.s' and ^fusic 



(b) M. M. ^N = 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




^^^^m^^^^^^^^^^ 



i! 'Ila-i 



=^'= i : 

-•S- :S. 

Ili-ri! 



Ki-cha- wa re 



hre ku ■ 

J 1 



'. hi! 



I 
1140 Ho-o-ol 

1147 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kichawa re hre knsi lii! 

1148 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiril Kichawa re hre kusi lii! 

1149 Hiril 'Hari: Hiri! Kichawa re hre ku.si lii! 

n 

1150 Ho-o-o! 

1151 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa re rii ata ha! 
1153 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Kichawa re ru ata ha! 
115:^ Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa re ru ata ha! 

HI 

11. "")4 Ho-ii-o! 

1155 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiril Kiciiawa ri tiikuka ha! 
11.56 Hiri!' Hari: Hiri! Kichawa ri tukiika ha! 
1157 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiril Kichawa ri tnkuka lia! 

IV 
11.58 Ho-o-o! 

1159 Hiri!" Hari: Hiri! Kichawa ri ta iwa ha! 

1160 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kichawa ri ta iwa ha! 

1161 Hiril 'Hari: Hiril Kiciiawa ri ta iwa ha! 



1162 Ho-o-ol 

1163 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiril Kichawa ri ta wawe he! 

1164 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiril Kichawa ri ta w& we he! 

1165 Hiril "Hari; Hiril Kichawa ri ta wawe he! 



2'24 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.32 

VI 

1166 Ho-o-ol 

1167 Hiril 'Hari; Hiril Kichawa ri ta witshpa lia! 

1168 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri t;i witshpa ha! 
116y Hiril "Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta witshpa ha! 

'J'rdiisla/idii (if Fifsf Sfdiizit 

ll-lC) IIo-o-o! All iiitroduclory exclamation. 
1147 Iliii! 'llari; lliri! Kichawa ro lire knsi lii! 

liiri 1 nivc liecd I 

'hari, a part of ilia ri, cliild. 

hiri! give lieedl 

kicliawa; ki, from kitzii, water; cliawa, l)iil)l)l('s of fat; tlie 
term is applied to tlie ointment made from tlie fat of an 
animal wliich has heeii consecrated to Tira wa. This 
ointment is used for anointing' preparatory to a sacred 
ceremony. 

re, am. 

lire, holding. 

kusi, sitting. 

lii ! from hiril give heed! 
114H, 1149 See line 1147. 

Kxplanaiio)! hi/ the Kn' nilius. 

W\u\e we sing the lirst stanza tlie old man takes ami liolds in liis 
liand some of tlie sacred ointments The consecrating jiower wliich is 
in the ointment now stands before the child. 

Triinfilnfidn af Second Sf(rn:(( 

1150 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1151 Iliril "llari; Iliri! Kichawa re ru ata ha! 

hiri! give heed ! 
'hare, a part of ihaf e, child, 
hiri ! give lieed ! 
kichawa, ointment, 
re, is. 
ru, it. 
ata, flying, 
ha! behold! 
1152. 115;;. See line 1151. 

R.rplanatioii Jiy the Kn'rahus 

While we sing the second stanza the old man moves the sacnn] 
ointment toward the child. This means that the jxiwer whicli is in 
tlie ointment is drawing near. 



FLETCHER] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 225 

Translation of TJiird Stanza 

1154 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1155 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiril Kichawa ri tukuka ha! 

liiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of ilia'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
kichawa, ointment, 
ri, it. 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1156, 1157. See line 1155. 

JExjjlanatiou by the Kii'rahus 

As we sing the third stanza the old man touches the forehead of the 
child with the ointment. This act signifies that the child is singled 
out from among his fellows and touched for consecration. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1158 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1159 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta iwa ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, apart of iha'ri, child. 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kichawa, ointment, 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
iwa, downward movement, 
ha! behold! 
1160, 1101. See line llo'.i. 

ExpltLnation hi/ the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this fourth stanza the old man makes the .same lines 
upon the face of the child as he made with the water and the brush of 
grass. This is in recognition that the life which has been sustained 
and nourished is now consecrated to Tira'wa atius, the father above, 
who gives life to all things. 

22 ETH— I'T 2—04 lo 



226 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.-K 

Trunslation of Fifth Stanza 

1162 Ho-o-o! An iiitroduclory excliimatiou. 

1163 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiril Kiehawa ri la wawe lie! 

liiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of ilia'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
kiehawa, ointment, 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
wawa, spreading over, 
he! from hiri! give heed! 
1164, 1165 See line 1162. 

Explanaiinri hij the Kii'rahiis 

While we sing the fifth stanza, the old man touches the child here 
and there with the sacred ointment. This means that the strength 
that is in every part of a man and all that belongs to him must be 
consecrated to Tira'wa. 

Translation of Sixfli Stanza 

1106 Ilo-o-n! An introductory exclamation. 
1167 Hiri! 'Ilari; Iliri! Kiehawa ri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 

hiri ! give heed ! 

kiehawa, ointment. 

ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch. 

witshpa, accomplished, completed. 

Im! behold! 
1168, 116!) See linelHiT. 

F.rpl a nation hij the Kii'rahus 

In this stanza we sing that it is accomplished, that the child has 
been consecrated and made ready for the lioly rites, and that we have 
recognized that all things come from Tira'wa atius, the father above. 



FLETCHER] SEVENTEENTH RITTTAL 227 

Part III. Painting the Child 

Explanation hij the Ku'rahus 

While we sing tlie first stanza of tlie following song, the old man 
takes a shell containing red paint and holds it before the consecrated 
child. 

FIRST SONG 



W(jrds and Mus 



(c) M. M. *^ = 126. 

* = Pulsation of the Yoice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ho-o-ol in - ril 'Ha-ri; Hi-ri! Kits-pa-hat we re ku - si hi!.... 

Drum, i t i , i.d<^.;. it i . i.i 



Hi- 




i! 'Ha 



Hi - ri! Kits -pa -hat we re kii - si 

i> ^ r ' ^ r r r ^ 



m 



-.S-— S.— J- — -.s — 
ril 'Ha - ri; Hi-ri! 



Kits-pa - liat we 

t 



re ku - si. 



hi! 



■^EQi--^ 



1170 Ho-o-o! 

1171 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat we re kusi hi! 
1173 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat we re kusi hi! 
1173 Hiri! "Hari: Hiril Kitspahat we re kusi hi! 

II 



Hiri! Kitspaliat re ru ata ha! 
Hiri! Kitspaliat re ru ata ha! 
Hiri! Kitspahat re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

Hiri! Kitspahat ri tukuka ha! 
Hiri! Kitspahat ri tukiika ha! 
Hiri! Kitspahat ri tukuka ha! 

IV 

Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta iwa lia! 
Hiri! Kitspaliat ri ta iwa ha! 
Hiri! Kitsiiahat ri ta iwa haL 



Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta wawe he! 
Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta wawe lie! 
Hiri! Kitspaliat ri ta wawe he! 



1174 


Ho-o 


o! 


1175 


Hiri! 


Hari 


1176 


Hiri! 


■Hari 


1177 


Hiri! 


■Hari 


1178 


Ho-o- 


o! 


1179 


Hiri! 


'Hari 


1180 


Hiri! 


Hari 


1181 


Hiri! 


•Hari 


1182 


Ho-o- 


o! 


1183 


Hiri! 


■Hari 


1184 


Hiri! 


■Hari 


1185 


Hiri! 


■Hari 


1186 


Ho-o- 


o! 


1187 


Hiri! 


■Hari; 


1188 


Hiri! 


Hari: 


1189 


Hiri! 


■Hari; 



228 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [i-.rH.AXN.22 

VI 

111(0 Ho-o-.il 

1191 Hiri! "Hari; Hiril Kitspahat ri ta witshpa ha! 

1192 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta witshpa ha! 
119:! Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta witshjia ha. 

Tnnisldtii)}! (if First SInuza 

1170 Ho-o-o! An iutrcxhictory cxclaiiiatioii. 

1171 Iliri! 'Hari; Iliri! Kitspahat we re kusi liil 

liiri ! u^ive heed! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, ehihl. 

hiri! tjive lieed! 

kitspahat; kits, fi-oiii kitzii, water; pahat, red. The term 

lueaiis red paint. 
we, now. 
re, am. 
kusi, sitting, 
hi! from Iliri! t;ive lieed! 
117'2, 1173 See line 1171. 

JSxjilcDiulioii hy Ihc Kii' riilius 

The Kri'rahus had prepared the paint by mi.xing red clay with run- 
ning water. He mixes it rather dry so that what is left can remain in 
the shell. Only the riglit half of a shell can be used to hold the paint. 
You remember what I told you of the shell and why we tise it (first 
ritual, part li). The red clay we use for paint was made by Tira'wa 
for this j)urpose. 

Tli(^ paint symbolizes the red clouds of the dawn, the coming of the 
new <lay, the rising sun, tlie vigor of life. The power of the new day, 
the new life, is now standing before the child. 

TnnisUition of Serond Stanza 

1171 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
1173 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitspahat re ru ata ha! 

hiri! give lieed! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 

hiri! give heed! 

kitspahat, red paint. 

j-e, is. 

ru, it. 

ata, flying. 

ha! behold! 
117(5,1177 See line 1175. 



rLETCHKR] SEVENTEENTH TIITUAL, PART III 229 

ExjjlcuuUion Jty the Ku'rahus 

During the singinj^ of the second stanza the old man moves the shell 
containing the paint toward the child. Tlie vigor of life is coming 
to the child, flying toward it as through the air, like the coming of 
dawn. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1178 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1179 Hiri, 'Hari; Iliri! Kitspahat ri tukuka ha! 

hiri! give heed! harken! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiril harken! give heed! 
kitspahat, red paint, 
ri, it. 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1180, 1181 See line 1179. 

Explanation by the Kn'rahus 

As we sing this third stanza the old man touches the forehead with 
the red paint. The vigor of life, the power of the touch of the sun, 
is now on the child. 

Translation, of Fourth Stanza 

1182 Ho-o-o! An introductorjr exclamation. 

1183 Iliri! 'Ilai'i; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta iwa ha! 

hiri! give heed! harken! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! harken! 
kitspahat, red paint, 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taoknt, to tonch. 
iwa, downward n^ovement. 
ha! behold! 
1184, 1185 See line 1183. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rnhus 

While we sing the fourth stanza the old man makes the same lines 
on the face of the child as those made with the water, the brush of 
grass, and the ointment. This means that the vigor of life, the power 
of the touch of the sun, the new life of the dawn, are all from Tira'wa 
atius. 



230 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Trauslafion of Fifth Sfoiizn 

1186 Ho-o-o! An introduc'tor}' exclamation. 

1187 Hiri! 'Hari; lliri! Kitspahat ri ta wawe he! 

hiri! harken! give heed! 
'hari, a part of of ilia'ri, cliild. 
hiri ! liarken I 
kitspahat, red jjaint. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to toiicli. 
wawe, spreading over, 
he! from hiri! give heed! 
1188,1189 See line 1187. 

E.vphniiiiidn 1)1/ the Ku'rahtis 

As we sing the fifth stanza the old man touches the child's face here 
and there, and then spreads the red paint entirely over it. This 
symbolizes the full radiance of the sun with all its power, giving to 
the child its vigor of life. 

Translation of tiixtli Stanza 

1190 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1191 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri ! harken ! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kitspahat, red paint, 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished; completed, 
ha! behold! 
1192,1193 See line 1191. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahus 

We sing in this stanza that it is accomplished, that the child is 
encompassed by the power which Tira'wa atius has given to the sim 
and the vigor imparted to its day. 

The old man now takes a shell containing l)lue paint which had 
been i^repared hy the Ku'rahus from blue clay and running water, 
and while we sing the first stanza of the following song he holds it 
before the child. This is a verv sacred act. 



ITjETCHER] 



SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART III 

SECOND SONG 

IVorcIs and 3Iusic 



231 



(d) M. M. ^S=126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Drum i 
MaUtes. r 



Ho-o-ol Hi - ri! 'Ha-ri; Hi-ri ! A-wi kots we re lire ku - si hi!... Hi 



ri! 'Ha - ri; 

^ ' ? 



g — - 



=-3.==).— ^— ^— :q-'-^^=3^^5.=3 



^ 



Hi - ri! A-wi kots we re hre ku - si hi!. 

? • ^ r t r r r ^ • 



Hi- 




I 

1194 Ho-o-o! 

1195 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re hre ktisi hi! 

1196 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re hre knsi hi! 

1197 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we r.'- hre kusi hi! 

II 

1198 Ho-o-o! 

1199 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we re ru ata ha! 

1200 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we re m ata ha! 
1301 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we re ru ata ha! 

in 

1202 Ho-o-o! 

1203 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Avri kots we ri ttiknka ha! 
120-t Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we ri tukuka ha! 
120.') Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we ri tuknka ha! 

IV 

1206 Ho-o-o! 

1207 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta iwa ha! 

1208 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta iwa ha! 

1209 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta iwa ha! 

V 

1210 Ho-o-o! 

1211 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta wawe he! 

1212 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta wawe he! 

1213 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta wawe he! 

VI 

1214 Ho-o-o! 

121.') Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1216 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1217 Hiri: 'Hari: Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta witshpa ha! 



232 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of First Stanza 

1104 Ho-o-o! An introductory cxclaiual ion. 

1105 Hiri! llari; Hiri! Awi kots we re luv kusi hi! 

hiri! give lieedl 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! harken! 

awi, a part of awiu, a picture. 

kots, a part of rekots, whitish; as a thin chmd tlirmigli wliich 
one can see a tinge of the blue sky Ijeyoud. Light blue, 
we, now. 
re, am. 
lire, holding, 
kusi, sitting, 
hi ! from hiri ! give heed ! 
nor;, 1107 See line 1105. 

Exjylanation hi/ tin Kn'rahiis 

Blue represents the sky, the jjlace where Tirawa. atius dwells, and 
with this blue jiaint we ai-e to make upon the child a picture of the 
face of Tira'wa atius. It is a mark of Tira'wa atius' acceptance of 
the consecrated child and a sign of his presence. The symbol of 
the dwelling place of Tira'wa atius stands before the child. 

Trunslation. of Second Stanza 

1198 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1199 Hiri! TIari; Hiri! Awi'kots we re ru ata ha! 

hiri! harken! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri I gi\e heed! 
awi, a ijart of awiu, a pictui-e. 
kots, light blue (paint), 
we, now. 
re, is. 
ru, it. 
ata, flying, 
ha! behold! 
1200, 1201 See line 1109. 

Exptanation Inj tin Kn'ralius 

While we siug the second stanza the old man moves the shell con- 
taining the blue paint toward the child. The blue of the sky where 
Tira'wa atius dwells is coming near, descending through the air. 



FLETCHER] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL,' PART III 233 

Traiishilioii of Third Sfanzu 

1202 TIo-o-o! All introductory exclamation. 

1203 Iliri! 'Had; Hiri! Awi kots we ri tukuka ha! 

liiri! harkeni 

'liari, a part of ilia ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
awi, a part of awiu, a picture, 
kots, light blue (paint), 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1204, 1205 See line 1203. 

Explanation by the Kti'rahus 

As we sing the third stanza the old man touches the forehead with 
the blue paint. The blue sky has reached the child; its forehead has 
been touched by the abode of Tira'wa atius. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1206 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1207 Iliri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta iwa ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
awi, a part of awiu, a pictui-e. 
kots, light blue (paint). 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
iwa, downward movement, 
ha! behold! 
1208, 1209 See line 1207. 

E-rpIanation hy the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the fourth stanza the old man traces with the blue 
paint the lines he has made with the water, the brush of grass, the 
sacred ointment, and the red paint. In these lines we see the face of 
Tira'wa atius, the giver of life and power to all things (sec ligure 170). 

The lines forming an arch across the forehead 
and down each cheek of the child represents 
the dome of the sky, the abode of Tira'wa atius. 
The line from the middle of the forehead, the 
center of the arch, down the ridge of the nose is 
the breath of Tira'wa atius. It descends from 
the zenith, passing down the nose to the heart, ri,;.i;9. The symbol of 
giving life to the child. Ti.awa.- 




234 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

The picture of the face of Tira'wa atiiis is put upon the face of the 
consecrated child. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1210 llo-o-o! Au introductory exclamation. 

1211 Ili-ri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta wawe he! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hari! harken! 

awi, a part of awiu, a picture, 
kots, light blue (paint), 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
wawe, to spread, 
he ! from hiri ! give heed ! 
1212, 1213 See line 1211. 

E.rplonation hij the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the fifth stanza the old man touches the lines here and 
there to make them clear; he can not spread the paint, for he is 
making a picture. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

1214 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation 

1215 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots weri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri! harken! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hari ! give heed ! 
awi, a part of awiu, a picture, 
kots, light blue (paint), 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished; completed, 
ha! behold! 
121G, 1217 See line 1215. 



ination hij the Ku'rahus 

In the sixth stanza we sing that it is done, that the face of Tira'wa 
atius is upon the face of the consecrated child. 

There is a group of stars overhead which forms a circle (Corona 
Borealis). This is a circle of chiefs. Tira'wa atius placed them there 
and directed them to paint their faces with the same lines we have 
put upon the child, and all who are to be leaders must be so painted. 

From this circle of stars came a society called Raristesharu. All 
dances (societies) given bj- Tira'wa atius are called raris; tesharu 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTEENTH RITUAL 



235 



means chief (the te is a modification of le, in the word lesharu, 
chief). The members of the society Raristesharu ai'e chiefs, and 
these men are permitted by the star chiefs to j)aiut their faces with 
the blue lines and to wear the downy feather on the head. The 
members of this society do not dance and sing; they talk quietly and 
try to be like the stars. 

I was told that it was from this society that permission was given to 
paint the child with the blue lines and to put the downy feather 
upon it. 

Part IV. Putting on the Symbols 

Explanation hij the Ku'rahus 

The old man now takes a bunch of eagle down, and as ^e sing the 
first stanza of the following song he holds it before the child. 



FIRST SONG 

IVords and Music 



(e) M. M. ^ = 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



^i352^i^=^i^=^^i^.==^^-:p^ 



Drum 

Rattles. 



Ho-o-o! Hi- ril'Ha-ri; Hi-ril Ka-o-ktowe re hreku-ai lii!... 

tj L' Li ij' i_' ij' Li L-T Lj L 



Hi. 




I 

1318 Ho-o-o! 

1219 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re lire kusi hi! 
1320 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kaokto we re lire kusi hi! 
1221 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re hre kusi hi! 

II 
1333 Ho-o-o! 

1333 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kaokto we re ru ata ha! 
1234 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kaokto we re ru ata ha! 
1825 Hii-i! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re ru ata ha! 



Ill 

1236 Ho-o-o! 

1337 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri tukuka ha! 

1338 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri tuknka ha! 

1339 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri tukuka ha! 



236 THE HAKO, A VAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann 22 

IV 
1330 Ho-o-o! 
1231 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kaokto we ri kittawe he! 

1333 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kaokto we ri kittawe lie! 
1233 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri kittawe he! 

V 

1334 Ho-o-o! 

1335 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Kaokto we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1336 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1337 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri ta witshpa ha! 

Translation of First Stanza 

1218 IIo-o-o! Au introductory exclamation. 

1219 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re hre kusi hi! 

hiri! harken. 

'hai'i, a i^art of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kaokto, down from the eagle, 
we, now. 
re, am. 
hre, holding, 
kusi, sitting. 
hi! from hiri! give heed! 
1220, 1221 See line 1210. 

Explanation hij the Ku'ralius. 

The down represents the high, light clouds (cirrus) in the blue of 
the sky; they are near the at)ode of Tira'wa alius. 

The down is taken from under the wings of the white eagle. The 
white eagle is the mate of the brown eagle, and the child is the child 
of Kawas, the brown eagle. The down grew close to the heart of the 
eagle and moved as the eagle breathed. It represents the breath and 
life of the wdiite eagle, the father of the child. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

1222 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1223 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re ru ata ha! 

hiri! harken! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 
hiri! give heed! 
kaokto, eagle's down, 
we, now. 
re, is. 
ru, it. 
ata, flying, 
ha! behold! 
122-4,1225 See line 1223. 



FLKTCHERJ SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 237 

Esplanitiion hij the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza, the old man moves the down near the 
child. The soft, white clouds that are near the abode of Tira'wa atius 
are coming near the head of the child. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1226 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1227 Hiri! 'Hari; lliri! Kaokto we ri tukuka ha! 

hiri! harken! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed ! 
kaokto, the down of the eagle, 
we, now. 
ri, it 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1228, 1229 See line 1227. 

Explanation hij flu- Kii'r((hus: 

As we sing this stanza, the old man touches the head of the child 
with the down. The light clouds have reached the child. 

Translation of Fourtli Stanza 

1230 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1231 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri kittawe he! 

hiri! give heed. 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 

hiri! give heed. 

kaokto, eagle's down. 

we, now. 

ri, it. 

kittawe; kit, top; ta, from taokut, to touch; we, a part of 

tawe, standing; the word means standing on the top of 

the child's head, 
he! from hiri! give heed! 
1232,1233 See line 1231. 

E.rplanation Itij the Kn'rahits 

While we sing the fourth stanza the old man opens his hand and 
lets the down fall upon the hair. The soft, white clouds near the 
abode of Tira'wa atius have droiJijed and covered the head of the child. 



238 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 23 

Trimslatidii af Fifth Stanza 

1234 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclaiiiatiou. 

1235 Iliri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri ta -witshpa ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of ihari, child, 
hiri! give lieed ! 
kaokto, eagle's down, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished, 
ha! behold! 
1236, 1237 See line 1235. 

Explanation hij the Kn'rahus 

We si7ig in the fifth stanza that it is accomplished, the head of the 
consecrated child now re.sts in the soft, white clouds which float near 
the dwelling place of Tira'wa atius. 

The Kn'rahus takes from the brown-eagle feathered stem a downy 
feather and gives it to the old man, who, while we sing the first 
stanza, holds it before the child. 



SECOND SONG 

Wnnls and 3Iusir 



(f) M. M. *\^ 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



=13— 



=r*«if 



n=s= 



r-Ef^E 



-»—^-~0- 



^ 



Drum. 
Rattles 



Ho-o-ol Hi - i-i! 'Ha-ri; Hi-ri! Hi-tii we re lireku-si liil... Hi 

L- L- U Lr tJ iJ Li L_r Lj t r 



ri! 'Ha - ri; 



■•;■ -• -»- -m- -0- -wt . 
Hi - ri! Hi ■ tu we re lire ku 



si hi!... 

; . i 



Hi- 




ri! 'Ha - ri: Hi-ril 



^^3^EEE^-===^5E%-fc 



Hi-tu we re hre ku - si. 



hi!. 



C_^ 



• a . < « s . s 



I 
1238 Ho-o-o! 

1339 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re hre kusi hi! 
1240 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Hitu we re hre kusi hi! 
1341 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re hre kusi hi! 



FLETCHER] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 239 

II 
1343 Ho-o-o! 

1343 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re ru ata lial 
1244 Hii'i! 'Hari: Hiri! Hitu we re rii ata ha! 
1345 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

1246 Ho-o-o! 

1247 Hiri! "Hari: Hiri! Hitu we ri tukuka ha! 

1248 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri tukuka ha! 
1349 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri tukuka ha! 

IV 
1250 Ho-o-o! 

1351 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Hitu we ri kittawe he! 
1353 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri kittawe he! 
1353 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Hitu we ri kittawe he! 

V 

1254 Ho-o-o! 

1255 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1356 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1357 Hiri! 'Hari; Hii-i! Hitu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

Translation of First Stanza 

1238 Ho-o-o! All introductory exclamation. 
3239 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re lire kusi hi! 

hiri ! give heed ! 

'hai-i, a part of iha'ri, child. 

hiri! give heed! 

hitu, feather; a downy, soft feather. 

we, now. 

re, am. 

hre, holding. 

kusi, sitting. 

hi! from hiri! give heed! 
1240, 1241 See line 1239. 

Ex-planation htj the Kti'rahus 

The downy, white feather came from the white eagle, the father of 
the child. Soft, blue feathers were bound around its stem, to which 
a small buckskin thong was attached, so that the feather could be 
tied upon the hair of the child. The soft, blue feathers represent the 
blue sky above the clouds; the white, downy feather itself, which is 
ever moving, as if it were breathing, represents Tira'wa atius, who 
dwells bej'ond the blue sky, which is above the soft, white clouds. 

All during the cereniouy this feather has been tied upon tlie brown- 
eagle feathered stem, close to the owl feathers. It is different from 
the downy feather worn by the Ku'rahus and his assistant, for at its 



240 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [bth. ann. aS 

stem there is a little one, like a small braneh, that is to show that the 
little child is the child of Tira'wa alius. 

This double feather now stands before the child. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

1242 Ho-o-o! Au introductory exclamation. 

1243 Iliri! 'Ilari; Hiri! Ilitu we re ru ata ha! 

hiri! give heedl 

"hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 

hiri ! give heed I 

hitu, a downy feather. 

we, now. 

I'e, is. 

ru, it. 

ata, flj'ing. 

ha! behold! 

1244, 1245 See line 1243. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahiis 

As we sing the second stanza the old man moves the feather toward 
the child's head. The feather representing Tii-a'wa alius is now fly- 
ing thi'ough the air, coming near the head of the little child. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

]24(; Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
1247 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri tukuka hal 

hiri! give heed! 

'hari, a part of ilia'ri, child. 

hiri ! give heed ! 

hitu, downy feather. 

we, now. 

ri, it. 

tukuka, touching. 

ha! behold! 

1245, 1249 See line 1247. 

Explanation Inj the Ku'ralius 

During the singing of this stanza the old man touches the head of 
the child with the downy white feather. The symbol of Tira'wa alius 
has reached the child and rests above the white, downy clouds. 



PLETciiER] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PAKT IV 241 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1250 IIo-o-o! An introductoi-y exclainatioji. 

1251 Iliri! 'Hari; Iliri! Hitu we ri kittawe he! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
hitu, downy feather, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

kittawe, standing on top (of the child's head), 
he! from hiri! give heed! 
1252, 1253 See line 1251. 

Explanation bjj the Ku'raJius 

While we sing this fourth sta7iza, the old man ties the downy 
feather on the child's hair. Tira'wa atins is now with the little child 
as the double feather waves over its head. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1264 TIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
1255 Iliri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri! harken! 

'hari, child. 

hiri! harken! give heed! 

hitu, downy feather. 

we, now. 

ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch. 

witshpa, accomplished, completed. 

ha! behold! 
1256, 1257 See line 1255. 

Explanation by the Ku'ralnts 

Now we sing that all is accomplished. The child has been fully 
prepared, the sacred symbols put upon it, the powers from above have 
come, and Tira'wa atius breathes over it. 

The child is now told to look into the bowl of water and behold its 
face. Tlie running water symbolizes the passing on of generations, 
one following another. The little child looks on the water and sees 
its own likeness, as it will see that likeness in its children and chil- 
dren's children. The face of Tira'wa atius is there also, giving jirom- 
ise that the life of the child shall go on, as the waters flow over the land. 

A black covering is now put over the child's head by the Ku'rahus, 
that no one may look on the holy sj'mbols. Only Tira'wa looks 

22 ETH — PT 2 — 04 16 



242 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



on them and knows all that they mean. We do not look on them, 
for they are holy." 

The Ku'rahus, handing the bowl of water to the young man who 
brought it into the lodge, tells him what to do before he throws it 
away. 

Tlie young man with the bowl passes through the cir<!le of warriors 
and goes bj'the south to the east, then to the northeast, where he lifts 
a few drops to that direction and lets them fall on the rim of the fire- 
place. Then he passes to the northwest and repeats his action. At 
the west he lifts a fewdrops to the zenith and lets them fall on the rim 
of the fireplace. Then he passes on to the southwest, offering the water 
as before, and then to the southeast, where he repeats his offering. 
Thence he goes to the inner door of the lodge, where he pauses, then 
passes through the entrance way, and when he is out under the early 
morning sky he throws the water toward the east. 

This is done because all the rivers flow toward the east. 



EIGHTEENTH RITUAL. FULFILMENT PREFIGURED 
Part I. Making the Nest 
Explanation hij the Ku'raliiis 
The old man who has been preparing the child now rises from his 
position and, stepping to one side, leaves the Ku'rahus and his assist- 
ant standing directly in front of the little child. 

These two lift the feathered stems and the rattles and wave their 
arms like the wings of a bird as the following song is sung three times. 
No drum is used, but the rattles and the whistle accompany the song. 

SONG 

Wofds and Music 



M. M. ;n = 192. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 

No drum. ^^.^ 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

j__JK — tLSM — I — * - W J 



Ho-0-o-o-o! Ha wa-re. Hi-ri-i - i! 



Rattles, p.. 
Whistle.l "■' 



■ Ftr- 



Ha wa-re. Hi-ri-i - il Hiril I-ra - hi - 

A A A A A 

...._ ^tr.'^ftr f tr. ftr.^.^^'ir.—^ 



Eti^i^^S^^Efesi^^i^: 



14=3= 



si 


wi-te. 




Hi 


- ril H'Ak u-ka - i re-i-ei. 


Ha 


ware. Hiri - il 


A 


A 

ftr. 


^ 

t" 




f tr.^ 

1358 
1259 
1260 
1361 


- P (,-. r tr. P tr 

Ho-0-o-o-o! 
Ha ware. Hiri-i-i! 
Ha ware. Hiri-i-i! 
Hiri! Irahisi wite. 




ftr ^ I ^ ' I 










1363 


Hiri! H'Ak ukai reisi. 












1363 


Ha ware. Hiri-i! 






(iTliB Ku' 








amber T 


rhat waa formerlv used 


as a 


covering for tho head of the 



child; latterly it has been a black silk handkerchief. 



FLETCHER] EIGHTEENTH KITUAL, PART I 243 

Transhdion 

1258 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1259 Ha ware. Hiri-i-i! 

ha, yonder. 

ware, a part of teware, fijiug, circling about, 
liiri! give heed! harken! 
i-i, vowel pi-olongations. 
12G0 See line 1259. 

1261 Hiri! Irahisi wite. 

hiri! give heed! harken! 

irahisi, irasi, it is you. The syllable hi is introduced to 

modif}^ the word so as to conform to the music, 
wite, con.jecture, surmise. 

1262 Hii-i! H'Ak ukai reisi. 

hiri ! give heed ! harken ! 

h'Ak; h', the sign of breath, life; ak, a pai-t of akaro, a 

dwelling: h'Ak, the stretch of the earth under the dome 

of the heavens, 
ukai, to put in. 

reisi, a modification of irasi, it is you. 
126.3 See line 1259. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

After the third rejieat, the Ku'rahus calls out, "Open a way!" and 
the warriors who form the line separate at the north and at the south, 
and the brown-eagle feathered stem is carried through the north open- 
ing and the white-eagle feathered stem through the soiith opening. 
The white eagle then flies back and fortli before the line of warriors 
guarding the brown eagle as she circles the fireplace. ' 

When the Ku'rahus, carrying the brown-eagle feathered stem, 
reaches the west he pauses, and then goes to the northwest, near the 
rim of the fireplace, where he makes a circle with the l)ig toe of his 
left foot and covers the outline with down. Then he passes to the 
northeast and makes another cii-cle, marking it also with down; then 
to the southeast, where he makes a third circle, then to the southwest, 
where he makes the fourth circle. Meanwhile the song is being sung 
for the fourth time, and the white eagle is still tlying back and forth 
in front of the line of warriors. 

The circle represents a nest, and is drawn by the toe because the 
eagle builds its nest with its claws. Although we are imitating the 
bii'd making its nest, there is anotlier meaning to the action; we are 
thinking of Tira'wa making the world for the people to live in. If 3'ou 
go on a high hill and look around, you will see the sky touching 
the earth on every side, and within this circular inclosure the people 
live. So the circles we have made are not only nests, but they also 



244 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONV [eth. ANN.;i2 

represent the circle Tira'wa atiiis lias made for the dwellinj^ place of 
all the people. The circles also stand for the kinship gronp, the 
clan, and the tribe. 

The down represents tJie light clouds near the dwelling place of 
Tira'wa — the dome of the skj' over the dwelling place of the people — 
and it stands for the protection of Tira'wa. WJien there is no down 
to be had, white ashes can be used. I do not know what the ashes 
mean, but I think they are to make the outline distinct and to repre- 
sent the white down. 

The nests arc four, because at the four directions are the paths 
down which tlic powers from above descend. The four winds guard 
these paths and protect the life of man. 

After tlic four nests are made, the feathered stems are laid at rest. 

The Ku'rahus then takes bits of fat which have been preserved 
from an animal consccratetl to Tira'wa and puts them with some native 
tobacco into an oriole's nest and hands the nest to the chief, who con- 
ceals it in his hands. 

The bits of fat represent the droppings that mark the trail made 
by the hunters as they carry the meat home from the field. 'J'his trail 
is called the path dropping fatness, and means plenty. Fat, there- 
fore, stands for the promise of abundant food. 

The oriole's nest is used because Tira'wa made this bird build its 
nest so that no hai'in could come to it. It hangs high, is skillfully 
made, and is secure. An eagle's ni^st may be torn away by a storm, 
but the oriole's nest sways in the wind and is not hurt. 

Part II. Symbolic FulfUjMENT 
Explanaiioii hij tlte Ku'rahus 

Now ;i robe is spread on the ground and the child is placed on it 
with his feet and legs projecting beyond the edge. Four men are 
appointed to carry tin; child. One goes on each side and takes hold 
of the robe and lifts it; a man at the back ojf the child steadies it as 
it is raised and carried, while the fourth man holds another robe over 
its feet and legs. 

The chief and the Ku'rahus precede the child to the circle at the 
northwest, where it is held over the nest so that its feet rest within 
the circle. The chief puts his hands under the robe held over the 
child's legs and drojis the oriole's nest witliin the circle so that the 
child's feet rest on it. No one but the chief and the Ku'rahus 
know w-hat is being done beneath the robe. The chief takes up the 
nest, co7icealing it from view, and goes to the circle at the northeast, 
to which the child has also been carried, and in the same way places 
its feet on it. The same act is repeated at the circles in the south- 
east and th(> southwest. 

Th(! child r(>presents the young generation, the continuation of life, 



FLETCHERJ 



EIGHTEKNTH RITUAL, PART 11 



245 



and when it is put in the circle it typifies the bird la.ying its eggs. 
The cliild is covered up, for uo one knows when a l)ird hiys its eggs 
or when a new birth takes place; only Tira'wa can know when life is 
given. The putting of the child's feet in the circle means the giving 
of new life, the lesting of its feet upon the oriole's nest means Drom- 
ised security to the new life, the fat is a promise of plenty of food, 
and the tobacco is an offering in recognition that all things coin(^ from 
1'ira'wa. The entire act means that the clan or tribe of Ihe Son 
shall increase, that there shall be peace and security, and that the 
huul shall be covered with fatness. This is the promise of Tira'wa 
through the Hako. 

Four times the child is taken around the tire and its feet are placed 
within the four circles during the singing of the following song, but 
the nest is used onlv on the first round. 



M. M. ^N = 126. 

• = Piifsation of tfie voice. 



SONG 

TT'«;v/.s- (iiid Music 




Ho-o-o! AVe ra ti ka ri - ki 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy, 
ra ri - ki lii! Pi - ra - o ka ri - ki 



Rattles. '(3 , 
Whistle ' 



Ir. 




1204 Ho-o-o! 

1265 We ra ti ka riki ra riki hi! 

1266 Pirao ka riki ra riki lii! 
1367 Pirao ka riki ra riki hi! 

Traii.sla/ioii 

1264 IIo-o-o! All introductory exclamation. 
1205 We v:i ti ka riki ra riki hi! 

we, now. 

ra. is. 

ti, he. 

ka, from akai-o, an inclosure; the space or room within. 

riki, standing. 

ra, is. 

riki, standing. 

hi, vowel prolongation. 



246 THB HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

12G6 Pirao ka riki ra riki hi! 

pirao, child. 

ka, within. 

riki, standing. 

ra, is. 

riki, .standing. 

hi, vowel prolongation. 
12<j7 See line 1206. 

Explamdion hij fhf Ku'rahus 

At the close of this song and ceremony the child is carried back 
and seated behind the holy place. The chief stands behind the child, 
and a feathered stem is laid on each side of it, the brown eagle to the 
north. 

Pakt III. Thank Offering 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Live coals are brought and put on the holy place before the child, 
and the Ku'rahus cuts bits of consecrated fat and sweet grass and 
lays theni on the coals. All the people silently watch the sweet- 
smelling smoke as it curls upward. When the smoke is well on its 
way to Tira'wa, the Ku'rahus, standing at the west, lifts the feathered 
stems, the wildcat skin, and all the other sacred objects of the Hako 
and waves them four times through the smoke toward the east, and 
then lays them down as they were before. When the chief and his 
assistant have raised the child to its feet, the chief puts his hands in 
the sweet smoke and passes them over its head, then puts his hands 
back into the smoke and j'ubs the child from its shoulders down its 
arms. Again he puts his hands in the smoke and passes them down 
the body of the child. For the fourth time he puts his hands in the 
smoke and strokes the legs of the child to its feet and presses them 
iiI)on the earth. Then the child is again seated. 

I Now the Ku'rahus says, " My Children, the offering of sweet smoke 
is for you." After that the chief and the assistant will put smoke 
on any of the Children who so desire. This takes some time, for 
every one of the Children present wishes to have the blessing of the 
smoke. At length the chief puts the smoke upon himself, and the 
Ku'rahus and his assistant on themselves, and last of all the two 
yoimg men who are to perform the final dance bless themselves with 
the smoke. 

The Ku'rahus I'eturiis the coals to the fireplace and spreads the 
ashes over the ground so that nothing will show where they have 
been. Ne.xt he goes to the first circle in the northwest and with his 
right foot rubs away the outline. He then proceeds to the nest-circle 
at the northeast and rubs that away, and so on with the other two. 
The doctors follow, the one with the left wing sweei^ing away all signs 
of the nests on the north side of the fireplace, while the doctor with 
the right wing does the same to those on the south side. 



FLETCHER] EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH RITUALS 247 

The chief, the Fatliei- of the Ilako party, now takes tlie little child 
in his arms and, going outside of the lodge, sits down near the door, 
where he remains during the final dance and the presentation of gifts 
by the children. 

Third Division. The Dance of Thanks 

nineteenth rituai. 

Part I. The Call to the Children 

ExjilaiKiiiou hij ihe Ku'ralius 

Before the entrance t()t]i(> lodge mats are spread, on which sit those 
who are to take part in the coming ceremony. 

The Kn'rahus and his assistant are directty before the door. At 
the left of them are two doctors who have not heretofoi-e taken part. 
They carry their large rattles, and have lent two similar ones to the 
Ku'ralius and his assistant. They have also lent for this occasion 
their peculiar drums to the singers. These drums are made of the 
section of a tree hollowed out by fire, over the open end of which a 
skin has been stretched and securely tied. The singers are seated in 
a semicircle about each of the two drums (see figure 180). In front of 
the Ku'rahus and the singers sits the chief, and before him is the little 
child. The doctors with the eagle wings are on either side, the one 
with the left wing toward the north, the one with the right wing toward 
the south. In front of them are the two dancers. The space within 
which they are to dance is inclosed on the south by a line of i)romi- 
nent men from the Son's party, and on the north by a line from the 
Father's. These lines beginning at the lodge end each with a warrior 
selected hy the Ku'iahus for his valorous record. These warriors 
wear buffalo robes with the hair side out and are girded about the 
waist with a hair lariat, which is to be used in leading the horses 
brought as gifts to the Fathers. Beyond these lines of prominent 
men, who are seated, are gathered the people, those belonging to the 
tribe of the Son on the south and those of the Ilako party on the 
north. 

The Ku'rahus gives a small tuft of white down to a man whose 
hands have not been painted with sacred ointment, and direi^ts him 
where to place it on the head of the chief. The place is on the spot 
where a baby's skull is open, and you can see it breathe. 1'he white 
down represents the white clouds which lie near the abode of Tira'wa 
atius, whence he sends down tlie breath of life to man. Chiefs were 
appointed by Tira'wa through the North Star. The tuft of down also 
signifies that the chief's office is from above. 

The two feathered stems, the rattles, the wildcat skin, and the ear 
of corn are given to the chief to hold. 

The two young men who have been selected to dance are strijjped 
to the breechcloth, and red circles are made with the sacred jiaint on 
their backs and breasts. The circles are outlined faintly, so as not to 



248 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 

WEST 



[ETH. ANN. 22 




* 



Pig. ISO, Diagram showing the positions of the participants in the dance of thanlcs, 
1. the entrance to tlie lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the roof; 4, the holy 
place; 5, the drum; 6, the Ku'rahus; 7, his assistant; 8, the drums of the doctors; 9 singers- lli 
the Father la chief); 11, the little child; 12, the bearers of the eagle wings; 1.3, the dancer with 
the brown-eagle feathered stem; U, the dancer with the white-eagle feathered stem; 1,5, the line 
of the brown-eagle dancer; lli, the lino of the white-eagle dancer; 17, warriors who take the 
ponies off; 18, prominent men of the Hako party; 19, prominent men of the Son's party; 20 
members of the Son's tribe, the Children; 21, members of the Hako party; 22, effigy on which 
war honors are enacted. 



FLETCHER] NINETEENTH RITUAL, PART I 249 

attract attentiou, for they represent the nest aud are a part of the 
secret ceremony. The downj' eagle feather which until now has been 
worn bj' the Kii'rahus is fastened to the scalp lock of the dancer who 
is to bear the brown-eagle feathered stem, and the downy feather 
worn bj' the assistant is tied to the hair of the dancer who will liold 
the white-eagle feathered stem. 

A man, iireviously clioseu bj' the Ku'rahus, steps up to the chief 
and receives from him the two feathered stems and the rattles. He 
makes the sign of thanks for the honor by passing his hands down 
the arms of the chief. Then, holding the brown-eagle feathered stem 
in his right hand, he recoiints a successful capture of boot}', tlien 
tells of a war adventure in which he struck an enemy without receiv- 
ing any harm. After this lie hands the brown-eagle feathered stem 
and a rattle to the dancer sitting at the north. Holding up the white- 
eagle feathered stem, he tells of a successful foray, in which he cap- 
tured ponies, aud then of a victory in war, after which he hands the 
white-eagle feathered stem and a rattle to the dancer sitting at the 
south and takes his own place in the line of prominent men belonging 
to the Father's part3^ 

The first song is now sung, to the accompaniment of the large 
rattles, the doctors' drums, and the whistle. 

FIKST BONO 

Words and 3Iiisic 
M. M. ^N = 152. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



^:^=3^-^g=giE^: 



arta^rzizzzrszrfc 



Hi-ril Ilu-ra i, bu - ra i; 



1= , 



"1 >i 1 1 



1268 Hiri! Hnra-a i, hura i; 1371 Hiri! Hiua: 

13(;9 Hiri! Hurai.hiira i.lmra i; 1273 Hiri! Hura; Hiri! Hura iha! 

1370 Hiri! Hura i, hura i; 



250 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.23 

TransJatio7i 

1268 Hiri! Hura-a i, liura i. 

hiri! an exclamation calling attention and demanding that 
lieed be given ; liarken ! 

hura, let come. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

i, a part of the word iha're, young, or children. 

hura i, let the children come. 
1209 Hiri! Hura i, hura i, hura i. See line 1268. 

1270 Hiri! Hura i, hura i. See line 12G8. 

1271 Hiri! Hura. See line 1268. 

1272 Hiri! Hura; Hiri! Hura iha! 

Hiri! Hura; Hiri! Hura. See line 1268. 
iha, a part of the word iha're, children, young. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This .song is addressed to the Children that they may know that all 
is now ready for the reception of their gifts. 

The words of the song mean: "Harken! Give atteution! Let the 
Children come! " 

The song is sung twice and then we pause; this is to give the Chil- 
dren time to come together. 

After a little while we sing the second song. 

SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. jS = 152. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




1373 I ra. i ra. bira-a hira ha-a; 

1374 I ra, i ra, hh'a-a hira ha-a; 

1275 Iri ra! 

1276 I ra, i ra. hira-a; 
1377 I ra, hira ha-a! 



FLETCHER] NINETEENTH RITUAL, PART I 

Translation 

1273 I ra, i ra, hira-a hira lui-a. 

i, a part of the word iha're, children, young. 

ra, come. 

hira, when come, when thej' do come. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

hira, translated above. 

ha, yonder. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

1274 See line 1273. 

1275 Irira! 

iri, there, 
ra, coming. 

1276 I ra, i ra, hira-a. See line 1273. 

1277 I ra, hira ha-a! See line 1273. 



251 



Exjjianatlon by the Ku'rahus 

The Children are now gathering; they are moving about on their 
side (see figure ISO), men, women, and children. 

The words mean: "When the Children come, they will come from 
yonder." 

Although there is much noise and bustle where the Children are 
busily preparing, yet tliis song can be heard by them and they hasten 
with their preparations. 

We sing the song twice. 

As the people are seen moving toward the place where we are sit- 
ting, we sing the next song. 

THIRD SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. J.=56. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 

—TV » 1- 



te^t== 



■^^ 



=-W2 



S=S- 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 
— r — 1>- 



d=e=C: 



68=1== 



|3^^^^ 



'Hare ra, 'hare ra - a, ra i 'ha-re; 'Hare ra, 'lia-re ra-a, ra i 'lia-re; 



Drum, t, 
Battles, r tr. 
Whistle. ' 



ftr. 



ia-- 



Ha-re ra, ra i 'lia-re; 

A 



^=^.=t^.=3^=f^.^^^^ 



'Ha re ra! 'Ha-re ra-a, ra - 



a 1 lia-re, ra 



1 



:Tca=Iv=f>3^^f; 



^-.^■. 






-4^ 



airvrzv^ 



M. M. = 80. 
Quicker. 



s-s--^-- 



5il5^ 



tr^^.:ir. 



i 'ha-re; 'Hare ra, 'ha-re ra-a, ra i 'ha-re; 'Ha-re ra! 'Ha re ra! 



r"- 



'tr.. 



' ' ' p r^r,' r ' * r 



252 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

1278 'Hare ra, 'hare ra-a, ra i 'hare; 

1379 'Hare ra, 'hare ra-a, ra i "hare; 

1380 'Hare ra, ra i 'liare: 

1381 'Hare ra! 

1283 'Hare ra-a. ra-a i 'hare, ra i hare; 
1383 'Hare ra. hare ra-a. ra i 'hare; 

1284 'Hare ra! "Hare ra! 

l^rdiislfifion 

1278 'Hare ra, 'hare ra-a, ra i 'liare. 

'hare, a part of the word iha're, fhildren, young. 

ra, cominy. 

'hare ra. Translated above. 

a, vowel jirolongation. 

ra, come, or coming. 

i, a part of the word titako, here, whei-e I am. 

'har(% children. 

1279 See line 1278. 

1280 'Hare ra, ra i hare. See line 1278. 

1281 'Hare ra! See line 1278. 

1282 'Hare ra-a, ra-a i 'liare, ra i 'iiare. See line 1278. 

1283 See line 1278. 

1284 'Hare ra! 'Hare ra! See line 1278. 

E.r])Jniiuii()n hij the JCii' /•(i/iii.'i 

The words of this song mean: "The Children are coming, coming 
here where I am sitting. " 

At the close of tliis song a man selected by the Kii'rahns niters 
along, loud cry: "IIo-o-o-o-o-o-o! " It is answered by all the Ilako 
party; their sliout is Itrolien by tlie hands beating on the mouth: 
" Ha-a-a-a-a-a-a! " The drums and rattles sound at the same time. 

It is a cry of thanks and of weh-ome by the Fathers to the Children 
as they approach bearing gifts. 

As soon as the cries cease the Ku'rahus begins one of the dauce 
sougs. 

Part II. The Dance and Reception of Gifts 

Exphotatioii hij ihe Kk' ri(hus 

On the fourth niglit (of the Ilako ceremony), while the lodge was 
being circled sixteen times, some young men, at the direction of tlie 
Ku'rahus, went out and made the figure of a man from grass and old 
garments and fastened it to a small sapling so that it could be made 
to stand upright. This figure, which lias been concealed, is now 
bi'ought out and set up in front of all the people (see figure ISO). 

The men of the tribe of the Children, dressed in their regalia and 
war bonnets, and painted witli the symbols of tlie society to which they 
belong, come uj) with their horses, which are led by one of tlie owner's 



FLETCHER] NINETEENTH RITUAL, PART II 253 

little children. P^aeh m;ui stops at the effigy and there, treating tlie 
figure as he did his enemy, he acts out a deed of valor and tlieu 
recounts its story. He does this to honor his child, who is taking the 
gift of a horse to the Fathers. 

As the child approaches, the chief goes toward hiiu with the wild- 
cat skin and the ear of corn ; he strokes the child's head with the ear 
of corn. This movement means thanks for the gift and the invoking 
of a blessing upon the child. 

Meanwhile one of the warriors at the end of the line (see figure 180) 
comes forward, and with his hair rope leads the horse away and gives 
it in chai'ge of some one, and the man appointed to keep count makes 
a record of it. 

These things are all going on at once while the j'oung men are dan- 
cing. When the dance song begins the two young men rise, each hold- 
ing in his left hand, high up over his head, a feathered stem and in 
his riglit a rattle. Both start at tlie .same time and as they leap and 
dance they wave the feathered stems to simulate the flight of the 
eagle. The dancer with the brown-eagle feathered stem goes from 
the north around by the south and pauses when he reaches the place 
where the dancer with the white-eagle feathered stem started, while 
the latter goes outside the path of the former by the south and 
pauses when he reaches the place at the north where the dancer bear- 
ing the brown-eagie feathered stem had stood. There the two dancers 
stand until the song is finished, wlien they cross over and take their 
own proper places, the brown eagle at the north and the white eagle 
at the south. AVhenever the song is repeated, they rise and dance 
again in the same manner. 

The circle of the white eagle is alwaj'S outside that of the brown 
eagle, for the white eagle is the male and its place is outside to defend 
the female. The brown eagle always moves from the north around to 
the south and the white eagle goes from the south to the north; the 
two move in opposite directions so that they may come together; the 
male and female must conjoin. 

There are two dance songs; they both mean the same and there is 
no order in which they must be sung. 

The words mean "Now fly, you eagles, as we give thanks to the 
Children." 



254 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



DANCE SONO 

Words and Music 



M. M. jS = 200. 

• — Pulsation of tlie voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



l^^pB^^E^^ 






Ho-o-o-o! 
Drum. &,,. 
Matties. I •' 



Ea-wa sa wa-ri! I - ri i-ha-re! 

A A A A ■ A 

1j L_- L_r LJ L/ c_ 



I - ri i - lia-re - e! 



zzP 



m 



-=lv: 



3S3iqi 



Ra - wa sa wa 

r r ^ r 



It 



ra - wa sa wa - ri! 

r r ? r ^^ 



-J^^Sr-Jr 



i - ha - rel 

? " A 



^~ 



:3=S= 



13^=3^=1 



:^-::^^^ 



ri i - lia- re - e! 



Ra - wa sa wa - ri , 



ra - wa sa wa - ri ! 



u 




\m~> Ho-o-o-o 1 

1386 Bawa sa wari! Iri iliare! Iri ihare-e! 

1287 Rawa sa wari, rawa .sa waril Iri iliare! Iri ihare-e! 

1288 Rawa sa wari, rawa sa waril Iri ihare! Iri ihare-e! 

1289 Rawa sa wari! 

Trattslation nf Foitrfh So7>g 

1285 IIo-o-o-o! All iutroductory exclamation. 

1286 Rawa sa wari! Iri ihare! Iri ihare-e! 

rawa, now; a signal to start. 

sa, yon; refers to the eagles personated by the dancers. 

wari, fly. 

iri, a i>art of nawairi, an expression of Ihankfnlness. 

ihare, children, young; refers to the Children. 

iri, translated above. 

ihare, translated above. 

e, vowel prolongation. 

1287 Rawa sa wari, rawa sa wari! Iri ihare! Iri ihare-e! See line 

128(3. 

1288 See line 1287. 

1280 Rawa sa wari! See line 128(j. 



FLETCHER] NINETEENTH RITUAL, PART II 255 

DANCE SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. ^N = 200. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ho-o-o-o! Hal I-ra hi-ru-ral Ha! I-ra hi-ru-ral Ha! I-ra hi-ru-ral 

Drum. ^, it £. i.i. it p « •• •<p« A < f • •> i>A« f » 

Rattles.-^ 'J U ULJ LjLjU LU LjLjUUU [_lC_r 



^-ii--*-7-^-*S-S-^~':sr^#^-Sr 



Ilal 1-ra hi-ru-ra! Hal I-ra Iii-ru-ra! Ha! I-ra hi-ru-ra! 

Ls iris U is Lj tst: U UL: titi LrL 

Spoken. 




Ha! I-ra hi-ru-ra! A! Hi ra-al Hal I-ra hi-ru-ra! Hal Ira. 

tr I'l' U tJ U tt: L: Li tr h i i i 

1290 Ho-o-o-o! 

1291 Ha! Ira hirura! 

1393 Ha! Ira hirura! Ha! Ira hirura! 
1293 Ha! Ira liirura! Ha! Ira hirura! 

1394 Ha! Ira hirura! Ha! Ira hirura! 

1295 A! Hi ra-a! 

1296 Ha! Ira hirura! Ha! Ira hirura! 

Translation of Fifth Sony 

1290 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1291 Ha! Ira hirura! 

ha! behold! 

ira, coming. 

hirura, yonder he is coming (refers to the child bringing a 
gift). 
1292-1294 See line 1291. 
1295 A! Hi ra-a! 

a! the same as ha! behold! 

hi, a part of hirura, yonder he is coming. 

ra-a; ra, coming; a, vowel prolongation. 
129U See line 1291. 



256 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 

Explanatiot) hy Hie Kii'rtiliiis 

If a mail of the Father's party desires to count his war honors lie 
steps out in front of tlie dancers. The men stop and iio to their 
proper places; the song- slops and the man tells his deed of valor. At 
its close the responsive cry is given by the people; then the song 
begins again and the dance is resumed. 

Sometimes one of the Children has not been able to catch the horse 
he intends to give away. He comes forward with his little cliild, who 
carries a small stick and hands it to the chief, who turns it over to 
the assistant chief, who passes it on to the record keeper. The child 
is blessed with the corn. 

At any time during this dance of thanks a jioor person can come 
up to the consecrated child who is sitting in front of the chief and take 
away the robe that is on it, for the robe has been put on the child as 
a gift to the poor. AVlien one robe is taken, the assistant chief places 
another robe on the child, and it often happens that several robes or 
blankets are given away to the poor in this manner. 

After a time one of the chiefs of the tribe of the Son rises and asks 
if all have made their gifts. This is a signal that the end is near. 
Finalljr, some one of the party of the Son rises and says, "Father, 
you must lie tired; end this!" and he makes the sign with his hands 
which signifies cutting off, and the dance stops. Sometimes onh* the 
sign is made, but generally the words are s])ok('n. 

Then the prominent men of the Fathers and of the Children enter 
the lodge for the final ceremony. 

Fourth Division. Presentation of the IIako 

twentieth ritual 

P.\RT I. Blessing the Child 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahus 

At the close of the dance of thanks the Children scatter in every 
direction, but the leading men enter the lodge and sit down at the 
south side. The Son sits either in the middle of the line on the south, 
or in his proper place just south of the entrance, near the door. 

The consecrated child is taken by the chief behind the holy place. 
The two dancei's advance to lay down the feathered stems, one at each 
side of the little child, the brown-eagle feathered stem toward the 
north, the white feathered stem toward the south. Then they remove 
the downy feathers from their hair and give them to the Ku'rahus, 
who ties them on the feathered stems. 

The Ku'rahus then girds the robe about his waist with the hair 
rope and lifts tiie brown-eagle feathered stem. His assistant takes up 
the white-eagle feathered stem, the chief, with the cat skin and the 
ear of corn, .steps between the Ku'rahus and his assistant, and the 



FLETCHER! 



TWENTIETH RITUAL, PART I' 



'257 



doctors witli the eagle, wings take their places at either side. The 
five men stand before the child and sing the following song (see 
figure 181). 

EAST 
1 




Fig. 181. Diagram of the Son's lodge during the presentation of the Hako. 

1, the entranfe to the lodge; 3, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-.shaped roof; 
4, the little child; .5, the Ku'rahus; 6, his assistant; 7, the Father (a chief); .s, the hearers of the 
eagle wings; II. the Sun. father of the little child; 111, leading men of the Son's party; 11, leading 
men of the Father's party. 

SONG 

Words and Music 

M. M. J =56. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 
No drum. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



;r=ir:n=3S 



Ho-o-o-o! H'lrera! ll'Ire 
MaUles-f ir. 






ir. 



tr.. 



ra! ]'i-ra u la ha - u! 

1297 Ho-o-o-o! 

1298 H'lrera! 

1299 H'lrera! 
1.300 Pira uta hao! 
1301 Pira uta. uta hao 



Pi-ra ii-ta, 

<= tr. 



11 - ta ha - ()! 



22 ETH— PT 2—04- 



-17 



258 THE HAKO. A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. anx. 22 

Trdiislafioii 

1297 Ho-o-o-o! An iutrodoctory exclamation to the song. 

1298 H'l re ra! 

h', the S3''mbol of bi'eath; breathing forth life. 
I, a part of the word ']"'ii'a'\va, the mighty power above, 
re, is. 

ra, coTuing. The word as here used conveys the idea of coming 
from a great distance. 

1299 See line 1298. 

1300 Pirautahao! 

pira, a part of the word pirao, child, a general term. 

uta, a i)art of the word kuta, possessed by or belonging to 

some one other than the speaker, 
hao, offspring. 
loOl Pira uta, uta hao! See line 1300. 

Explmiafioii hij the Kii' minis 

When I sing this song I i)ray to Tira wa to come down and toiicli 
with his breath the syml)ol of his face and all the other symbols on 
the little child. I pray with all my spirit that 'I'ira'wa atins will let 
the child grow up and become strong and find favor in its life. 

This is a very solemn act, because we believe that Tira'wa atius, 
although not seen by us, sends down his breath as we pray, calling 
on him to come. 

As I sing this song here with you I can not help shedding tears. I 
have never sung it before except as I stood looking upon tlie little 
child and praying for it in my heart. There is no little child here, 
but you .are liere writing all these things down that they may not be 
lost and that our children may know what their fathers believed and 
practiced in this ceremony. So, as I sing, I am calling to Tira'wa 
atius to send down his breath upon you, to give you strength and 
long life. I am praying for you with all my spirit. 

This song is sung eight times. 

As we sing it first we bow above the little child, and nuike a move- 
ment as if to touch it with the feathered stems and the ear of corn. 
The second time we sing it we again bow low over the child and the 
chief touches it on the forehead with the ear of coi'u, while the Ku'ra- 
hus and his assistant stroke it on each side with the feathered 
stems. We then i)ass to the south, to the right side of the child, and 
sing for the third and the fourth time. Tiie first time we make the 
motion of touching tiie child, 1ln' second time tlic cliief touches its 
head witli the ear of corn, and the feathered stems are passed down 
its sides. Then we go west to the back of the child and t here sing for 
the fifth and sixth times, making the same motions and again touch- 
ing it. Then we go north, to the left of the child, and sing for the 



FLETCHER] TWENTIETH RITUAL 259 

sevtsuth aud eighth times, making the same movements and touches; 
and tlien we return to the front of the ehild. These movements are 
all descending movements; thej' are following the breath line drawn 
on the face of the child. 

The rattles which belong to the feathered stems are used alone 
with this song. 

The pnrport of this song is hidden from the people, but this is 
what it means: All that I have been doing to you, little child, has been 
a prayer to call down the breath of Tira'wa atius to give you long life 
and strength and to teach j'ou that you belong to him — that you are 
his child and not mine. 

When we have finished singing the chief steps back, and the Ku'ra- 
hus, taking the two feathered stems, folds tlie white-eagle within the 
feathers of the bronn-eagle featliered stem and, without singing, goes 
through the same two movements, the feint and the touch, fii-st on 
the front of the child, then on its right side, then on the back and then 
on the left side, after which he spreads the feathered stems, laying the 
brown-eagle stem to the left and the white-eagle feathered stem to 
the right of the child. 

The chief goes in front of the child and kneels befoz-e it. lie takes 
the riglit leg of the wildcat skin and witli the soft hair near its thigh 
he lightly wipes the blue lines from the child's face, and then the red 
paint. 

He spi-eads the wildcat skin between the two stems, lays the ear of 
corn upon it, places the two featliered stems beside the ear of corn, 
with the crotched stick, the two rattles, the two eagle wings, and the 
pipe which has been us-^d by the Children. He removes the black 
covering from the head of the child, takes off the white down and the 
downy feather, wraps them in the covering, and lays them also on the 
wildcat skin. He rolls the skin into a l)undle, holding it in his arms 
while he stands before the child and talks to it of the good which will 
come thi-ough this ceremony. 

Part II. Presenting the Hako to the Son and Thanks to the Children 
ExphnuifiiDi In/ fhe Klndliua 

When the chief has finished speaking he puts the bundle in the 
arms of the little child and leads it to its father, tlie Son, who receives 
it, and the child runs off" to play. 

Another bundle, containing the bowl wliicli lield the water into 
which the child looked and other things that have been used, and all 
the mats on which the people have been sitting, are brought to the 
Son and presented to him. 

The chief, the leader of the Father's party, stands at the doorway 
with the Son, making the movements of thanks. He .strokes the Son's 
head and arms, and, holding his hands, talks to Inm. The Ku'rahus 



260 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEKEMONY [eth.ann.22 

follows iiiid does the same, then the assistant comes, then the two 
doctors and the prominent men of the Fatliei''s party. After thaulc- 
iuj,^ the Son they all pass round the south side of the lodge to thank 
the i)rorainent men of the Son's party, then they return to the north 
sid(> of the lodi;e and sit down. 

After they are seated, the Children express the wish that the distri- 
bution of the ponies, waiting without, may be happily accomplished, 
to whicli the Fathers reply, "Nawairi!" "Thanlvs!" The Children 
now rise and go out of the lodge and leave the Fathers alone during 
the distribution of tlie gifts. 

The Ku'rahus appoints two influential men to go out and divide the 
gift of ponies, setting apart a number for tlie chiefs and tlie leading- 
men who do not wish to do this for tliemselves, lest the people tliink 
them selfish. Two ponies ai'e for tlie Ku'ralius; that is his portion 
ordinarily. If there are a great number of horses he is given more. 
The cliiefs and leading men select from tlie ponies set apart for tlieni, 
each man taking one until all the ponies are apportioned. The rest 
of tlie party clioose from tlie other ponies, one at a time, the men first 
and then the women. After this the sticks representing ponies are 
divided. 

All the saddles, bridles, feathers, that may have been on the 
horses given awaj' are piled on the north side of the lodge. These 
belong to the Ku'rahus. lie keeps what lie wants and divides the 
rest between his assistant, the server, and other members of the party. 

When the distribution has been made the Fathers leave the lodge 
and go to their camp, where they break their long fast and seek some 
rest. The next day all the party start for home except the chief. He 
remains to collect the ponies which have not been brought in. 

The Son, to whom the Ilako has been presented, can give the eagle 
wings to a doctor or the pipe to a friend, but lie must keep for himself 
the sacred objects of the ceremony. They ha\e brought to him the 
promise of long life and children, and have estalilished peace and 
security through a tie as strong as that of kinship. 

Incidental Kituals 

The following four rituals can be sung during the public ceremony 
whenever they are called for by the Children. 

COMFORTING THE CHILD 

ExpldiKifioii bij tlu^ Kii'rdhus 

I have told you before that in order to be instructed in this cere- 
mony, to be taught its songs ;ind their iiie;ining, one must make many 
gifts, pay a great deal to tlie Ku'rahus who teaches him. This is our 
custom, for a man must make sacrifices, must give large presents in 
payment for what he receives, in order to show that he places a value 
upon the knowledge he wishes to acquire. I have paid a great deal 



FLETCHER] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 261 

to the Kii'ralius who taught me. Besides I had to promise liim that I 
would not give the teachings awa}', but would hold tliem as ihey had 
been held, teaching them only to those wlio would pay me. I give 
these (incidental rituals) to you, so that they may be preserved and 
kept with all the other songs that Ijelong to the llako. 

Long ago tliere lived a holy man who knew all the songs and the 
rites of this ceremony, and to him came a vision wlierein he was taught 
how to bring comfort to a little child when, during the cei-emony, it 
cried and could not be i)acified. In this vision he was shown what he 
must do to bring comfoi-t to the little child, and he heard the songs 
that he must sing. The songs which he heard have been handed down 
through many generations. 

When during the ceremony a child cries and can not be ccnnforted, 
the mother, or some one sent b}' her, can approach the Ku'rahus who 
carries the brown-eagle stem and ask him to come and quiet the child. 
The Ku'rahus must comply with this request, so lie rises and stands 
before the holj^ place, takes up tlie featliered stem and sings this song, 
whicli tells tlie brown eagle, Kawas, that its baby is crying. 

All tlie people hear the song and know that help for the child is 
being asked. 

FIRST SONG 

Wonlii and Music 
M. M. J;=RO. 

• = riilsatioii of the voice. Transcribed hy Edwin S. Tracy. 
No drum. 
n-?rh-ir-f'——^—i:- — ~ mm l^^f" \,-„— — !- 






Ho-o-o-o-o! Ka - was to wha-ka ra-tsa we, Ka - was to uhakara-tsa we. 

A A A 

Rattles, f tr.,.^ ° If.^^^ . ^^^^^ f tr.^ 




1302 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

1803 Kawas to whaka ratsa we, 

1304 Kawas to wliaka ratsa we, 

LSOo All heru. whaka nxt.sa we. 

131 Hi Kawas to whaka ratsa we. 

Translation 

1302 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1303 Kawas to whaka ratsa we. 

Kawas, the bi-own eagle, representing the feminiiu' ])i'iucipie. 

to, its, denoting ownership of the child that is crying. 

whaka, voice, noi.se from the mouth. 

ratsa, a high i^itch, screaming. 

we, personal ])ronoun; I'efers to tlie child. 



262 



THE HA^O, A PAWNEE CEKEMOKY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



1304 See line 1303. 

1305 All lieru, whaka ratsa we. 

ah, yes. 

hern, trulj', verily, 
wliaka, voice, 
ratsa, screaming, 
we, refers to child. 

1306 See line 1303. 

Explanaiion Inj tht Kii'rahus 

The assistant takes up the white-eagle feathered stem, and then he 
and the Ku'rahus move toward the chikl, singing this song and waving 
the featliered stems. They ai-e speaking to the child; they are bid- 
ding it cry no more, for its father is coming. 

The father is Tira'wa atius, the father of all, the fatlier of all the 
powers represented with the Hako, of all living things, of all the peo- 
ple. And now this mighty power, the Father, is c(nning to the little 
child to bring it comfort. That is why the child is told not to crj-, 
since its father is coming. 

These songs are verj^ wonderful. 

SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. J»- 60. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin P. Tracy. 

No drum. , — ^ 




Ho-o-o ! H' A-ars si ■ 

A A 

Rattles, ftr.^^f 



ti we 



H'A-ars si ■ 




1807 Ho-o-o! 

1308 H"A-ars sira ti wera. 

1309 H'A-ar.s sira ti wera. 

1310 Reko,ii he ti wera. 

1311 H'A-ars sira ti wera. 

Transhdiou 

1307 llo-o-ol An introductorj- exclamation. 

1308 II'Aars sira ti wera. 

h'A-ars; h', an aspiration, the sign of breath; aars, from alius, 

father: h'Aars, Blather breathing forth (life), 
sira, is coming. 
ti, here, 
wera, now coming. 



FLETCHER] 



INCIDENTAL RITUALS 



263 



130!) See line 1308. 

1310 Rekoji he ti wera. 

rekoji, stop crying. 

he, part of the word h'Aars, Fatlier breatliing forth (life). 

ti, here. 

wera, now coming. 

1311 See line 1308. 

Ex2)Jainifi(>u Inj fJie Ku'rahus 

When the Ku'rahus and liis assistant have reached the child they 
stand before it and sing the first stanza. The white-eagle feathered 
stem is on the outside; there it is waved to guard the child from all 
harm. Tlie brown-eagle stem is waved over the little one, .and the 
mother, or whoever is holding it, must place it so that it can see the 
feathered stem, for the song bids the cliild look up and see that tlie 
miglity power Tira'wa has come, has acknowledged it as the child of 
the permanent heavens, that- place far above even the light fleecy 
clouds, which is always the same. 

THIBD SONG 

TVords and Music 



M. M. J= 8S. 

• = Piil.sation of the voice, 

jVo drum 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



:^=g^^^^ 



=:|=i 



Ho-o-ol Ha!... Is - te wa - ta si wi-ta. 



Sattles.f tr.^ 



ha;... Ha!... Is-te... 




n*-=?? 



^5^ 



ts- 



^i=^^=i^EiS 



ki; Ha!... Is-te... wa - ta si wi-ta 




1813 
1814 
131.5 
131 r, 



I 

Ho-o-ol 

Ha! Iste wata si wita lia; 
Ha! Iste wata si wita ha; 
HA-ars hire wahaki: 
Ha! Iste wata si wita ha. 



II 

1317 Ho-o-o! 

1318 We tire wata si wite ha: 

1319 We tire wata si wite ha; 

1320 He arste he ti waha: 

1321 We tire wata si wite ha. 



264 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth, ann.22 

Traih':ilutioii 
I 

131:2 Ho-o-ol An exclamation introdiictoi-y to the song. 

1313 lla! Iste wata si wit a lia. 

ha! an exclamation; belioldl 

iste, \'oii (referring to tlie cliild). 

wata, h)olv upward. 

si, they, refers to the powers at)ove. 

wita, owner, refers to the child belonging to tlie power a))ove. 

ha, part of the word meaning young, or child. 

1314 See line 1313. 

1315 H'A-ars, hire wahaki. 

h'A-ars, Father breathing fortli life, 
hire, tiiere, al>ove, meaning Ti-;. wa. 

wahaki, heavens: " tlie heavens that are always there above 
the reach of the clouds." 
131 li See line 1313. 

11 

1317 IIo-o-oI An exclamation introductory to the .song. 

1318 We tire wata si wife ha. 

we, he or she, meaning the cliild. 

tire, has, an action performed. 

wata, looked. 

si, they, refei's to the powers above. 

wite, the true owner; refers toTira'waas the true owner of 
the child. 

ha, part of the word meaning youui;, child. 
1310 vSee line 1318. 
13-20 lie arste he ti waha. 

he, his or her, refers to the child. 

arste, a modified form of atins, father. 

he, his; refers to Tira'wa. 

ti, here, at the present time. 

waha, part of the word wahaki, the permanent heavens. 
lL'21 See line 1318. 

E.i'plii nation hij ilie Kii' raliiis 

When the second stanza is sung the little child always stops crying 
and looks up. It responds to the presence of the iniglity power. The 
song tells the child that it belongs to Tira'wa alius, the father of all, 
the giver of life, whose dwelling place is far above the clouds in the 
pei'iiianent heavens that never change. 

The child smiles and is comforted. 



FLETCHER] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 265 

PRAYER TO AVERT STORMS 

Exphniutidii 111/ Ihe Kii'rahus 

We like to have the sky clear during tlie time this ceremony is 
taking place. We do not like to have clouds come between us and 
the abode of Tira'wa atius, particularly storm clouds. We feel this 
way because we do not want anything to intercept the prayers of the 
Fathers or to hinder the descent of the help that we ask for the Chil- 
dren. If, however, clouds arise and a storm threatens, tlie Children 
may request this song to be sung, but the Fathers may not volunteer 
to sing it. 

After the request for the song has been made, the following cere- 
mony takes i^lace: The Ku'rahus, with the Kawas feathered stem, his 
assistant with the white-eagle feathered stem, and tlie chief with the 
wildcat skin, in which are the crotched stick, the ear of corn, and the 
sacred pipe, rise from their .seats at the west and pass out of the lodge. 
When they are outside under the open sky, they face the gathering 
clouds an<l sing the first stanza four times. While thej' sing the song 
and wave the eagle stems to the rhythm of the music, the cliief holds 
the cat skin up toward the storm clouds. He holds it the same way 
while we sing the second stanza four times. 

The words of these stanzas are few, but their meaning has come 
down to us with the .storj' of the song. 

Long, long ago the woodpecker was told by Tira'wa that the light- 
ning would never strike the tree upon which it had built its nest. 
The four beings at the west who have control of the thunder and 
lightning would ijrotect the bird, so that it need never fear the storm. 

The woodpecker which came to the man to wiiom this ceremony 
was revealed taught him this song and told him when to sing it. He 
was to sing it only when the storm threatened; if he sang it at any 
other time he would bring rain and storm upon the people. 



266 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. asn. 22 



SONG 



M. M.J =63. 



— Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed liy Edwin S. Tracy. 



3i=::l== 



Ho-o-o-o! Ka-wa wok-ta-i, ka -\va wok-ta-i, ka-wa wok-ta-i, ka - wa wok-ta-i; 

Drum, i , 4 , i • ,,. ^_^ i i • ,,. ,^^,^ • » • ,,. ,„ • • ■ ,, . ^ 

Rattles. L L r V I -""^ p I " ■-" C I ir — p 

-V-2- 



^=3^=IE3=^ii^=j^il3=f^ll3^SE5Ei^ 



H'A-ars si-i; Ka-wa wok-ta-i, ka-wa wok-ta-i; H'A-arssi-i. H'A ti-ua si - i. 

^■„:^ i i- tr p ••(. f fni i f 1 i i 

I 

1322 Ho-o-o-o! 

1333 Kawa woktai, kawa woktai. kawa woktai. kawa woktai; 

1324 HA-ars si-i: 

1325 Kawa woktai. kawa woktai; 

1326 H'A-ars si-i. 

II 

1327 Ho-o-o-ol 

1328 Ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i. ti wawaki-i. ti wawaki-i: 

1329 H'A-ars si-i; 

1330 Ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i; 

1331 H'Atiiis si-i. 

Trint.':ilntio!i 



1322 Ho-o-o-o ! An introductory exclamation. 

1323 Kawa woktai, kawa woktai, kawa woktai, kiiwa woktai. 

kawa; ka, part of katuliaru, trees; wa, plural sign; kawa 

means thick or heavj' timber. 
woktai; w^ok, sound or noise; tai, on trees. Woktai, a sound 
made on the trees. The word refers to the tapping of 
the woodpecker upon the trees. 
1321 IFAars si-i. 

h', contraction of ha, behold, 
aars, a modified form of alius, father. 
si-i; si, your; i, vowel jjrolongation. 
132.5 Kawa woktai, kawa woktai. See line 1323. 
1321; See line 1321. 

II 

1327 llo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

132S Ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i. 

ti, they; refers to the powers. 

wawaki-i; waki, speak; wa, plural sign; final i, vowel pro- 
longation. Wawaki-i, many are speaking. 

1329 See line 1324. 

1330 Ti wawkai-i, ti wawaki-i. See line 1328. 

1331 II'Atius si-i. See line 1324. 



FLETCHER] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 267 

Mrphitidfion hij the Kii'raliiis 

In the first stanza we call upon the woodijeeker, who is busy mak- 
ing' a noise, tapping upon tlie trees in the I hick woods, and we ask hiiu 
to remind his father of the promis<' that t lie stoi'iii should not eonie 
near his nest. 

The woodpecker is witli ns on tlie stem, and the storm is now 
threatening our nest, the lodge where we are holding the ceremony, 
so we call on him, the woodpecker, and ask him to remind his father 
of tlie promise given. 

The second stanza tells us that the four beings at the west speak, 
for when the thunders sound they all speak. These now answer the 
woodpecker, who has reminded them of their promise when Tira'wa 
atius, the father of all things, placed the bird and its nest under their 
protection. 

If, aftei- we have sung these stanzas, the clouds part, we know that 
our prayers have been heard. We all return to the lodge, and llie 
wildcat skin is spread upon the holy place at the west, the crotched 
stick is put in position, the eagle stems and all the othei- articles are 
laid at ceremonial rest. When this has been done the chief takes the 
sacred pipe and, accompanied l)y the i)riest of the shrine containing the 
objects sacred to the powers of the rain, goes out and makes an offer- 
ing of smoke. The priest directs the chief where to point the pipe- 
stem. By this act of offering smoke we give thanks to the powers, 
who have heard our prayers and averted the storm. 

PRAYER FOR THE GIFT (IP CHILDREN 

Explanation hij the Kii'rahus 

This ceremony is very old and lias now become obsolete. It is a 
prayer for the power of procreation. It was never x>erformed except 
at the request of the Son, and was onlj^ in the interesfj of a man to 
whom children had not been born. It took place either in the early 
morning or at night, never during the day. 

When the request for the ceremony had been made, the Ku rahus 
selected a man from among the Fathers whose duly it became to carry 
the Son and to cai'e for him as a father would care for a little child. 

A white buffalo robe was kept for this particular ceremony. After 
the Son liad been lifted on the back of tlie Falliei-, this white robe 
was thrown over the two and was lield together in front by tlie Fatlier, 
as a person would liold liis robe if he were carrying a child on his 
back. As the Father, carrying the Sou, moved toward the entrance of 
the lodge, he was followed by the Ku'rahus and his assistant bearing 
the feathered stems and the chief with the cat skin and the ear of 
corn, wiiile the following song was sung. 

The words are: " Heboid ! Your father is walking with his child 1 " 



268 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



FIRST SONG 

IJ'OCf/.S llllll ]\Jii.sic 



M. M. J - 56. 

• — Pulsatiiin of the voice. 



=zs:=l= 



=s=i-- 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



&^ 



;=)!S==S^ 



Ho-o-o-o! 

Drum. J , » , 
Rallies. ■ L_l 



I -lia-ri lia! H'ars si re- ra-ta; T - ha-ri 

^ir i i_j L_/ Lj L-! Lj Ij 



p^:ippi^^^jfe^i^gii£^ 



==IS=lV 



-=!— 1- 



ba! Il'arssi re- rata; T - lia-i-i 

f p 't f f * r r '^ ' r 



-m—:3r— 
ha! TT'ars si re - ra - t:i. 

Lj ^ -^ i I I 



1332 

133;! 



l:;:i',' Hu-o-o-ol 

1333 Iha ri hal H'ars si rerata; 

1334 Ilia'ri ha! H'ars si rerata; 
183.5 Ilia'ri ha! H'ars si rerata. 

Traiisldi iiin 

Ho-o-o-o! All introductory exclamation. 



vounu'; rcl'crs liere totlie Son. 



Ilia'ri ha! IFars si rerata. 
ilia'ri, a term for offspring; 
ha! behold! 

h', an abbreviation of ha, your, 
ars, an abbreviation of atiu.s, father. 
si, refers to ilia'ri, in this in.stance the Son. 
rerata, walkinji' with. 
1334, 1335 See line 1333. 

Exphmiifloii III/ fhe Kii'niliiis 

When the Father, with the Son on his baek, and the Kn'rahiis and 
hi.s a.ssociates had reached the open air and had <;one a little distance 
from the lodge, the Son was taken from the back of the Father. All 
were now standing under the sky where they could be .seen by the 
powers. The Son represented a little helpless child — I lie child that 
he desired the powers to give to liini. 

As the following song was sung the Father undressed the Sou as he 
would a little child, and while he did so the Son prayed foi- the gift 
of children. 



FLETCHER] 



INCIDENTAL RITUALS 



269 



M. M. j= 6R. 

• = Pulsation of tlie voice. 
J^o drum. 



Ho-0-oo-o! 



SECOND SONG 

Words (tii(J Jlii.sic 

Transcribed by Edwin R. Tracv. 

wa 



ll^^=^i^^il|l_^^il|| 



Battles, f tr 



O - bii - i - wa i - ri o - ha - i 



O- ha 



l^^l^ppiiiiP^^isr^l^lgii^il 



ha -i 



O - ha - i - wa i - ri 



ha - i - wa. 



(r.-w—.^.^— ...^ 



I 

1336 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

1337 Ohaiwa iri ohaiwa; 

1338 Ohaiwa iri oliaiwa: 

1339 Ohaiwa iri ohaiwa. 



II 

1340 Ho-o-o-o-o: 

1341 Okariwa iri okariwa: 
1343 Okariwa iri okariwa: 
1343 Okariwa iri okariwa. 



Tfunslafiun 
I 



133G 
1337 



Ho-o-o-o-o 1 An exclamation introductoiy to the song. 
Ohaiwa iri ohaiwa. 
, ohaiwa, a composite word; the o is taken from okiwaiisu, 

foam; liai is from haiwa, floating; wa is a part of uawa, 
now. 
iri, an expression of thankfulness, 
ohaiwa, translated above. 
1338, 1339 See line 1337. 

li 

1340 Ho-o-o-o-o 1 An exclamation introductory to the song. 

1341 Okariwa iri okariwa. 

okariwa, a composite word; oka, breechcloth; kari, male 
organ (the syllable ka is common to the first and second 
word); wa, from rakiira, to take off. 
iri, an expression of thankfulness, 
okariwa, translated above. 
134l', 1343 See line 1341. 



270 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 

THIRD SONG 

IVords anil ^fu.vi(■ 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



M. M. J=126. 

• == Pulsation of the voice, 
JVo drum. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




* m [■ J -^ =j— ^^~F= » m ^ »— F» » : 



==K=:^ 



wa; 



O - ha 



tr.. 



ho 



I II 

13-i4 Ho-o-o-o! r.S47 Ho-n-o-ol 

1345 Ohaiwa, ohaiwa.iiawahnhaiwa; 1348 Okariwa iri okariwa okariwa; 

1346 Ohaiwa nawa hohaiwa. 1340 Okariwa iri okariwa. 



Translation 



I 



1344 Ho-o-o-o I An exeliiioation iiitrodm-tory to the song. 

1345 (Jhiiiwa, ohaiwa, nawa liohaiwa. 

ohaiwa, floating foam. See line 1337. 
nawa, now. 
h<jhaiwa, to nrinate. 
1340 Ohaiwa nawa hohaiwa. See line 1345. 

II 

1347 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation 

1348 Okariwa iri okariwa okariwa. 

okariwa, a composite word, (i'anslat<'il in line 1341. 
iri, an expression of thankfulness, 
okariwa. See line 1341. 
1340 Okariwa iri okariwa. See line 1341. 

K.rjtia nation Inj ilie Kii' ralius 

During the singing of the first stanza (third song) the Son obeyed, 
as a child would do, the directions given him by the Father. 

As the second stanza was sung the Father reclothed the Son as lie 
would a little child. The Son was then taken again on the back of 
the Father to be carried to the lodge. 



FLETCHER] INCIDEKTAL KITUALS 271 

FOUKTH SONG 

IVonls and Music 

M. M. ^N=132. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

No drum. __^ ^^ 



ili=e^E^^: 



l^^^S3^s=^il^^=^SEi^^ 



Ho-o-o-o! Ka -a! Ka - i lia! ha! ra - i ha! ra - a; Hi - ra ra - i 

A A A 



=!*=^ 



^^^iE^^^zFifl3^=3 



3S=5r 



hal ra - a; Ila - al Ka - i ha! ha! ra - i 



I II 

1350 Ho-o-o-o! 1354 Ho-o-o-o! 

1351 Ha-a! Rai ha! ha! rai ha! ra-a; 1355 Ho-okai ha! hokai ha. ta-a: 

1352 Hira rai ha! ra-a; 1356 Werawane ha! ka-a; 

1353 Ha-a! Rai ha! ha! rai ha! ra-a. 1357 Ho-okai ha! hokai ha! ka-a. 

Translation 
I 

1350 Ho-o-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 

1351 Ila-al Rai hal lia! rai ha! ra-a. 

ha-a! hal behold! a, a vowel prolongation to carry the voice, 
rai, coming, 
ha! ha! behold! 
rai, coming, 
ha! behold! 

ra-a; ra, a part of the word rai, coming; a, vowel prolonga- 
tion. 

1352 Hira rai ha! ra-a; 

hira, he coming. 

rai, coming. 

ha! behold! 

ra-a, a part of the word meaning coining. 

1353 See line 1351. 

II 

1354 Ho-o-o-o! An introductoiy exclamation. 

1355 Ho-okai ha! hokai ha! ka-a. 

ho-okai; hokai, to enter; the vowel o is jirolonged to carry 

the voice while singing, 
ha! behold! 

hokai, to enter, or entering, 
ha! behold! 
ka-a, a part of the word hokai, entering. 



272 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ank. 22 

i;jf)<i AVei'awaue ha! ka-a. 

wfrawane, spreading out thf arms. 

ha! behold! 

ka-a, part of the word liokai, eiiteriug. 
1357 See line 1355. 

Exphnuiiidti hi/ tlir Kuralnis 

As the Father and tlie Son, wrapped in the white robe, turned toward 
the lodge, the Ku'rahus and his associates followed, and as they 
walked they sang the first stanza. 

The words are, " l>ehold ! lie is coming! The Son is coming! " 
At the door of the lodge they sang (second stanza), " Behold ! He is 
entering!" With the word "werawane," the Father spread out his 
arms, loosening tlie white robe, but still lioldlng it In' the edges, while 
the Son slipped to the ground and returned to his place in the lodge, 
the place he had left at the beginning of the ceremony. 

CHANGIN(; A man's NAME 

ExphuKtlidit III/ the Kti'rdhus 

If any man of the Son's party had achieved success in war, and nis 
achievements had been acknowledged by the people, he could i-eque.st 
the Son to have the ceremony of changing his name performed. 

This act could take place in the afternoon of the fourth day. The 
Son would make the request known to the Father, the chief, who 
passed it on to the Ku'rahus. 

If the llako ceremony was held in an earth lodge, the Ku'rahus, 
accompanied by the Father and the Son, went outside and ascended 
the roof; there, standing before the people gathered below, the Ku'rahus 
recited in a loud voice the ritual used when changing a man's luune. 

If the Ilako ceremony had been held in a tent, a semicircular iuclo- 
sure was made with saplings and there, under the open sky, in the 
presence of all the people, the ritual was given and the name was 
changed. 

Pairnee Text 

13r)S Hiril Waku'rariita sliaru witi rarawa-a kirii sliarn rera ki ^awi raliwi- 

rahriso tira kahho riwhi. 
t:i')l) Hiri! Raru ki'tawi rahwi'rahriso rao ti shira rutn'rahwitz i)ari usaru 

i re. 
i;i(jO Hiri! Ram ki tawi rahwi rahri.s() rao ti shire'ra ki'tawa usa'rii. 

l:i()l Hiri: Riru tziraru: rasa ruxsa pakara'ra witz pari; hiril ti riita: hiri! 

tirakiise tararawa hut. tiri. 
\MVi Hiri: Riru'tzirani: rasa ruxsa pakara ra witz pari: hiri: ti ruta: hiri! 

Tira'wa, ha: tiri. 
1303 Hiri: Riru'tziraru: sira waku ri kata iwa hut: hiri: ti ruta; hiri; ti ra use 

tirarawa'hut, tiri. 



FLETCHER] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 273 

1364 Hiri! Kirn tziraru; sirawaku rariwiit; hiril ti vuta: hiril Tira'wa. ha! tiri. 
130.") Hiril Riru tzirarn: Rarari tii. kata wi'tixsntta. 
Raki'ris taka'ta witixsutta. 
Raki ris tarukux'pa, raru tura tuka wint tari. 
136(i Hiri! Riru'tziraru; rnri Papapi'clius taka witixsutta. 

Rurl Papapi chns tarukiix'pa rant tura tuka'wiut tari. 
1867 Hiri! Riru tzirarii: ruchix kuso'ho riraka'ta kux'sata. Kaliariwisiri. ku 
katit tiki: kaliariwisiri. ku paha ti tiki; kaha'riwisiri. ku raka'ta tiki; 
kaha riwisiri. ku taka tiki. 

1368 Hiri! Riru tziraru: sira sura wanrux para, raru'tura tuka wiut tari. 

1369 Rawa! Hawa urasharu we tatki wati. 

1370 Hiri! Tatux tapakiaho. hawa. Rarut.ska'tit! Hiri! Raro rikcha ro re. 
1871 Hiri! Wakoru ratora pake visto. 

1373 Hiri! Akitaro hiwa werataweko. 

1373 Hiri! Shaku ru Warukste. Hiriwa witi rakawa'karu ko re. 

Tr(.u)fihdtoii 

13.5s hiri! an exclamation, liarken! givelieed! 

waku'raruta, it came to pas.s a long time ago. 

sharu, pai't of ii'rasha'i-u, name. 

witi, the}". 

rai'awa-a, discarded, had done with, tlirew away. 

kini, ancient. 

shani, from kussharu, a certain place known only by tradition. 

rem, it came abont, oi' it was. 

ki'tawi, from ki, through, and ta'wi, tlieni. 

rahwi'rahriso, a title. This title was bestowed through certain 
ceremonies connected with one of the shrines. The man 
who had received tliis title was (lualitied to ;ict as a leader, 
to have charge of a war ex])iMlition. 

tira, tliey. 

kahho, a wide expanse ; kah conveys the picture that this expanse 
is spanned, as by a roof; ho suggests an inclosed space, as a 
dwelling; kahlio calls up the idea that the eartli is a vast 
abode, roofed by the heavens, where dwell the jiowers. 

ri'wiri, walking; the persons spoken of as walking are not pi-es- 
enl. Rara'wari is to travel, walking, like warriors, and the 
word in the text refers to such walking, to tlie rahwi'i-ali- 
riso and the men under his leadership walking the wide 
earth beneath the arching sky. 
13o!i hiri! liarken! give heed! 

i-aru, a company, or a numljer of persons. 

ki'tawi, llirough them. See same word in line l.'J58. 

rahwi'rahriso, the leader. See translation in line 1358. 

ra'o, a victory song. This class of songs could be composed 
anid sung for the first time by a leader. They might 
afterward be sung by his followiMs and by other persons. 

ti, part of tira, they. 
22 ETH— PT 2—04 18 



274 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

sliira, from sli ire la. lirou.uht. Tlie re is eliminated for eiiplioiiy. 

rutn'rjihwitz, overtake. 

Ijari, walliing; singular number, present tense. 

usa'ru, a place wherein an event took place or .something 
occurred. Both the locality and the occui'rence are known 
only by tradition and the tradition is preserved in song. 

i re, singing vocables. 
1360 hiri! harken. 

ra'ru, a numl)er of persons. The word as here used refers both 
to the leader and his men and to tlie people of their village. 

ki'tawi, th7-ough them. The word lias here a double reference 
similar to the preceding one. 

rahwi'rahriso, the leader. 

rao, \'ict()ry song. 

ti, they. An abbreviated form of tii-a, they. 

shire'ra, bronght. 

ki'tawa, from kit, the top; ta, coming; wa, part of wakn, hill. 
Ki'tawa convej's the picture of the returning men singing 
their victory song as they reach the top of the hill near 
their village. 

nsa'rn; the word here means that the victory song commemo- 
rated the event at the time when the leader instituted tlie 
custom of changing the name. 
loGl hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, In' reason of, by means of, because of. The word 
has a wide significance and force throughout the ritual. 

rasa, the man stood. 

riixsa, he said or did. 

pakai-a'ra, a loud call or chant, sending the voice to a great 
distance. 

witz, from tawitz'sa, to reach or arrive. 

liavi, traveling. These five words tell of a religious rite per- 
formed by the leader. The first two I'efer to his going to 
a .solitary place to fast and pray, seeking help and favor 
from the powers above; the last three descril)e his voice, 
bearing his petition, traveling on and on, striving to reach 
the abode of Tii-a wa. 

liiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'ruta, special oi' assigned jjlaces, referring to the places where 
the lesser powers dwell, tliese having been assigned bj' 
Tira'wa atius, tlie father of all. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'rakiise, sitting; present tense, plural number. 

tararawa'liut, the sky or heavens. It implies a circle, a great 
distance, and the dwelling place of the lesser powers, 
those which can come near to man and be seen or heard 
or felt bv him. 



FLETCHER] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 275 

tiri, above, up there, as if the locality were designated by 
pointing upward. 
1362 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, by reason of, because of. 

rasa, the man stood. 

riixsa, did. 

isakara'ra, send voice to a distance. 

witz. reached. 

pari, traveling. 

hiri I harken! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'ruta, the abodes of the lesser powers. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

Tii'a'wa, Tira'wa atius, the fatlier of all. 

ha ! an exclamation of awe. 

tiri, above all ; refers to Tira'wa atius being above all the powers. 
1303 hiri! liarken! 

riru'tziraru, by reason of. 

sira, tliey took. 

waku, they said. 

ri'kata, received. 

iwa'hut, from iwa, to liand o\er or pass on to the one next, 
and tii-a'wahut, the circle above whei-e the le.sser powers 
are. Iwa'hut means handed oi- passed around the circle. 

liiri! liai-ken! a call foi' reverent attention. 

ti'ruta, abodes of the lesser powei's. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'rakuse, sitting. 

tirarawa'hut, the circle above of the lesser powers. 

tiri, up above. 
13r4 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, because of, by reason of. 

sira, they took. 

waku, they said. 

rari'sut, gave consent, granted. 

hiri! harken! a call for r<.verent attention. 

ti'ruta, abodes of tlie lesser powei's. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

Tira'wa, Tira'wa a^ius, the father of all. 

ha! an exclamation of awe. 

tiri, above all. 
1365 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziiaru, by reason of, in consequence of. 

Rarari'tu, an old term for Winds. It also means heavy storm 
clouds. Rari'tn, a cyclone. The word in the text has a 
double significance. It stands for the Winds, the lesser 
power, and for the summoning by this lesser power, the 
Winds, of the storm clouds, tlicii' messengers in the west. 



276 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. a.nn. 23 

kata, rising up, cliinbiiig up. 

vvi'tixsutta, readied there (wheuee the suimiiDii.s came). 

Raki'ris, Thunders, plural foi'ni. 

taka'ta, a&xjending, advancing. 

wi'tixsutta, reached a given place. 

Raki'ris, Thunders. 

tarukux'pa, an action concluded. 

raru'tura, from raru, at that, and tura, ground. The word 
means that at the conclusion of the action (here under- 
stood) they, the Thunders, descended to the earth. 

tuka'wiut, slantwise. 

tari, tlie end of a mission or an action. 
1300 hiril harkenl 

I'iru'tziraru, l>y means of, or by the agency of. 

ruri, at that time. 

Papapi'chus, Lightning; i)apa, zigzag; pieiius, dai'tiug, tlashing. 

taka, within, inclosed. 

wi'tixsutt.a, reached there. 

ruri, at that time. 

Papapi'chus, Lightning. 

tarukiix'pa, an action concluded. 

raru'tura, and then they descended to earth. See translal ion 
of this word in line 1:>0,t. 

tuka'wiut, slantwise. 

tari, the end of their mission. 
1.3G7 hii'il harken! 

riru tziraru, by means of, by reason of. 

ruchix, they did. 

kuso'ho, tlock. 

riiakji'ta, in frout of. 

kux'sata, from side to side, as when ranging a path. 

kaha riwisiri, swallows. 

ku, breast. 

katit, black. 

tiki, tlie.y were. 

kaha'riwisiri, swallows. 

ku, breast. 

paha ti, red. 

tiki, they were. 

kaha'i-iwisiri, swallows. 

ku, breast. 

raka'ta, yellow. 

tiki, they were. 

kaha'riwisiri, swallows. 

ku, l)reast. 
• taka, white. 

tiki, they were. 



FLETCHER] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 277 

1308 hiri! Iiarken. 

riru'tziraru, by reason of, because of. 

sira, the}' took; refers to tlie leader and to the men who 
followed and depended on him. 

sura, possess; to become one's own. 

waurux', grasped, as a staff. 

para, walked. 

raru'tura, refers to that wliich descended lo earth. 

tuka'wiut, slantwise. 

tari, end, or accomplished mission, 
lofi'.i rawa! attend! a call for attention at the moment. 

liawa, once more. 

urasharu, name. 

we, I. 

tatkiwati, change. 

1370 hiri! harken! 
tatux, we used to. 
tapakiaho, speak of him. 
hawa, once more. 

Rarutska'tit, the former name, meaning black-feathered ari-ow. 
hiri! harken! 
raro, owner. 

rikcha, lying. These words refer to the achievement com- 
memorated by the name about to be thrown awaj'. 
ro re, vocables used for euphony and measure. 

1371 hii-i! harken! 
wakoru, now we are. 
ratora, all people. 
liake'iisto, si)eak out and say. 

1372 hiri! harken! 
akitaro, tribe, 
hiwa, in the. 
werataweko, 2)roniineiit. 

1373 hiri! harken! 

Shaku'ru Wa'rnkste, the new name now announced ("Sacred 

Sun"). 
hiriwa, in the process of making. 
witi, himself, 
rakawa'karu, what he is. 
ko re, vocables used for euphonj" and 7neasur(\ 

ClosirKj Eemarks of the Kii'rahat; 

During the days I have been talking Mith you (the writer) I have 
been carried back in thought to the time when Estamaza (the father 
of Francis LaFlesche) came to the Chaui. I met him in this cere- 
mony; he was the Father, and as I have worked here day and night. 



278 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 2:2 

my heart has gone out to you. I liave done what has never been 
done before, I have giveii you all tlie songs of this ceremony and 
explaiiu^d them to you. I never thought that I, of all my people, 
should be the one to give this aiieieiit ceremony to be preserved, and 
I wonder over it as I sit here. 

I tliiuk over my long life with its nuiny experiences; of the great 
numl)cr of Pawnees who have been with me in war, nearly all of 
whom have been killed in battle. I have been severely wounded 
many times — see this scar over my eye. I was with those who went 
to the Rocky Mountains to the Cheyennes, when so many soldiers 
were slain that their dead bodies lying there looked like a great blue 
blanket spread over the ground. When T think of all the people of 
my own tribe who have died during my lifetime and then of tho.se in 
other tribes that have fallen by our hands, they are so many they make 
a vast cover over Mother Earth. I once walked with these prostrate 
forms. I did not fall but I passed on, wounded sometimes but not to 
death, until I am here to-day doing this thing, singing these sacred 
songs into that great pipe (the graphophone) and telling you of these 
ancient rites of my people. It must be that I have lieen preserved 
for this purpose, otherwise 1 should be lying back there among the 
dead. 



ANALYTICAL RECAPITLTLATION 

ORIGIX AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIOlSr OF THE 

CEREMONY 

AVliere tlie Hako ceremony originated and through how many gen- 
erations it has come down to tlie present time it may lie impossible 
ever to determine. Even a partial knowledge of its geogi'ai)hic dis- 
tribution upon our continent would demand an archeologic and 
historical research too extended to be attempted at this time. How- 
e\er, a few facts may be stated. 

From the Journal of Marquette, giving an account of his voyage of 
discovery in 1672, it is learned that the saci-ed symbols, the feathered 
stems, were held in honor by tribes belonging to the Algonquian, 
Siouan, and Caddoan linguistic stocks dwelling in the Mississippi 
valley from the Wisconsin to the Arkansas. 

Marquette calls the feathered stem a "calumet" and his descrip- 
tion of its ceremonj', which he saw among the Illinois, due allowance 
being made for his lack of intimate acquaintance with native religious 
cu.stoms, indicates that the ceremony as he saw it over two hundred 
years ago in a tribe that no longer exists differs little from the same 
ceremony as observed within the last twenty years in the Omaha tribe. 
He says of this "calumet" that it is "the most mysterious thing in the 
world. The scepters of our kings are not so miich respected, for the 
Indians have such a reverence for it that one may call it the god of 
peace and war, and the arbiter of life and death. . . . One with 
this calumet may venture among his enemies, and in the hottest battles 
they lay down their arms before the sacred pipe. The Illinois presented 
me with one of them which was very useful to us in our voyage." 

That the feathered stem was recognized over so large a part of the 
great Mississippi valley and among so many tribes differing in lan- 
guage and customs indicates considerable antiquity for its rites, as 
mucli time would have been required for so wide an acceptance and 
practice of the ceremou}'. 

As observed among the Pawnees, there is evidence not only that 
the ceremony is old, but that it has been built upon still older founda- 
tions, and has beeu modified in the process of time to adapt it to 
changed conditions of environment. For example, the substitution 
of the bulfalo for the deer and the transference of songs, iis that 
formally sung to the mesa while on the journey, which is now sung 
within the lodge. 

279 



280 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

Tilt' leadership accorded to the corn indicates that an earlier Im la 
of the ceremonj^ is to be sought among a people dependent upon agri- 
culture, and tlie peculiar treatment of water would seem to have arisen 
in a semi-arid region. Again, the development in the purpose of the 
ceremony from the simple longing for offspi-ing to the larger desire of 
estaljlishing intertribal relationships was most likely to have taken 
place among peoples whose settled mode of life had fostei-ed an appre- 
ciation of the benefits to be derived from peace and secuiity. 

Efforts to spread this cei-emony among tribes less sedentar_y than 
those of the Mexican plateau and the Southwest may, on the one 
hand, liavc^ been prompted 1)y prudential r(>as()ns, while on the other 
hand its adoption and promulgation over the wide territory oceui)ied 
by the so-called hunting tribes marks tlie growth of politie.il ideas 
and gives a higher j)laee to tliese tribes in the line of social develop- 
m(!nt tlian has usually been accorded them. 

PURPOSE OF 'I^lIE <EREMOXY 

The i^urpose of this ceremony was twt)f(ild: first, to benefi, cer- 
tain individuals by bringing to them the promise of children, long 
life, and plentj'; second, to affect the social relations of those who 
took jjart in it, by establishing a bond between two distinct groups of 
persons, belonging to different elans, gentes, or tril)es, which was to 
insure between them friendship and peace. 

In every tribe where the ceremony was known this twofold pui'- 
pose was recognized, and by no trilial variation in the details of the 
rite was il lost sight of or obscured. 

From a studj' of this ceremony it seems probable that its original 
instigation was a desire for offspring, that the clan or kinshii) group 
miglit increase in number and strength and he perpetuated through 
the continuous birth of children. 

The cei'emonial forms here used to e.\i)ress this desire were undoubt- 
edly borrowed from earlier ceremonies through which the people liad 
been familiarized with certain symbols and rites representing tlie 
creative powers. Thus, the mah; and fennile cosmic forces, symbol- 
ized in greater or less detail by daj' and night, snn and moon, the 
heavens and the earth, are found in the Ilako ceremony. 

The eagle and the ear of corn also represent in general the male 
and female forces, but each is specialized in a manner peculiar to 
thes(^ rites. There are two eagles; the white, representing the male, 
the father, the defendei-; and tlie brown, representing the female, the 
mother, the nestmaker (see jiages L'SS, 28!t). In the treatment of these 
eagles tln^ dual forces are still furt hei' I'cpi'esented. The featliers of the 
whit(M)i- male eagle are hung upon a stem painted green to symbolize 
the eai-th, the female principle ; wliile those of t he brown or female eagle 
are hung upon the stem painted l>iue to symbolize the heavens, the 



FLETCHER] PURPOSE OP THE CEREMONY 281 

male principle. The same treatment of the corn is observed. The 
ear of corn, which is born of Mother Earth, is symbolically painted to 
represent a living contact with the heavens. 

These syniljolic articles thus treated are peculiar to this cerenifmy 
and essential to its rites. They expi-ess with iinmistakalilc clearness 
the original instigating desire for children. 

The second purpose of tliis ceremony, that of establisliing a bond 
between two distinct groups of persons belonging to different clans, 
gentes, or tribes, whicli should insure between them friendship and 
peace, was probably an outgrowtli of the first purpose and may have 
been based upon tribal experience in the practice of exogamy. 

In a tribe composed of clans or gentes, wliere exogamy prevailed, 
two factors tended to promote peace and security among tlie jieople, 
namely, children born to parents representing two distinct political 
groups, and rites which recognized a common dependence upon the 
supernatural and were oliligatory upon all. 

With the gro\A-tli of social ideas the thought seems to have arisen 
that ties might be made between two tribes differing from and even 
competing witli eacli other, through a device which should simulate 
those influences which had proved so effective within the tribe. Fhe 
Father, representing one tribe, was the incentive force; he inaugii- 
rated the Ilako party. The tie was made by a ceremony in which 
the feminine principle, represented bj^ the corn and Kawas, was the 
dominant factor. Through this mother element life was given and 
a bond was established between the Father and a Son of another tribe. 
It is remarkalile how close to the model this device of an artificial tie 
has been made to correspond. 

Apart from the social and religious significance of the ceremony, it 
became a means of exchange of commodities lietween trilies. Tlie 
garments, regalia, and other presents brought by the Fatliers to tlie 
Children were taken b}^ the latter to some other tribe, wlien they in 
turn became the Fathers. Thus manufactures peculiai' to one tribe 
were often spread over a wide territory, and the handicraft of one 
region became known to different sec-tions of tlie country. 

STRrCTITRT: OF TIIK CEREMONY 

The perpetuation and distribution of a cei'emony is dei)endent iipon 
its structure, its symbolism, and its ]nirpose. Its j)arts must be so 
coordinated as to make it possible to keep the rite intact during oral 
transmission, while its sjanbolism must appeal to common beliefs and 
its f)urpose to common desires. 

Examining the cei'emony of the Hako, we find it to jiossess tliese 
requisites. Its pui'pose awoke a response in every liumau heart, its 
symbolism appealed to the people wherever corn ripened and eagles 
flew; and though its structure was elaborate, it was built upon a sim- 



282 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEBEMOWy [eth. ANN. 22 

pie i)lan. It is made up of many rituals, each complete in itself, but 
all no related to each other as to form an unbroken sequence from the 
beginning of the rites to their end. Each ritual contains one general 
thought, which is elaborated by songs and attendant acts. These 
songs and acts are so closely related to the central thought that one 
helps to keep the other in mind ; moreover, the thought embodied in one 
ritual leads so directly to the thought contained in the next tliat they 
form a sequence that, in the mind of tlie Pawnee, can not logically be 
broken, and thus the presei'vation of the entirety of the ceremony is 
insured. 

The compact structure of the llako ceremony bears testimonj' to the 
mental grasp of the people wlio foi'mulated it. As we note the balanc- 
ing of the various pai'ts. and the steady progression from llio open- 
ing song of the first ritual to tlie closing prayer in the twentietli, and 
recall the fact that the ceremony was constructed witliout the steady- 
ing force of the written record, we are impressed, on the one hand, by 
the intellectual power displayed in the construction, and, on the other, 
by the shariily defined beliefs fundamental to the ceremony. 

RHYTHHUC F.XPTJESSIOX IX THK CEREMOIVY 

When we examine the songs which accompany evei\y ceremonial act 
we find that the thought to be expressed has determined the rhythm, 
which, in its turn, has controlled both words and music and fixed as 
well the time or duration of the notes. The unit of time is marked 
by pulsations of the voice or by drum beats, and tlie words are found 
bent by elisions or stretched by added vocables to make them con- 
form to the musical measur(\ 

Rhythm dominates the rendition, which is always exact, no 
liberties lieing taken for the purpose of musical expression, in our 
sense of tlie term. Any sucli ti-eatment would so blur tlie song to the 
native ear as to destroy its charactei-. A further use of rhythm is 
manifest in the number of the musical phrases and stanzas. These 
are found to correspond to tlie number of ceremonial motions used to 
indicate the powers which ai-e being addressed. By close examina- 
tion this peculiaritj' will be apparent, but in order to facilitate an 
understanding the woi-ds of each musical phrase have been printed 
as a separate line, so that the eye can easilj^ catch the rhythmic form. 
As a further help, a diagram has been prepared to show the relative 
time values of notes, the exceptional accents, and the voice i)ulsatious 
of each musical phrase. To illustrate, take the first song: 



FLETCHER] RHYTHM IN THE CEREMONY 283 

'J'he unit of time is au eighth note, represented by a short dasli, -; 
a (iuarter note is represented hj- a longer dash, two beats, — ; a three- 

eiglitlis note by a still longer dash, three beats, , and so on. The 

dots indicate the number of voice pnlsations given to a tone while it 
is held. Where there is emphasis it is marked on tlie <liagrain by 
the accent sign '. 

A rliythmic rendition, which aims not only to convey the literal 
meaning Imt to embody the elucidations of the Ku'i'aluis as well, has 
been made. Its words have been so chosen that tlie lines shall con- 
form to the rliythm of the corresponding phrases of the song. This 
rendition is for the purpose of presenting to the eye and the ear of 
the English reader the song as it appeals to the Pawnee who has l)een 
instructed in the rite. 

The variety of rhytlimic forms in Ihe songs of the i-ituals offers 
interesting material for the .study of the relation of the musical 
phrase to the development of metrical language. The movements 
which accompany each song and act of the ceremony give further 
testimony to the fundamental character of rhythm. 

In the following analysis the scheme of llie ceremony will be closely 
obsei'ved. 

THK PREPARATION 

FiKST Division. Initial Rites 

FIRST RITUAL. MAKINCi THE HAKO 

Part I. Ixvokino the Powers 

The ceremony of the Hako, we are told by the Ku'rahus, is a jjrayer 
for offspring. It opens with a song which i-ecalls the creation of man, 
tlie gifts bestowed on him by Tira'wa alius through the powers, and 
the establishment of rites by which he can appeal to the powers. 
The content of the song prefigures the fulfilment of man's desire for 
the reproduction of his life, and the orderly approach by which he 
should nuike his desire known. Such a prefiguring seems to be essen- 
tial at the opening of a ceremony to give it a siipernatural warrant. 

The preparation of the Hako constitutes the opening ritual, the 
first song of which is an appeal to the lesser powers in the order of 
their coming near to man from the holy jilace, Awahokshu (first song. 
line 4). They are said to descend bj' the four paths at the four car- 
dinal points (line U), and the ceremonial motions indicating these 
quarters are an indirect waj' of mentioning the powers. Each stanza 
of the appeal, falling into four musical phrases, suggests this four- 
fold symbol. 

The appeal is in the form of a litany, each stanza beginning with a 
call to "give heed," and closing with the response that heed has been 
given. The climax in both words and music is reached in the third 
phrase, which is a direct invocation of one of the powers. 



284 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY [kth.ann.-22 

111 this Sony we meet e.xchiiiiations eharaeteristic of many others of 
the ceremony. These exclamations express tlie emotions evoked in 
the progress of the apjieal. Few words are used, their iteration mak- 
ing the memorizing of the song easier than if the emotion had been 
fully elaborated in many different words. Tliis apparent j^overty of 
expression, Avhich may in jiart be aeeoiinted for by the necessity of 
oral transmission, has not prevented metrical forms throughout the 
ceremony; with one exoejjtion, the songs are rhj'thmic. In the i)]-es- 
ent instance the repetition of the exclamation I'liarel extended 
through the musical x>hrase by the echoing of its sjdlables, conveys 
even to the eye of a stranger the meaning as given by the Ku'rahus 
in his explanation of line 2. "The repetition of the word as we sing 
riiare, 'hare, "aheo indicates that our minds are dwelling upon the 
snb,]'ect bi-onglit to our attention." 

This opening song is in two parts. One refers to the powers, the 
other to the inauguration of rites through which man can turn toward 
these powers. 

Six stanzas belong to the first i^art, suggesting the six syml)olic 
motions, indicating the four directions, the above, aud the below. 
The first stanza is an apjjeal to Tira'wa; its form is noteworthy when 
viewed in connection with the opening stanza of the second jjart. 
Tira'wa is not addressed directly, but the mind is turned to his place 
of abode, ^Vwahokslui, as to a detinite locality where prayer .should 
be sent, whence lielj) may come. The fixing of tihc mind upon a holy 
i:»lace serves as a precedent for the establishment of a holy place, 
Kushai'u (stanza vii), where man is to think of Tira'wa, and where 
rites in accordance with his thought are to be performed. The 
order in which the powers are addressed in these first six stanzas 
reveals something of the Pawnee's idea of man's relation to the su])er- 
natural. First, the holy jjlacp, the abode of Tira'wa, tJie father of all, 
is addressed; second, Hoturu, the invisible Wind, the bearer or giver 
of breath; third, Chakaru, the Sun, the father of strength; fourth, 
irUraru, the Earth, the mother, the conserver of life; fifth, Toharu, 
Vegetation, I lie giver of food; sixth, C'haharu, ^Vatel•, the giver of 
drink. 

Starting from the abode of the central p()wer, Tii-a'wa, designated 
in the first stanza, the lesser powers bring to man first breath, next 
vitality or strength, then the abilitj^ to conserve and use that strength, 
and, finally, they give him food and drink to sustain his life. The 
physical man stands forth in these first six stanzas as the result of 
the gifts of the powers. 

The second part of the song is in seven stanzas. The number sug- 
gests the seven symbolic niotio'ns, indicating the four directions, the 
above, the below, and the center, the ego. 

The first stanza of the second part (vii) calls the people to "give 
heed" to Kusharu, the place set apart for sacred purposes. Concern- 



FLETCHER] FIRST RITUAL, PART I 285 

ing this the Ku'rahus says: "The first act of a man must he to set 
apart a place that can be made holy and consecrated lo TiraA^'a, a 
place where a man can be quiet and think about the nughty ijowei'." 
As the first part o-pens with the mention of Awahokshn, the holy 
place, tlie abode of Tira'wa, whence life is given to men by the inter- 
mediary powers, so Ihe second part begins by indicating that man 
should set apart a holy place whence his thoughts can ascend to the 
powers which gave him life. The fixing of the sacred place made 
a center from wliich man's daily life could be set in order, and made 
the inauguration of rites possible — rites which served as a common 
bond to hold the community together. In the next stanza (vm) the 
term h'Akaru is used. II' is the sign of breath, of t\w giving of life; 
akaru is a modification of akaro, a dwelling place. The change 
from ro to ru indicates that the word is typical rather than special. 
h'Akaru convej's the idea of an abode of life, a place where life (h', 
breath) can be received. The progression noted in the first part 
is here recalled; the power first mentioned after the holy i^lace, 
Awahokshu, was Ilotoru, the Wind, the giver of bi-eath. The next 
stanza (ix) speaks of Keharu, an inclosure, the actual dwelling to be 
erected for the protection of life. Keharu seems to correspond to the 
male element which, in tlie first part, is repre.sented by the Sun, the 
father, the giver of strength, and we find that throughout this cere- 
mony the position of the feathered stem, representing the male, is 
upon the outside, where it acts as guard and protector, a wall of 
defense to the interior of the lodge, with its fireplace, which represents 
the nest (see line ii). The fireplace, Kataharu, is next mentioned 
(x). This is the center, where the life within the lodge is conserved; 
it represents the female principle. This stanza corresponds to the 
fourth of the first part, where li'llraru. Mother Earth, is invoked. In 
the two following stanzas, Keharu, the glowing coals (xi), and Koritu, 
the flames, the word of the fire (Xii), refer directly to the act of 
making fire by friction, a eeremonj- which seems to underlie most, if 
not all, aboriginal rites through wliich man appeals to the powers for 
the means of sustaining life, food, and drink (stanzas V and vi). 

The first six stanzas of the second part seem to be a reflex of the 
six composing the flrst part. In the first part physical life is created, 
in the second part psj'chical life is recognized. By the institution of 
rites a way is opened through which man turns toward the powers 
which created him. In the seventh stanza of the second pai't (xiii), 
the passageway is spoken of. This passageway represents the ego, 
the i^ath wherein man passes to and fro as he lives his individual and 
communal life. 

The structure of this song is notable when taken by itself, but it 
becomes more remarkable when the scope of the ceremony is consid- 
ered. It will then be seen that this opening song foreshadows the 
movement and purpose of the entire ceremony. 



286 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ANN.aj 



SONG'i 

Diagram nf Time 



Rhiith III ir Rciiditidii 
I 

We lieed as nuto thee we call; 
Oil, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help ns. Oh, holy place above! 
We heed as nnto thee we call. 

II 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Hotoru. giver of Vireath! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

in 

We heed as unto thee we call: 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Shakuru. father of strength! 
We heed as untti thee we call. 

IV 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh. send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, h'Uraru. mother of all! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 



We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy jjotent aid! 
Help us. Toharu. giver of food! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

VI 

We heed as unto thee we call: 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help lis, Chaharu, giver of drink! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

VII 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Helj) us, Kusharu. sacred to rites! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 



" See the music on page 27. 



ri^ETCHER] B^RST RITUAL 287 

VIII 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help lis, h'Akaru, abode of life! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

IX 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help lis, Keharn, wall of defense! 
We lieed as uTito thee we call. 

X 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us tliy potent aid! 
Help us, Kataharu, center within! 
We heed as unto thee we call, 

XI 

We heed as unto thee we call, 
(_>h. send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Kekaru, promise of fire! 
We heed as unto thee we call, 

XII 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to tis thy potent aid! 
Help us, Koritu, word of the fire! 
We heed as unto thee we call, 

XIII 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to lis thy potent aid! 
Help us, Hiwaturu. emblem of days! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

Part II. Preparin(4 the Feathered Stems 

The first thing to be made is the feathered stein cai-ried by the 
Ku'rahu.s. It represents the female element ; it leads in the ceremony. 
Other sacred rites among the Pawnees explain this leadership as based 
upon the belief that life first took foi'm through the female; "She 
was the fir.st and the leader." 

The stem is painted blue witli blue clay mixed with running water. 
The running water, we are told, represents the continuation of life b}^ 
generation following generation. The color is the sj'mbol of the sky, 
the dwelling i^lace of the powers. 

The song which accompanies the act of ijainting is in five musical 
phrases, suggesting the five; motions symbolic of tlie four directions 
and the above. The exclamation he! (a part of i'hare! give heed!), 
at the close of each phrase, bears out this interpretation. 

The iterated words h'areri (h', breath; areri, a particulai- phice) 
tell that tlie thoughts of tlie singers are fixed on the giving of life by 



288 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY rKTH.AXN.ffi 

the powei's above, whose presence is synilwlized hv the blue ])aint 
now i)ut upon the stem. 

Each stanza of all the songs throughout this ceremouj' is sung four 
times. The Ku'rahus tells us that this is in recognition of tlie four 
paths at the four cardinal iioints, down which the powers descend, and 
tliat it is also an indirect reeognitiitn of the powers themselves. 

FIRST SONG" 

Diagriiiii of Time 



R/ll/flilllir Rriiilitiiili 

Take we now the bhie paint. 

Touch with it the stem, putting <>u the .sat-red symbol. 

Emblem of the clear sky, 

Where dwell the sods. who. descending, bring ns good gifts. 

Gifts of life and plenty. 

The feathered stem carried by the Kii'i-ahus's assistant represents tlie 
male element. It is painted green, tlie color svmbolizing Toharn, the 
living covering of Mother Eartli. Tiie key to the symbolism lies in 
the abbreviated word hurc-e, "coming from above." It conveys 
the idea that the power l)y which Mother Earth brings forth her 
green covering, Toharu, comes from the power above, Tira'wa atius. 

The fan-shaped pendant hung upon the green stem is made of seven 
feathers from the young brown eagle, spoken of by the Ku'rahtis as 
the white eagle. Tliese are the feathers worn bj- warriors, and the 
bird is the war eagle, the fighter, tiie defender, the protector. 

The coml)ining of the male and female forces on each of the leading 
requisites of the cei'emouy, the feathered stems and the ear of corn, 
has already been noticed. 

The song which is sung as the stem is painted green is in six musical 
phrases, corresponding to the six ceremonial motions: the four direc- 
tions, the al)0\'e, and the below. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Diagram of Time 



' Miisic on page 37. b Music on page 39. 



FLETCHER] FIRST BITUAL 289 

Rhythmic Rendition 

Take we now the green paint, 

Touch -with it the stem, the mated stem. 

Putting on the emblem, the sacred and living symbol. 

Mother earth. 

From above descending, bountiful blessings on thee, 

Mother earth. 

The fan-like appendage of ten brown mottled feathers from the ma- 
ture brown eagle are here tied upon the blue stem. This eagle is called 
Kawas; it represents the mother. She is the bearer of life from above 
and shares with the corn the leadership throughout the ceremony. 

It is noticeable that the eagle receives the gifts it bears to man 
through the lesser powers and not directly from Tira'wa atius. Birds 
are not powers, but messengers, intermediaries between the lesser 
powers and man. A glimpse is here obtained of the order which 
natural forces and objects take in the mind of the Pawnee. 

The song of this act is in three phrases. The number three is not 
sj'mbolized by ceremonial motions; throughout the ceremony songs 
accompanying acts which do not implj' a direct appeal to the powers 
above fall into three musical phrases. 

THUID SONGn 

Diiidniiii of Tinip 



Rlii/t/iniif Rendu ion 

Oh, Kawas, come, with wings outspread in siinny .skies! 
Oh. Kawas, come, and bring us peace, thy gentle peace! 
Oh. Kawas. come, and give new life to us who pray! 

Part III. Painting the Ear of Corn and Preparing the other Sacred 

Objects. 

The putting of a peculiar design in blue paint on the ear of corn 
is replete with sj'inbolism. The ear of corn not only represents a life- 
sustaining product of the earth, but the omniscience which the earth 
is believed to possess. This omniscience, predicated of the ear of 
corn, constituted one of its qualifications to act as leader. The 
Ku'rahus says (line 118): "Mother Earth knows all places and all 
that happens among men; therefore the corn which comes from her 
must lead, must direct us where to go." 

The painting of the ear of corn represents the securing of its cre- 
dentials as leader. The blue paint used on this occasion is not put 
into a shell, as it was when tlie stems were colored, but into a wooden 
bowl. The shape of the bowl, an inverted dome, typifies the arching 
skj% the blue paint its color (see the explanation of line 83). The 
design put on the ear of corn signifies its journej^ to the abode of the 
powers and its return, with their sanction, as leader. 

" Music on page 41. 
22 eth— PT 2—04 19 



290 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

It is difficult to follow the Pawnee's tliouglit in the words and 
accompanying act of this song unless it is remembered that he regards 
the spirit of man, animals, and all other things as able to travel about 
independent of the bod}'. IMoreover, that he conceives it possible for 
a number of persons so to unite as to think and act as one spirit. 

In the song Mother, Atira, is the term applied to the ear of corn 
as the representative of Mother Earth. This word is preceded by 
the aspirate, h', significant of the breath, the giving forth of life. 
h'Atira not only refers to the sustaining of life by food, but also 
carries the idea that, as leader, the corn bears life-giving power. 

The word weri, I am, does not mean the man who paints the corn, 
but the concerted spirits of the Uako party, which are spoken of in 
the singular, as though they were one spirit. The use of the plural 
sign re a little later on in the stanza (line 86) implies the personifica- 
tion of the ear of corn; its spirit i.s standing with tlie spirit of the 
Hako party. These two spirits move together throughout this drama 
of the consecration of the ear of corn as leader. 

In the next stanza the two spirits are flying through the air. There 
is no incongruity in thi.s x'rocedure; the already mentioned belief rela- 
tive to spirits makes it rational. In like manner, the color of the 
paint can hold within it the spirit of the abode of the powers. 

The different stages in the progress of the ear of corn on its journey 
to tlie abode of the powers are depicted in the diiferent stanzas of the 
song. In the first, she stands; in the second, she flies; in tlie third, 
she touches the boundaiy of the sky, ' ' where it begins " ; in the fourth, 
she ascends; in the fifth, she reaches the dome, her destination; in 
the sixth, she descends, the purpose of the journey having been 
accomplished. 

The music is divided into six phrases; six stanzas record the stages 
of the journey; the number suggests the six ceremonial motions typify- 
ing the four directions, the above, and the below. 

It would seem from the acts accompanying this song that the ear of 
corn went up to the abode of the powers by the four paths at the four 
cardinal points, down whicli we are told the powers descend, as the 
lines representing these paths were drawn on the ear before the blue 
paint was spread over its tip to represent the dome of the sky. 

SONOii 

I>i(ii/i'iiiii (if Time 



ft Music on pas*^ i'i. 



"^^'■'-'•"'"^ FIRST RITUAL, PART III 291 

Rhytliiiiic Rrndition. 



Tira wa, liarkeul Mighty one. 

Above ns in bine, silent sky! 

We standing wait thy bidiling here. 

The Mother Corn standing waits. 

Waits to serve thee here; 

The Mother Corn stands waiting here. 

II 

Tira wa, harken! Mighty one. 

Above us in bine, silent sky! 

We flying seek thy dwelling there. 

The Mother Corn flying goes 

Up to seek thee there; 

The Mother Com goes flying up. 

Ill 

Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one. 
Above us in blue, silent sky! 
We touch upon thy country now. 
The Mother Corn touches there. 
On the border land; 
The Mother Corn is touching there. 

IV 

Tira wa, harken! Mighty one, 

Above us in bhie, silent sky! 

The path we reach leads up to thee. 

The Mother Corn enters there. 

Upward takes her way: 

The Mother Corn ascends to thee. 



Tira wa, harken! Mighty one. 
Above us in blue, silent sky! 
Behold! We in thy dwelling stand. 
The Mother Corn, standing there. 
Leader she is made: 
The Mother Corn is leader made, 

VI 

Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one. 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

The downward path we take again. 

The Mother Corn, leading us. 

Doth thy symbol bear; 

The Mother Corn with power leads. 



292 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

SECOND RITUAL. PREFIGURING THE JOURNEY TO THE SON 

The ceremony of offering the Ilako was believed to bring great 
benefits. As the tie to be formed was a close one and likely to have 
a bearing on the welfare of two tribes, the selection of the man who 
was to be the Son was not left exclusively to the Father. His choice 
had to be submitted to the chiefs of his tribe for their approval. Nor 
did the matter end here, for the chiefs, seemingly unwilling to assume 
the entire responsibility of a final decision, threw the confirmation of 
the selection of the Son upon the supernatural, represented l\v the 
ear of corn. 

To be able to follow the Pawnee's thought one should keep well in 
mind the native belief in the reality of an invisible world accessible 
to man. The Ku'rahus explained that in this rite the spirit of the 
corn and the spirits of the assembled company must meditate together 
upon the proposed candidate for the Son, must consider his qualifica- 
tions and his ability to meet the reqiiirements for a successful issue 
of the ceremony. He said : "As we meditate we sit with bowed heads, 
and Mother Corn sits with bowed head . " When the decision is reached 
"Mother Corn lifts her head and stands erect, then she moves through 
the air on her journey to the Son, and we follow." 

In this mystical journey Mother Corn "opens the way" between 
the land of the Fathers and that of the Children. She does more. 
She enters the village and passes ai-ound among the lodges of the 
people to that of the selected man. She goes in and touches him 
while he sleeps. It is the spirit of Mother Corn that touches the spirit 
of the man in a dream. He does not see her who has touched him, 
but he sees one of the birds which belong to the featheretl stem, the 
eagle, the owl, the duck, or the woodpecker, for th<' spirits of these 
birds are there with the spirit of Mother Corn in the lodge of the 
sleeping man. If, when he awakes, he is able to I'ecall his dream, it 
is because Mother Corn has "opened his mind." Therefore when the 
messengers of the Father's party arrive with the tidings, "Your Father 
is coming," the dreamer is not taken by surprise, but is ready to 
respond without unnecessary delay. 

The old man nan-ated this symbolic procedure of the ear of corn 
and its attendant spirits without consciousness that he was saj'ing 
anj'thing unusual or contrary to ordinary experience. His only com- 
ment was, that it was very difficult for the men of the party of the 
Father so to fix their nunds upon the desired end as to secure its 
accomplishment. He referred to this difficulty several times while 
explaining the words and meaning of the song. When questioned as 
to whether the attempt was always successful, lie said that when it 
failed the failure was always due to a lack of earnestness or sincerity 
on the part of the persons so fixing their minds. By this he <lid not 
mean that the men failed because thev did not trv hard enough to 



FLETCHER] SECOND EITUAL 293 

keep their attention upon the desired object, but that there was in 
their character something which prevented them from effectually 
exerting their will power. He evidently had no doubt as to the rea- 
sonableness of the procedure. To him it was entirely logical. 

The journey prefigured by this flight of Mother Corn, afterward 
actually taken by the party of the Father, has its special songs. 
Several of them refer dii-eetly to this traveling of the spirit of Mother 
Corn. 

The song of this ritual is in two parts, each with four stanzas. 
The first part relates to finding the Son, "opening the way" to him. 
The second deals with the Son, preparing him to receive the Father, 
"opening his mind." 

The stanzas ai-e in four musical phrases corresponding to the four 
paths down which the lesser powers descend to man. Each closes 
with the exclamation ha! calling attention, as to an invisible presence. 

SONGtt 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Renaition 
I 
Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 
Lo! As we draw near, let otir sonls touch thine 
While we pray thee: 
Children give to n.s! Mother Ci>rn, hearl 

II 

Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! Our heads we bow. while our souls touch thine; 

Then as one mind 

Make the choice of Son. Mother Corn, hear! 

Ill 

Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! With head erect Mother stands, and then 

Moves she through air 

On her mission bent. Mother Corn, hear! 

IV 

Mother Con, Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! Now over hills, over streams, we go 

Taking our way 

Toward the Children's land. Mother Com. hear! 

n Music on page .50. 



294 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann, 22 

V 

Mother Corn. Oh hear I Open onr way! 

Lo! Our jonrney's end now is near, we look 

.O'er the strange land. 

Seeking Children therel Mother Com. hear! 

VI 
Mother Corn. Oh hear! Open our way! 
Lo! Our eyes behold where they dwell. In their 
Village we walk. 
Seeking there the Son. Mother Corn, hear! 

VII 
Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 
Lo! His lodge we find, through the door we pass. 
Sleeping he lies, 
Knows not we are there. Mother Corn, hear! 

VIII 
Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 
Lo! Now at her touch comes a dream: then a 
Birdcalls, "My Son!" 
While his soul resjionds. Mother Corn, hear! 

THIRD KITUAL. SENDING THE MESSENGERS 

The four messengers were selected informally l)y the Father from 
among his near relatives. Thej' were generally young men, lithe and 
strong of limb, and able to make a long journey quickly. The dis- 
tance to be traveled varied from a few miles to a hundred or more, 
and as they must carry all tlieir provisions, it became necessary for 
them to get over the ground as rajjidly as possible. 

The formal appointment of these messengers took place in the lodge 
of the Father, in the presence of the sacred objects spread at cere- 
monial rest. 

When the messengers arrived at the lodge of the Son, he sent for his 
kindred and consulted witli them. <Jnly a recent death in his family 
or some catasti'ophe which deprived him of his property would be 
accepted as sufficient excuse for his not receiving the Hako party. 
If he accepted the tobacco he would bid the messengers return to the 
Father and say, "I am ready." In either case he must make gifts 
to the messengers in recognition of the proffered honor. 

The homeward journey was made as quickly as possible, for during 
the absence of the messengers nothing could be done. As soon, how- 
ever, as the returning young men were discerned on the prairie the 
village was astir, and the men of the Father's party, with the Ku'ra- 
hus, assembled at his lodge to receive them ceremonially and to hear 
their tidings. 

The messenger dispatched on such errands was called Rawiska'- 
rarahoru. One who walks carrying the tobacco. 

The music of the song of this ritual is in three phrases. Like other 
songs in this ceremony having the same number, it accompanies acts 



FLETCHER] THIRD AND FOURTH RITUALS 295 

which do not directly appeal to the supernatural. The lirst stanza is 
addressed to the messengers; tlie second to the Father's party within 
the lodge. 

SONG n 

Diagram of Time 



Rhf/fhmic Rendition 
I 
I bid you ti'avel o'er the land to the Son, 
And with yon take these words of mine unto him: 
" Behold! Your Father comes to yon speedily."' 

II 

We wait their journey o'er the land to the Son. 
When they will give these words of mine lanto him: 
' Behold! Your Father comes to you speedily." 

FOURTH RITUAL 

Part I. Vivifyino the Sacked Objects 

These first four rituals are in sequence and deal with the peculiar 
preparations required for the ceremonJ^ In the first ritual the sacred 
articles are prepared; in the second ritual the Son is selected; in 
the third ritual the Father notifies the Son, who responds; and 
in the fourth ritual the sacred articles are virified and assume 
leadershiiJ. In these i)reparations the supernatural powers bear a 
leading part. At the verj- beginning, in the first song of the first 
ritual, their presence is invoked, and in the fourth ritual, after man's 
preparations for the cerenionj' are completed, they accept his work. 

The first, second, and third rituals took place in the lodge of the 
Father, where the sacred objects were guarded day and night bj- the 
Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief, or b}' persons appointed to act 
as their substitutes. In the fourth ritual the objects were for the 
first time taken outside the lodge, under the open sky, where the 
final act of their x'reparation took place. They were tied upon a pole 
and elevated in the eai'ly dawn, that they might be vivified by the 
powers and acknowledged as their representatives. 

The order in which these sacred objects were tied upon the pole 
indicates their relative significance in this ceremony. The two feath- 
ered stems were placed near the top, because they typify the powers 
of the upper world. But they also represent the male and female ele- 
ments, therefore the male stem was placed toward the south — the 
light, the day, the sun; and the female stem toward the north — the 
darkness, the night, the moon. Beneath the feathered stems were 
the rattles and the ear of corn, representing the living covering of 

a Music on page 56. 



296 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. akn. 22 

the earth, and below these was the wildcat skin. These typify the 
powers of the lower world. 

All these articles were tied on the pole so as to face the east. 
We are told in the song of the ninth ritual tliat down the path at the 
east came the powers that are potent in this rite. 

Behind these objects, toward the west, where dwell the powers 
which influence the life of man and control disaster and death, were 
bound the right and left wing of an eagle. These wings were spread 
as though supporting the sacred objects, as the wings sustain the 
body of a bird in the air. Throughout the ceremony the position of 
the two eagle wings, both when on the -pole and when borne at each 
end of the line of men, serves to unify the different sacred objects 
into the similittide of a winged body. This unification does not, 
however, interfere with the separate functions of each article or with 
the character of its sj'mbols. 

The dawn ritual throws light on the significance of the elevation 
of the sacred objects nnder the open sky before the break of day. 
Before this act, these objects had lain at rest; but after it, when thej' 
had been vivified by the wind and the sun, they at once became 
active and thencefortli they led the people throughout the ceremony. 

Part II. Mother Corn Assumes Leadership 

This activity is manifest in the song of jiart ii, where the ear of corn 
passes to the front and assumes the iDosition of leader. The ceremonial 
steps taken by the chief, as he carries this representative of Mother 
Earth with her life-sustaining force, dramatically represent the corn 
as advancing out of the past (from behind the Ku'rahus with his sj'm- 
bolie feathered stem), coming into the present (beside him), and then 
going on before, moving along the unbroken path that stretches out 
of the past into the future. The four steps taken by the chief bearing 
the ear of corn refer to the four paths down which the powers descend 
to man, and the four steps taken by the six men following Mother 
Corn as the second stanza is sung indicate the dependence of man 
upon these supernatural powers. 

This song falls into six phrases. The number suggests the recog- 
nition of all the powers which come near to man, which are represented 
bj' the four directions, the above, and the below, thus bearing out 
the full significance of the symbolic steppiugs. 

SONG •! 

Diagram nf Time 



"Music on page 60. 



FLETCHER) FOURTH BITDAL 297 

Rhythmic Rendition 
I 

Mother with the life-giving power now comes, 
Stepping out of far distant days she comes. 
Days wherein to our fathers gave she food; 
As t J them, so now unto us she gives. 
Thus she will to our children faithful be. 
Mother with the life-giving power now comes! 

II 

Mother with the life-giving power is here. 
Stepping out of far distant days she comes. 
Now she forward moves, leading as we walk 
Toward the future, where blessing.s she will give. 
Gifts for which we have prayed gi-anting to us. 
Mother with the life-giving power is here! 

Part III. The H.\ko Party Presented to the Powers 

The recognition of man's dependence on the supernatural is still 
further empba.sized by the peculiar dramatic movements which 
accompany the songs after the Hako party for the first time as a body 
passes outside of the lodge, within which all the preceding ceremonies 
have taken place. 

The sacred objects, which under the open sky had been vivified and 
acknowledged by the supernatural powers, now lead the party along 
certain lines defined by their sjniibolically numbered steps to face the 
localities where these ijowers were believed to dwell. First the east 
was faced and the jjowers there were addressed ; then the west ; next the 
south ; and then the north. At each of these points the sacred ob.jects 
were elevated, while the people invoked the powers to "behold" (to 
recognize and accept) those who were about to perform the ceremony. 
When each of the four cardinal points had been addressed and the 
leader had completed the ceremonial steps, the outline of a man had 
been traced upon the ground. Concerning this outline the Ku'rahus 
explained that it "is the image from Tira'wa." "Its feet are where 
we now stand, its feet are with our feet." 

This figure would seem to represent a visible answer to the ceremo- 
nial appeal of the people and to indicate a willingness of the super- 
natural powers to grant their i:)resence throughout the coming 
ceremony. This interpretation of the tracing is borne out by the 
words of the Ku'rahus when he saj's that "it will move with our feet 
as we now, bearing the sacred objects, take four steps in the presence 
of all the powers, and begin our journey to the land of the Son." 

The song addressed to the east is in four musical phrases, while 
the songs to the west, south, and north are in six musical phrases. The 
four-phrase song is sung to Tira'wa at ins, the father of all things, 
and it is noticeable that all the songs throughout the ceremony which 
specially address this power are in a four-phrase rh\i:hm. AVhen all 



'298 THE EAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

the other powers are addressed, those at the four directions, the above, 
and the below, a six-plirase rhythm is used. 

The number of the repeats and phrases of the songs seems also to 
be eouueeted with the ceremojiial steps, which are in groups of four, 
eight, and sixteen. The number sixteen is said by the Ku'rahns to 
represent completeness. 

According to native measurement, the height of a man is equal to 
the stretch of his arms. Looking at the diagram of the figure stepped 
upon the ground, we note that sixteen steps give the spread of the 
arms and the same number of steps marks the length of the man. 
This bears out the statement of the Ku'rahus that sixteen, or four times 
four, represents completeness. 

rXRST SONGfi 

Diagram of Time 



RJii/fh III ic Rriiflition 

Look on lis as here we are standing, raising onr voices I 

Look on VIS as here we, presenting, lift now these emblems that are so holy vcp to 

thy gazel 
Swift, a flash from ont of the heavens 
Falls on ns as here we are standing, looking at thee. 

SECOND SONG '■ 
Diagram nf Time 



Hhiithiiiii- J 'i' ml if ion 

I 

Look down. West gods,'' l<3ok uj^on nsl We gaze afar on yonr dwelling. 
Look down while here we are standing, look down n])on ns, ye mighty! 
Ye thunder gods, now behold ns! 
Ye lightning gods, now behold ns! 
Ye that bring life, now l)ehold us! 
Ye that bring death, now behold us! 

" Music on page 68. 
'• Music on page fi.5. 
t'Gods, meaning powers, is used solely on account of the rhytlim. 



FLETCHER] FOURTH AND FIFTH RITUALS 299 

II 

Look down, South g'ods. look upon usi We gaze afar on your dwelling. 
Look down while here we are standing, look down upon us, ye mightyl 
Ye daylight gods, now behold us! 
Ye sunshine gods, now behold us! 
Ye increase gods, now behold us! 
Ye plenty gods, now behold us! 

Ill 

Look down. North gods, look up m us! We .gaze afar on your dwelling. 
Look down while here we are standing, look down upon us, ye mighty! 
Ye darkness gods, now behold us! 
Ye moonlight gods, now behold us! 
Ye that direct, now liehold us! 
Ye that discern, now behold us! 

The structure of the ftr.st division of the Preparation, initial rites, 
is worthy of notice. Eacli of its four rituals is complete in itself, but 
the symbols, rhythms, and movements of all are closelj- connected, 
forming a drama of two %\orlds. The four rituals are a compact 
whole, from the opening appeal in the first song of the first ritual to 
the culmination in the fourth ritual, from the appeal to the powers in 
the order of creation for their presence to the answer of tliis apjieal 
made ^nsible by the rhythmic ceremonial steps, in the form of the 
syml)olic presence whose "feet will move with" the feet of the suppli- 
ants as they journey to the land of the Son. 

Second Division. The Journey 

fifth ritual 

Part I. Mother Corn Asserts Authority 

The three songs of the first part of tlie fiftli ritual have a fixed 
sequence, and relate to the supernatural leadership of the ear of corn. 

The first refers to the second ritual, where the spirits of those assem- 
bled iit the lodge became as one spirit and joined the spirit of Mother 
Corn in her search for the Sou (see explanation by the Ku'rahus, fifth 
ritual, first song). The journey then prefigured is now about to 
begin. The Father's party are again enjoined to l)ecome as one spirit, 
and as one spirit to follow Mother Corn over "the devious waj." 

FIRST SONG 11 

The first song, like that of the second ritual, is in four musical 
phrases. Both refer to the four paths down which tlie lesser powers 

descend. 

Diuyram of Time 



' Mui^ir on pa^e 6-S. 



300 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY [eth. axn. 22 

RllUfll/llir Ri'liditiOH 

I 

The Mother leads and we follow ou. 
Her cle\-ious iiathway before ns lies. 
She leads us as were our fathers led 
Down through the ages. 

II 

The Mother leads and we follow on. 
Her pathway straight, where a stage each day 
We forward walk, as our fathers walked 
Down through the ages. 

Wheu the familiar landmarks about tlie village liad disappeared in 
the distance and the people looked over the wide stretch of country, 
the dangers of the journey were natnrallj- suggested, so that the tirst 
stanza of the second song is an appeal to Mother Corn, asking her 
whether a safe path lies before them. The second stanza gives her 
assuring answer, that the path does lie sti'aight before them. 

This song, being one of procedure only, is in three phrases. 

SECOND SONG 11 

Diagram tif Time 



Ri/fJiin Ir RoiditioH 

I 

Looking o'er the prairie, naught our eyes discern there. 

Wide the land stretches out before us; 

Then we cry aloud to Mother Corn: • Doth thy pathway lie here? '" 

II 

Heeding now our crying, while our eyes she opens. 

Mother Corn moveth out before us 

On the lonely prairie, where we see straight the pathway lies therel 

In the third song, Mother Corn reminds the people of the super- 
natural leadership bestowed on lier by the powers above in the distant 
past, and now renewed in the ceremonies which have just taken place. 

This song, referring directly to the powers above, is in five musical 
phrases, suggesting the motions toward the four directions and the 
al)0ve. 

a Music on page 70. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH RITTAI. 301 

THIKD SONG'l 

Diagrriiii of Timr 



Rythmic Renrlition 
I 

Hark! She speaks, and quickly we turn to her. 

Ldoking toward the west to the spot where we 

Passed 'ueath the eyes of gods: and now do we heed her words: 

•■ Yonder is the place in the distant west 

Whence I have come out of the past to you." 

II 

■■ Bom of the earth and touched by the deep blue sky. 

Have I chosen been by the gods to lead. 

You are to hear my voice and follow my strict commands. 

As your fathers did in the days gone by. 

Thence come I to open your pathway here." 

These three songs, the first part of the fifth ritual, seem to have 
been disciplinary in their influence. They tended to restrain the 
individual from self-seeking by placing over the party a supernatural 
leader, on whom all minds must be fixed and to whom all must give 
obedience. Thus, from tlie verj^ outset, an authority was established 
again.st wliich none dared rebel. 

Part II. Songs and Cekemonies i>f the Way 

The Ilako party was an impressive sight as it journeyed over the 
country. It could never be mistaken for an ordinary group of hunters, 
warriors, or travelers. At the head of the long procession, sufficieiitly 
in advance to be distinguished from the others, walked three men — the 
Ku rahus, holding before liim the brown-eagle feathered stem, on his 
right tlie chief, grasping with both liands the wildcat skin and Mother 
Corn, and at his left the assistant Ku'rahus, bearing the white-eagle 
feathered stem. These tlii-ee men wore Iniffalo robes with the hair 
outside. On tlieir heads was the white downy feather of their office 
and their faces were anointed witli the sacred ointment and red paint. 
They bore the sacred olijects forward steadily and silently, looking 
neither to the right nor left, believing that they were under supernat- 
ural guidance. Behind them walked the doctors with their insignia, 
the eagle wings; then the singers with the drum, and behind them the 

"Music on page 71. 



302 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

ineu anil women of the party with the ponies laden with gifts and 
needed supplies of food. 

Over the wide praii'ie for miles and nules this order was preserved 
day after day until the journey eaiin^ to an end. If from some dis- 
tant vantage point a war party sliould descry the procession, the 
leader would silently turn his men that they might not meet the Hako 
party, for the feathered stems are mightier than the warrior; before 
them lie must lay down his weapon, forget his anger, and be at peace. 

No object met on the journey to the Son presented its ordinary 
aspect to the Hako party. Everytliing seen was regarded as a mani- 
festation of the supernatural powei'S under whose favor this ceremony 
was to takejilace; hence the trees, tlie streams, the mountains, the 
buffalo were each addressed in song. This attitude toward nature is 
strikingly brought out in the two songs, which are in sequence, sung 
at the crossing of a stream. 

Tiiroughout this ceremonj' water is treated as one of the lesser 
powers. It is employed only for sacred purposes, and is never used in 
the ordinary way. To pi-ofano water would bring piinishment upon 
the whole party (see the first ritual, line 20), and consequently when 
a stream ran across a line of travel no person could step into it as he 
commonly would do. A halt was called and the Ku'rahus led in the 
singing of tlie song in which Kawas is asked to gi-ant the party permis- 
sion to ford the stream. According to Pawnee rituals, water at the 
creation was given to the woman, so Kawas, repre.senting the mother, 
could grant permission. The request is embodied in four stanzas. 
In the first the water touches the feet; in the second tlie feet stand in 
the water; in the third the feet move in the water; in the fourth the 
water covers the feet (note the resemblance of entering the stream to 
entering the lodge, seventh ritual, part i). 

After the stream was crossed the people halted on the bank to sing 
the song to the wind, led by the Ku'rahus. It also is in four stanzas. 
The wind is called upon to come and dry tlie water which the people 
may not irreverently touch. In the first stanza tlie wind touches the 
people; in the second it lightly brushes their bodies; in tlie third it 
circles about them; in the fourth it envelops them, 'lluis the wind, 
one of the lesser powers, conies between the jieople and the penalty 
incurred by profanely touching water. 

In these ceremonies the people were constantly reminded that they 
were in tlie presence of the unseen powers manifested to them in the 
natural objects met upon the journey. To those initiated into the 
inner meaning of the rite, the appeal at the crossing of the stream to 
Kawas (the feminine element) and to the wind (typical of the breath 
of life) was connected with the sj'mbolism of running water, explained 
in the seventh ritual as representing the giving of life from genera- 
tion to generation. 

Tlie seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth songs originally belonged to 
the journey, but we are told the ])u(ral() are no longer seen; neither 



FLETCHER! FIFTH RITUAL, PART II 303 

are the mountains or the mesas; so these songs are now sung in the 
lodge and only that the objects seen by past generations nuiy be 
remembered. 

There are no preseut means of ascertaining whetlier the songs here 
given comprise all that were used by the Pawnees on tlie journey; 
they are all that had been taught tlie Ku'rahus who is the authority 
for this record of the Ilako ceremony. 

SONG TO THE TREES AND STKEAMSn 

Diagram uf Time 



A'lii/tli III ic Rendition 



Dark against the sky yonder distant line 

Lies before lis. Trees we see. long the line of trees, 

Bending, swaying in the breeze. 

II 

Bright with flashing light yonder distant line 
Runs before ns, swiftly rnns, swift the river runs. 
Winding, flowing o"er the land. 

Ill 

Hark! Oh hark! A sound, yonder distant soimd 
Comes to greet us, singing comes, soft the river's song, 
Rippling gently "neath the trees. 

SONG WHEN CROSSING THE STREAMS !• 

Diiiijnim nf Time 



Rln/fJi III ic Rendifion 
I 

Behold, upon the river's brink we stand! 

River we must cross; 

Oh Kawas, come! To thee we call. Oh come, and thy permission give 

Into the stream to wade and forward go. 

.'< Music on page 73. b Music on page 7o. 



30-t THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. akn. 22 

II 

Behokl, the water toiiches now oiir feet! 

River we must cross; 

Oil Kawas, hearl To thee we call. Oh come, and thy permission give 

On through the stream to pass and forward go. 

Ill 

Behold, our feet now in the water move! 

River we must cross; 

Oh Kawas, heed! To thee we call. Oh come, and tliy permission give 

On through the stream to pass and forward go. 

IV 

Behold, the water covers now our feet! 

River we must cross; 

Oh Kawas, hear! To thee we call. Oh come, and thy permission give 

On through the stream to pass and forward go. 

SONG TO THE W^IND" 

Diayrdtii of Time 



Rhytlnnic Rendition 

I 
Hither, Winds, come to us. t(.>uch where water 
0"er us flowed when we waded; 
Come, Oh Winds, come! 

II 
Now the Winds come to us, touch where water 
O'er us flowed when we waded; 
Now the Winds come. 

HI 
Here and there touch the Winds where the water 
O'er us flowed when we waded; 
Now the Winds touch. 

IV 
Lo! The Winds round us sweep where water 
0"er us flowed. Safe now are we. 
By the Winds safe. 

SONS TO THE BtrFFAI.O'> 

I>iiiijniin iif Time 



• Music on page 77. '' Music on pagp 79. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH RITUAL, PART II 305 

Rliilth III ic Rendition 
I 

When to prepare us a pathway Mother Corn sped 
Far in her search for the Son. passing this place. 
Lo! She beheld buffalo iu many herds here. 

II 

Now, as we walk in the pathway Mother Com made. 
Looking on all that she saw, passing this place. 
Lo! We behold buffalo and many trails here. 

SONG OF THE PROMISE OF THE BUFFALO 'i 

Diagram of Time 
/ 



Elii/fli III ic Rendition 
I 

Clouds of dust arise, rolling i\p from earth, 
Spreading onward: herds are there. 
Speeding on before. 
Going straight where we must journey. 

II 

What are those we see moving in the dust? 
This way coming from the herd: 
Buifalo and calf! 
Food they promise for the Children. 

SONG TO THE MOUNTAINS'' 

Diagram of Time 



Rlii/th III ic Reiidifinii 
I 

Mountains loom upon the path we take: 
Yonder jieak now rises sharp and clear: 
Behold! It stands with its head uplifted. 
Thither go we. since our way lies there. 



" Music on page 80. Ii Music on page i 

22 ETii— PT 2—04 20 



306 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth- ann. 

II 

Mountains loom upon the path we take: 
Yonder peak now rises sharp and clear: 
Beholdl We climb, drawing near its summit; 
Steeper grows the way and slow our steps. 

Ill 

Mountains loom upon the path we take; 
Yonder peak that rises sharp and clear. 
Behold us now on its head uplifted: 
Planting there our feet, we stand secure. 

IV 

Mountains loom upon the path we take; 
Yonder peak that rose so sharji and clear, 
Behold us now on its head uplifted: 
Resting there at last, we sing our song. 

SONG TO THE MESA 't 

Diagram nf Time 



Rhythm ir HciulHioii 
I 

The mesa see; its flat top like a straight line cuts across the sky; 
It blocks our ])ath, and we must climb, the mesa climb. 

H 

More mesas see: their flat tops rise against the sky, they bar our path; 
We reach their base, and we must climb, the mesas (dimb. 

Ill 

The mesa's side we now ascend, th(> sharp ridge pass, its flat top reach; 
There lies our ])ath that we must take, and forward go. 

IV 

The mesas rise around us still, tln'ir Hat tops cut across the sky; 
They block our way, yet still wc climb, the mesas climb. 

P.vHT III. Mother Coh.n Rkasserts Lf,.\i>ership 

Tile iio.xt Iwo songs are in sequence juul refer to the mystical ,ionr- 
. ney ;in(l leadership of IVlother Corn. They return to the theme of 
part 1 of lliis ritual. 

Upon tlie journey the people had been led to appeal to different 
objects as manifestations of tlie supernatural powers, but now that 
the journey was Hearing its end the nuiinlenaiice of discipline requii-ed 
that the people should be reminded tluit Mother Corn was leading 
and that to lier they were still to render undivided obedience. 

The lirst song was sung at the border of the laud of the Son. 

n Music on itase S4. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH RITUAL, PART III 307 



FIRST SONO'< 

miHjrum (if Time. 



Rhf/thmic Riiiilifidu 

I 

Here we give our thanks, led by Mother Corn, 
As oxir eyes dwell upon the borders of the land 
Where dwell the Children we are seeking. 

II 

Now we travel on. led by Mother Corn. 

Soon our eyes catch the print of footsteps on the ground. 

Made by the Children we are seeking. 

Ill 

Still we travel on. led by Mother i i).:i. 

Now our eyes look on people walking to and fro; 

They the Children are we are seeking. 

When the village where the cereinoiiy was to take place was clearly 
in sight the second song was sung. 

At ihe close of the song the sacred objects were laid at rest. This was 
the first time during daylight, since the journey began, that they had 
been so placed. They had always been in the hands of the Kii'rahus 
and his assistants, who walked at the head of the long procession as it 
moved over the conntry. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Dinfinnti of Time 



Rlii/flimie Jiciiditiou 

I 

Here is the place where I came, seeking to find the Son; 
Here have I led yoit again, here is our journey's end. 
Thanks we give unto the Mother Cornl 
Here is the place where she came, seeking to find the Son; 
Here she has led us again, here is our journey's end. 

a Music on page 86. '' Music ou page 8S. 



308 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

IT 

Here to this place have we come, liriiigiug the Son our ;dfts. 

All of the gifts that go forth bearing the promised help. 

Thanks he'll give as he sees, Mother Com, 

All of the gifts that we bring, bring to his village here; 

Here, where yon led, Mother Com; here, where onr journey ends. 

Third Division. Knterinu the \'illa<;e of the Son and Con- 
sec katinc; HIS Lodge 

SIXTH KITUAE 

Part I. The Son's Messenof.r Received 

Tlie nu^sseiigcM- dispatched by tlio Son lo the Ibiko ])arty, wliieh was 
now camped outside the village, was received as a son. He was met, 
conducted to tlie tent of the Fatlier, where food was offered liini, and 
he was clad in gala garments. The lirst song accompanied these acts, 
wliich, the K 'rahus explaincil, icpresented "the care of a father for 
his child." 

SONG" 

DiiKjniiii iif Time 



Rlnithniic HiiiilHitri) 
I 

Now our eyes look on him who is here: 
He is as the Son we have sought; 
He brings again tidings from the Son; 
■■ Father, come to me. here I sit. 
Waiting here for thee."" 

11 

Now our eyes look on him who is clad 
As befits the Son we have sought; 
He, arising, walks; follow we his steps. 
Moving slowly on toward the Son. 
Where he waiting sits. 

Part II. The Hako Party Enter the Village 

Ijcd by the Son's messenger, tlie party moved to tlie edge of the 
village, wliere a halt was made, in oi-der to conform to the movements 
of Mother Corn in her mystical journey (second ritual). "We must 
do as she did," says the Ku'rahus. 



' Music <ni paii*' 



FLETfHEii] SIXTH AND SEVENTH RITUALS 309 

After .siiijj:iii5i; the fir.st stanza, the. partN' entered (Ik* villai^e and 
passed on to the lodge pointed out to tlioni hy iJie niessoiiger, where 
they again halted and sang the second stanza. 

Tliese songs are repeated in tiie sixlcenlli ritual, wiien (lie cliihi is 
sought. 

SONG" 

Dici/rdiii of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 
I 

Where is he, the SoiiV 
Where his dwelhng jjlace that I seek? 
Which can he his lodge, where he sits 
Silent, waiting, waiting there for me? 

II 

Here is he, the Son, 
Here is his dwelling jilace that I seek; 
This is here his lodge, where he sits 
Silent, waiting, waiting here for me. 

Seventh Ritual The Consecration of the Lodge 
Part I. Touching and Crossincj the Threshold 

The eei'enionj' at tlie door of the lodge is another instance of tlie 
preliguration of an act. The chief, witli tl)(( cat skin and the ear of 
corn, advanced, and during the singing of (he first stanza of tlie fol- 
lowing song stepped on the threshold and (ouched but did not cross it. 

The stanzas, wliich are in five musical iihrases, were sung four times 
in remembrance of the path at the four directions, down which TiraVa 
alius sends, by the lesser powers, the gifts promised through tins 
ceremony. 

Wliile the second stanza was being sung, the chief crossed tlie 
threshold, and, in recognition of the powers and to represent the pro- 
gression of a long life, took the four ceremonial steps, which are some- 
times spoken of as reaching and crossing the four hills. 

Thus the waj' into the lodge was opened by Mother Corn, a.ssisted 
by the tact of the wild cat carried by the chief (see page 23), so that 
the direct representatives of ttie powers above, tlie feathered stems, 
might enter. 

The chief retired two steps behind (lie Ku'raliiis, outside tlu* lodge 
door. The Ku'rahus and his assistant, carrying the feathered stems, 

" Music on XMii^e Jl*~. 



31U THE HAKO, A PAWXKE CEREMONY |eth. axx.22 

advanced and repeated in the same order llie movements made l)y the 
chief. Meanwhile the tliird and fourth stanzas were sung. At tlie 
close the two men retired and timk thi^r places beside the chief. 

T>iii(/riiin iif Tiiiic. 



HJii/fli in ic Hi'iidit ion 
I 

Sent diiwii l>y powers on IiIkIi. 

She bears a iiroiuise most stii-e: 

The Mother Corn breathes forth life, 

On threshold She stands 

Of my Son'.s dwellins<. All's welll 

II 

Sent down by powers on IukIi. 
She bears a iiromise most sure: 
The Mother Corn breathes forth life, 
The thresliold crosses 
Of my Son's dwellintc. All's well! 

Ill 

Sent down by jjowers on high. 
She bears a promise most snre: 
Now Kawas brings new life. 
On threshold She stands here 
Of my Son's dwelling. All's well! 

IV 

Sent down by powers on high. 
She bears a promise most sure — 
Now Kawas, bringing new life. 
The threshold crosses 
Of my Son's dwelling. All's well! 

Part II. Coxsecratixo The LnD(;K 

Wlien the Ilako entered the long passageway the wi Ideal skin and 
the ear of corn were carried a few steps in advance of the featliered 
stems, thus being the first to enter the large circular room. This 
relative position of the corn was maintained during the first two cir- 
cuits around the lodge, Motlier Corn "opening the way." 

The stanzas of the song are in four niusical phrases, and each 

"Mu^ic on pago tt4. 



FLETCHER] SEVENTH RITUAL, PART II 311 

.stanza is sung four times in recognition of the four directions, for 
Mother Coi'n is breathing forth within the lodge the gift of life brought 
down from Tira'wa atius by the lesser powers. 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram nf Time 



Rlijlthtiiir Rendition 

I 

The Mother Corn, with breath of hfe, 
Now enters into my Son's lodge; 
There she walks within: 
With In-eath of life walks Mother Com. 

II 

The Mother Com. with breath of life, 
Now circles she within the lodge. 
Walking round within; 
With breath of life walks Mother Corn. 

Now the wildcat skin and tlie ear of corn are taken back into line 
with the feathered stems, and Kawas becomes the leader. Tiie first 
stanza of the song accompanying tlie third and fourth circuits of 
the lodge speaks of her hovering as over a nest. In the second she 
flies about, cleansing her nest of all impurities bj' the flapping of 
her wings. Meanwhile the two doctors with their eagle wings also 
simulate the cleansing of the nest, sweeping out of the lodge all harm- 
ful influences. 

SECOND SONQti 

Diayriiiii <</' Time , 



Rlii/flim /(■ Rendition. 

I 

Kawas. bearing new life, entereth this dwelling. 
Comes as to her own nest, on her spread pinions; 
There so gently she hovers over these her Children. 

II 

Kawas. bearing new life, flieth through this dwelling. 
All the lodge she cleanses, with her wings sweeping. 
Making clear the place, sweeping out the harm and danger. 

n Music on pa^e 97. '• Music on page 9S. 



312 THE HAKO, A PAWNEP: CEREMONY [kth. ANN 22 

Part III. Ci,othin(.{ thk Son and Offering Smoke 

The lodge having been made ready as a nest within which life might 
be given and made secure, the Father performed his first act of recog- 
nition and responsibility, lie put upon the Son the garments he 
had previously prepared for the purpose. When clad in the finely 
embroidered clothing, the Son was told to make the offering of smoke 
to Tira'wa iitius, as a prayer for the consecration of the new-born 
relationship. 

FIRST SONG'i 
Di(i(jr<iiii iif Time 



Rlii/fliniic Reiidifinu 

I 

My son. now heed, attend to the coniiuand I ^ive to you: 

Oh, speak to the gods list" ning'' above us! 

Oh, let your prayers ascend to the mighty ones on high! 

11 

My son obeys. His voice is now trav'ling far. speeding on; 

It goes to the list'ning gods above us: 

There will his prayer be heard by the mighty ones on high. 

The ceremony of offering smoke was conducted by a jiriest, who 
instructed the Son as to the order in which the stem of the pipe and 
the smoke must be offered to the various directions. Meanwiiile the 
Fathe7-s with the Hako stood before the Son singing this song, which 
voiced their participation in the offering. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Diagram of Time 



Rliijtlim ic Rcn(litio){ 

See the smoke pass by! 

Rising high above, follows where his voice 

Sped , intent to reach 

Where the gods'' abide in the deep bine sky. 

See the smoke pass by! 



a Music on page 101. cThe word gods, meaning powers, is used be- 

'' Mnsir on page 108. • cause of thp rhythm. 



FLETCHER] SEVENTH AND EIGHTH RITUALS 313 

See the smoke ascend! 

Now t}ie oilor mounts, foll(jws where his voice 

Sped, intent to reach 

Where the gods " abide. There the odor pleads, 

Pleads to gain us help. 

In the first ritual of the Preparation, when the making of the Hake 
had been completed, the Father had offered smoke to Tira'wa atiiis, 
the father of all, the give)- of life. It was a prayer for the fulfilment 
of the ceremony about to be inaugurated. Now when the lodge had 
been made ready as a nest, smoke was offered by the Son, who was to 
be the recipient of the gifts promised by Tira'wa thi'ough the ceremonj'. 
This act of the Son, performed at the request of the Father, bi-inging 
the two together before Tira'wa atius, closed the first division of the 
Hako ceremony. 

THE CEREMONY 

First Division. The Public Ceremony 
eigthth ritual (pirst day). the fathers feed the children 

Heretofore the rites of preparation had been in the presence of the 
Hako pai'ty, the Son, and his immediate kindred, but after the offering 
of smoke the heralds were commanded to summon the people to the 
lodge. Anyone could now come in and join the party of the Son in 
the making of gifts, and share in the general benefits of the ceremony. 

When the messenger of the Son had come to the Fatheis, outside 
the village, he had been fed, as a paternal act, and now, when the 
people, representing the Children, were gathered within the lodge, , 
the Father's first act was to place food before them. While it was 
yet standing Ijeside the fire, the sacred objects were taken up from 
their place at the west and carried four times around the lodge. 
The songs which accompanied these circuits were for the instruction 
of the people, teaching them to remember the powers before partaking 
of their gifts. The first, an appeal to Tira'wa atius, is in five musical 
phrases, suggesting the five motions symbolic of the four directions 
and the above. It was sung four times. 

FIRST SONG'' 

Diagram of Time 



a Gods, meaning powers, is used because of the rhythm. '' Music on page lOT. 



314 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann. 22 

Rliytlimic Rendition 

Fathei'. unto thee we cry! 
Father thou of gods " and men: 
Father thou of all we hear: 
Father thou of all we see — 
Father, unto thee we (.-ryl 

Tlie second sout;' refers to tlie lesser powers oulj% they who cau 
a.i)proiieli man, In-iugiiig him help derived from Tira'wa alius. Their 
symbols are the four motions, indicating the four paths at the car- 
dinal points down which they descend. The song is in four musical 
phrases; it was given four times. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Didijraiii of Tiiiii> 



Rhythmic I: . ' :i 

Father, thou above, father of the gods, « 
They who can come near and touch us. 
Do thou bid them bring us help. 
Help we need. Father, hear us I 

The third song refers to Motlier Corn, wlio leads in all the opening 
ceremonies. She is an intermediary between the lesser powers and 
man, and as she now walks before the Children, bearing the promise 
of peace and plenty, they give her thanks. 

THIRD SONG ■ 

Diagram nf Time 



Rliyfliinic Rt'itditiuH 
1 

Seel The Mother Corn comes hither, making all liearts gladl 

Making all hearts gladl 

txive her thanks, she brings a blessing: now. beholdl she is here: 

II 

Yonder Mother Corn is conung. coining unto usi 

Coming unto usl 

Peace and plenty she is bringing: now. beholdl she is herel 



"The word gods, meaniii'^ powers, is used snlely on aeeoxint of th^' rhythm. 
'' Music on pagQ IrtS. 
<"Musie ou page lltP. 



FLETCHER] -EIGHTH RITUAL 315 

'Jlie purpose of the ceremony, in the cairyinti- out of which the male 
and female elements were so fully symbolized, was kept continually 
before the people. 

The lodge was divided, the north half was female, the south was 
male; the north was night and the south was day. The brown-eagle 
feathered stem, Kawas, when at rest in the holy place, lay toward the 
north, and the white-eagle feathered stem, the male, was toward the 
south. 

When the feathered stems were waved over the heads of the people 
to the rhythm of the songs, as they moved from the west by the north, 
east, and south, to the west again, Kawas, the mother, was carried 
ne.xt to the Children, and the white-eagle feathered stem was borne on 
the outside, as the defender. 

Each time the sacred objects were taken up four circuits were made. 
These, we are told, were in recognition of the four paths; they also 
signified the four powers which were active at the creation of man, 
and they repi-esented the two eagles, the ear of corn, and the wildcat. 
This multiplication of symbols is not uncommon. In this instance 
they all refer to the gift of life, the birth of children. Down the four 
paths came the lesser powers; four of these were instrumental in 
placing man upon the earth; and the four ceremonial articles are the 
bearers of the promise of unfailing generations. 

During each circuit a stanza was sung four times. At the end of 
the fourth circuit "the symbol of completion," four times four, had 
been given in song. 

While the lodge in general referred to the nest, the holy place at 
the west, back of the fire, was its special representative. There the 
Hako were laid at ceremonial rest after each four circuits of the lodge. 
From the beginning of the public ceremony this act was always accom- 
panied by songs and movements expressive of its meaning. 

The songs are in groups of two. The first in each group relates to 
the eagle flying toward her nest, the young birds crying out at her 
approach. Their welcoming cry is signified b}' the song, and the fly- 
ing of the eagle by the movements of the feathered stems. The second 
song refers to the alighting of the bird upon its nest. At the close of 
the second stanza the stems were leaned upon 1 he crotched stick, their 
feather pendants resting upon the cat skin, thus symbolizing the mother 
bird settled down upon her nest. 

The songs of these two groups are repeated a great iiiaiiy times 
during the progress of the ceremony, for after every fourth circuit of 
the lodge the feathered stems must be laid at rest and the act accom- 
panied bj' one grouj) of these songs, according to the choice of the 
Ku'rahus. 



316 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [ETn. ann.22 

SONGS FOR LAYING DOWN THE FEATHERED STEMS 

SONG" 

Diagraiii of Time 



h'li i/fJi III ic Re II dif io n 

I 

See where she comes to her little ones lying so snugly and safely the nest inl 

Hark! She is calling: hear her. 

List as her nestlings make answer: 

See how she gently hovers. 

Happy our hearts as we look on her hovering over her nestlings so gently. 

II 

See where she comes to her little ont'S lying so snugly ami safely the nest inl 

Harkl She is calling: hear her. 

List as her nestlings answer: 

See her alighting gently. 

Happy our hearts as we see her alighting there over her nestlings so gently. 

SONG'' 

Diagnnii nf Time 



Rhi/fhiiiie Rendition 
I 

Loud, loud the young eagles cry, cry. seeing their mother come; 
Plies she to them sl^i^twise, flies: 

Then over the nest she hangs, there hovering, stays her flight: 
Thanks, thanks as we look we give. 

II 

Thanks, thanks, from our hearts we give, thanks give as we watch the bird 

As she to them slantwise flies: 

Then over her nest she drops: there, folding her wings, she rests, 

Kests safely within her nest. 

o Music on page 111. '' Music on page 113. 



EIGHTH AND NINTH RITUALS 317 

SONG" 

Diiigriiiii nf Time 



RJiyfJnnic Reixdition 
I 

BehoUIl An eagle now approaches: sedately flying, her course straight v.-inging to 

ns she is coming; 
"Tis Kawas we are watching, 'tis Kawas coining to seek here her nest. 
Behold her ever nearer flying, still nearer coming, her young ones calling her. 

Will she alight? 

II 

Behold! An eagle now is circling, is widely circling above us, vrin.ging her way to 

her nestlings; 
'Tis Kawas we are watching, 'tis Kawas coming to seek here her nest. 
Behold her ever nearer circling, still nearer circling, her young ones calling lier 

there to alight. 

SONG'' 

Diiigfiiiii nf Tiiiif 



Rlii/fh III ic RendifioH 

I 

Now she soareth. Kawas soareth. leaves her nestlings, flies above them; will she 

leave them, leave her young? 
Far she gazes, sees no danger, then contented she descends. 

II 

Slow she falleth. Kawas falleth, wings outspreading, hovers o'er them, o'er her 

nestlings, o'er her young: 
Long she hovers, then, descending, on her nestlings she alights. 

When the llako had been laid at rest the Fathers served tlie food, 
wliich had been waiting by the fire, to the children. At tlie conclu- 
sion of the meal the Children dispersed to their homes, and the first 
day's ceremony came to an end. 

NINTH RITUAL (FIRST NIGHT). INVOKING THE VISIONS 

The gathering of the Children, the four circuits of tlie lodge by the 
Hako, and the partaking of food provided by the Fathers were intro- 
ductory to the opening of the cei'emony proper, which took place on 
the first night. 

" Miisir nil page 1 U. '' Music on page 110. 



318 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

The stars were shining when the Children were again seated in the 
lodge. The wood was piled upon the fire, and as the flames leaped 
high, the Ku'rahiis, his assistant, and the chief arose from behind the 
holy place and took up the Hako. Among the Omahas this act was 
accompanied by a song referring to tlie eagle rising from its nest, which 
the movements of the feathered stems vividly pictured. The Pawnees 
had no such songs, and the Hako were taken up without any symbolic 
movements. 

In the song belonging to this first, night, the visions that "attend 
the Ilako" were invoked. 

Accoi'ding to the explanations of the Ku'ralius, these visions 
resembled dreams, inasmuch as they often came during sleep, but 
they also appeared when the dreamer was awake. They might be 
called revelations, which served either to strengthen a purpose or to 
suggest means by which a plan could be carried out to insure suc- 
cess to some cherished project. Through such visions, we are told, 
the manner of procedure of the ceremony had been taught and its 
details prefigured, details which were afterward carefullj' followed 
so as to conform to what was regarded as a supernaturally given 
model. 

The birds, the animals, and the products of the earth represented 
on the Ilako coniuiunieated with num by visions. In the song of 
invocation these visions are personified. They hear the summons in 
their dwelling place al)ove; they descend and pass over tlie quiet 
earth, making their way to the door of the lodge, where they i^ause; 
they cross the threshold and "walk within"; they move around and 
fill the space, touching all the people; this accomplished, they "walk 
away" and ascend to their abode on liigh. 

We note that the visions follow the same sequence of movements 
that the Ilako party followed in entering the lodge; they pause at the 
door, then enter and "walk within"; they move about an<l touch the 
l^eople in preflguration of the bestowal of gifts promised through the 
ceremony. 

This .song was (juite impressive, sung as the writer heard it by a 
hundred or moi*e voices. The Ku rahus and his assistants, as they 
moved around the lodge, were followed ))y the clioir, singers bearing 
the drum, and the song was taken up by all the people — men, women, 
and children — until the lodge vibrated witli the sonorous melody. At 
the close of the fourth stanza the Ilako were laid at rest with the 
songs belonging to that act; the eagle had gone to her nest, leaving 
tlie space clear for the mystic visitors, the visions, who now walked 
within the lodge. After a time tlie Ilako were again taken up and 
the last four stanzas were sung; then the eagle once more alighted 
upon her nest, the visions had departed, they had "touched" the Chil- 
dren, and, as the Ku'ralius said, "the people could now go home to 
have pleasant dreams." 

The face of the old man was radiant as he explained this song and 



FLETCHER] NINTH RITUAL 319 

dwelt iipon the happiness brought to all by tlie touch of the visions 
which attend the Hako. This song and all others which belong to the 
night season he would sing and talk about onlj^ in the evening, never 
during the day. 

SONGm 

Diagrniii of Time 



Rlii/fhmir Rendition 
I 



Holy vision si 

Hither come, we pray yon. come nuto us, 

Bringing with yon joy: 

Come. Oh come to us, holy visions, 

Bringing with you joy. 

II 
Holy visions! 

Near are they approaching, near to us here. 
Bringing with them joy; 
Nearer still they come — holy visions — 
Bringing with them joy. 

Ill 
Holy visions! 

Lo! Before the iloorway pause they, waiting. 
Bearing gifts of joy; 
Pausing there they wait — holy visions — 
Bearing gifts of joy. 

IV 
Holy visions! 

Now they cross the threshold, gliding softly 
Toward the space within: 
Softly gliding on — holj- visions — 
Toward the space within. 

V 
Holy visions! 

They the lodge are filling with tlieir presence. 
Fraught with hope and jseace; 
Filling all the lodge — holy visions 
Fraught with hope and peace. 

VI 

Holy visions! 

Now they touch the children, gently t<mch them. 

Giving dreams of joy: 

Gently touch each one — holy visicjns — 

Giving dreams of joy. 



" Music on page 118. 



320 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONT [eth. ann. 23 

VII 
Holy visions! 

Ended now their mission, pass they outward. 
Yet they leave us joy: 
Pass they all from ns — holy visions — 
Yet they leave us joy. 

VIII 

Holy visionsl 

They, the sky ascending, reacli their dwelling; 

There they rest above; 

They their dwelling reach — holy visions — 

There they rest above. 

TENTH RITUAL. THE DAWN 
Part I. The Birth ok D.\wn 

The opening ceremonies began aftei- dark and continued until past 
midnight. At their close the Children and the Fathers retired to their 
tents, but the Son remained at his post near the inner door of the 
lodge, while the Ku'rahus and his assistants watched from behind 
the holy place, where the Hako lay at rest. The fire burned to 
embers, the noise of the camp died slowly away, and darkness and 
silence settled down within the lodge. 

It was a long watch, but at length the Ku'rahus bade his server lift 
the skins, hanging at the inner and the outer door of the long passage- 
way, and stand outside to report when the gray hue was seen in the 
east. When the voice of the server was heard proclaiming the sign 
of dawn, the Ku'rahus and his assistants rose, and as they stood 
behind the holy place, facing the open door, they sang the first song 
in this drama of the mystic birth of Day. It was sung ".slowly and 
with i-(>verent feeling, for it speaks of the mysterious act of Tira'wa 
atins in the birth of dawn," said the Ku'rahus; "it is something very 
sacred, although it happens every day.'' 

In the first stanza, the Earth, h'Atira (li', breath; atira, mother). 
Mother breathing forth life, is called on to awake, that she may 
receive fresh power of life to be given with the new day. In the 
second, h'Atira responds, she wakens from the sleep of night. 

In the next stanza, h'Kavvas (h', breath; Kawas, as the represen- 
tative of the upper powers), the life-breathing powers above, are called 
to awake and receive fresh life throtigh the new-born Day. In the 
fourth stanza, h'Kawas, awakening from sleep, responds. All the 
foi-ces below and above have now been called, they are awake and 
ready to receive the gift of tjie new life. 

In the fifth stanza, Kawas, the mother, the leader in this ceremony, 
stands up and speaks from her nest. She explains to the Ku'rahus 
that day is born of night by the power of Tira'wa, that it is the breath 
of this new-l)orn child, the Dawn, which gives fresh life to all things 



FLETCHER] TENTH RITUAL, PART T 321 

below and to all tliing-s above. The Ku rahus replies, in the sixth 
stanza, that now he understands the meaning of the signs of the 
east, where Tira'wa, moving on Darkness, causes her to bring forth 
the Day, whose breath, awakening man and all things, gives them 
new life. 

In the seventh stanza the Ku'raiius tui-ns to tlie Son, bidding him 
awake to receive the breath of the new day. In the eighth the Son 
awakes, and with the Ku'raiius watches the coming of Dawn. 

This opening song of eight stanzas is in two parts; the first relates 
to the male and female forces, the above and below, awaking to 
receive a fresh influx of power from the bi'eath of the new-born Day. 
In the second, the meaning of the signs in the east is revealed to the 
Ku'raiius by the mother, Kawas. With the assurance that new life is 
to be given, he awakes the Son, that he maj' receive the promise from 
the new-born child of Night. 

The second song is in two parts. In the first the Morning Star, rep- 
resentative of Tira'wa atius, the father, is discerned slowlj- advancing 
from the far distance, the birthplace of Dawn. The light is dim, and 
as the peo^jle look it is gone; then they catch sight of it again, steadily 
ajiproachiug, growing brighter and brighter until, in the .second 
stanza, it stands resplendent as a man girded with the strength of 
youth, the breath of life stirring the downy feather upon his head, 
symbol of Tira'wa atius, already rosy with the touch of the advancing 
sun. As they gaze, he .slowly recedes and vanishes from their sight. 

In the third stanza, along the path opened by the Morning Star, the 
representative of the Father, comes the new-born Dawn, dim at first 
and difficult to discern, but ever advancing, coming nearer and nearer, 
its breath stirring all things with life newly given from Tira'wa atius, 
the father of all. In the fourth stanza the sky is filLd with the bright- 
ness of dawn ; then the Dawn recedes and vanishes in the light of day. 

The third song opens with the shout, " Day is here! " The light is 
everywhere and all things are clearly seen. The Son is called to lift 
his head and behold the light. 

In the second stanza, the glad shout, "Day is here ! " calls from their 
coverts the animals, led l)y the deer, bringing her young into the light 
of daj'. All creatures are now alert and moving al)out ; the new Day 
has given new life. 

In the fourth song the Ku'raiius liids the Son awaken the Children. 
In the second stanza the Children arise, and, as they step out under 
the glowing sky, they, too, are touched bj' the breath of the new- 
born Daj-. 

The four songs represent four movements or parts of this ritual: 
(1) The awakening of the forces; (2) the approach of the new-born 
Dawn; (3) the stir of life among the creatures; (4) the touch of the 
breath of Dawn upon the Children. The sixteen stanzas make the 
symbol of completeness. 
22 ETH— PT 2—04 21 



322 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEKEMONY [eth. ann.22 

Siu-h is the (Iraiiiii of tlie dawn as it ai)poared to the instructed 
Pawnee. The explanation of the Ku'i-ahns lias given us a view of its 
imagery and meaning from tlie center of the circle, i-ather than from 
the outer edge, which otherwise would have been our onlj' point of 
view. Seen as tlie Ku'rahus shows it to us, through its words and 
music, its simplicity, beauty, and reverent feeling can not fail to 
appeal to everyone who has watclied the silent majesty of the dawn. 



J>i(i(/riiiii iif Tiiiii' 



Rhyth III if Rendition 



Awake. Oh Mother, from sleep! 
Awake! The night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence eometh new life. 

II 

The Mother wakens from sleep; 
She wakes, for night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence eometh new life. 

Ill 

Awake. Oh Kawas, from .sleep! 
Awake! The night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence eometh new life. 

IV 

Now Kawas wakens from sleep. 
Awakes, for night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence eometh new life. 



Then Kawas stands and speaks forth: 
"A child from Night is now born: 
Tira'wa. father on high. 
On Darkness moving, brings Dawn." 

VI 

I nnder.stand now. I know 

A child from Night has l)een born; 

Tira wa. father on high, 

On Darkness moving, brings Dawn. 



"Music on page 12:i. 



FLETCHER] TENTH RITUAL 323 

VII 

Oh Son, awakeu from sleep! 
Awake! The night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence cometh new life. 

VIII 

The Son awakens from sleep: 
He wakes, for night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence cometh new life. 

Part II. The Mor.mnu Star and the New-born Dawn 

SONG CI 

Diagram of Time 



Rliythmic Rrnditiuu 
I 

Oh Morning Star, for thee we watch! 
Dimly comes thy light from distant skies; 
We see thee, then lost art thon. 
Morning Star, thou bringest life to us. 

II 

Oh Morning Star, thy form we see! 
Clad in shining garments dost thou come. 
Thy plume touched with rosy light. 
Morning Star, thou now art vanishing. 

Ill 

Oh youthful Dawn, for thee we watch! 
Dimly comes thy light from distant skies; 
We see thee, then lost art thou. 
Youthful Dawn, thou bringest life to us. 

IV 

Oh youthful Dawn, we see thee come! 
Brighter grows thy glowing light 
As near, nearer thou dost come. 
Youthful Dawn, thou now art vanishing. 



« Music on page 128. 



324 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ank.32 

Part III. Daylight 

SONG " 

Dinyraiii of Time 



Hhiithiiiic Rinirlition 

I 

Day is here! Daj- is here, is here I 

Arise, my son. lift thine eyes. Daj- is herel Day is liere, is herel 

Day is herel Day is here, is herel 

Look \\-p, my son. and see tlie day. Day is herel Day is here, is here! 

Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

II 
Lo. the deer! Lo, tlie deer, the deer 

Comes from her covert of the night! Day is here! Day is here, is here! 
Lo, tlie deer! Lo. the deer, the deer! 

All creatures wake and see the light. Day is here! Day is here, is here! 
Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

Part IV. The Children' Behold the Day- 
song '■ 
Diui/rain nf Time 



Rhythmic Re»difimi 

I 

Arise, my son. and follow my command; 
Go to the Children, bid them all awake. 
Bid them look where day now breaks; 
Go, send them forth into the light of day. 

II 

The son arose and followed these commands; 
He bade the Children all awake, arise; 
He bade them look where day now breaks; 
He sent them forth into the light of day. 



' Music on page 131. b Music on page 132. 



FLETCHER] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART I 325 

ELEVENTH RITUAL (SECOND DAY). THE MALE ELEMENT INVOKED 
Part I. Chant to the Sun 

The chant to the Sun, Uic recognition of the male i)rinciple, took 
place the second day. It wa.s in two parts, the first sung during the 
morning hours, and tlie second in tlie late afternoon and at sunset. 

The first ray of the morning sun comes, we are told, " direct from 
Tira'wa " and is " like a man" untouched by weakness or age. It is 
particularly powerful, and can impart strength to whomsoever it 
reaches, therefore the advent of the first ray of tlie sun was watched 
with eagerness. 

In the chant the ray is spoken of as if it were a bird; it aliglits and 
climbs in and out of the lodge (akaro). This term is used with double 
significance, for the earthly abode, the wide stretch from horizon to 
horizon, and for the lodge, erected for the protection of the family — 
the nest. 

In the first verse of the chant, the ray enters the door and goes 
through the long passageway into the lodge. The passageway typi- 
fies the individual life, the career of a man (first ritual, part i, stanza 
XIII). In the seventh ritual the Hako touches the threshold, crosses it, 
and takes within the passageway the four steps symbolic of length of 
days. In the ninth ritual, the Visions halt at the door and then go 
through the passageway to reach and touch the Children; an<l now 
the ray, coming directly from above, enters as did the Hako and tlie 
Visions, bringing vitality and strength to the Son. 

The ray comes from h'Ars (h', breath; ars, a contraction of atius, 
father), the father of breath; it is the bearer of breath from the Sun, 
the intermediary which received this gift of vitality and strength from 
Tira'wa atius (first ritual, part i, stanzas i and Ii). 

After the Son had been touched by the ray, which entered through 
the long passageway, the Fathers gave the Children their morning 
meal, which had been prepared outside the lodge and brought witliin 
during the first verse. 

At the conclusion of the meal the chant was resumed. The scc(jnd 
verse speaks of the ray alighting on the edge of the central oi^ening 
in the roof of the lodge, over the fireplace. The fireplace was femi- 
nine, and represented the protected center where life was conserved 
(first ritual, stanza x). The alighting of the ray over that center 
refers to the coming of tlie father bird to its nest. 

In the third verse the ray climbs down, and in the fourth verse 
reaches the floor of the lodge and walks within the open space to 
touch the Children, bringing them the gift of vitality. 

At the close of this verse the Hako were laid at rest with ceremo- 
nial movements and song. 

The last four verses of the chant were sung late in the afternoon. 
In the fifth verse the raj- has walked around the lodge and touched 



82(l THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 23 

all within; in the sixth it climbs up and out, and in the seventh it 
rests upon the top of the hills that stand as a wall and iuc4ose as a 
lodge the abode of the people. In the eighth verse the ray returns to 
the sun, having aceomplislied its task. 

'I'liis is the only song in the ceremony whieh is in the form of a 
chant. 

CHANT-i 

Part II. Day Sdnos 
l>i(i(jra)ii (if Time 



Hlii/tliiiiic Hf'iiditi'in 

I 

Now bphdlil; hither comes the ray of oiir father .Sim: it cometli over all the land, 
jiasseth iu the lodge, us to tcnich, and give ns strength. 

II 

Ni )w 1 ieh( )ld , where alights the ray i if our father Sim : it ti niches lightly mi the rini. 
the place above the fire, whence the smoke ascends on high. 

Ill 

Now behold; softly creeps the ray of our father .Sun: now o"er the rim it creeps 
to ITS. climbs down within the lodge; climbing downi, it comes to us. 

IV 

Now behold; nearer comes the ray of our father Sun; it reaches now the floor and 
moves within the open space, walking there, the lodge aV)Out.'' 



Now behold where has passed the ray of our father Sun: around the lodge the ray 
has passed and left its blessing there, touching us. each one of us. 

\l 

Now liehold: softly climbs tne ray of our father Sun: it upward climbs, and o'er 
the rim it passes from the jilace whence the smoke ascends on high. 

VII 

Now lieliold on the hills the ray of our father Sun: it lingers there as loath to go. 
while all the plain is dark. Now lias gone the ray from us. 

VIII 

Now l)ehold; lost to us the ray of our father Sun: beyond our sight the ray has 
gone, returning to the place whence it came to bring us strength. 

Between the fifth and sixth verses of the chant two songs had 
place. The first eompares the noise and bustle of the coming of the 
Hako party to the alighting of a flock of binls. The significance of 
a flock is given iu the fifteenth ritual. 

In the first stanza of the second song the Father expresses his thank- 

« Music ou page i;i5. ^ Here the Hako are laid at rest. 



FLETCHER] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART II 327 

fulness for the good he is permitted to bear. In the seeond stanza the 
Son responds with thanks for the coming of the Hako. 

These ai'e the only songs belonging to the ritual of the second day, 
but, if the Children desire, the}' can ask for one of the extra songs 
which can be sung in the daytime only. Such a request must be 
accompanied by a gift. 

The first extra song is a request to Mother Corn that she will lead 
the Father to the Son. The song is in four stanzas. In the first 
Mother Corn is asked to lead; in the second she consents; in the 
third the Father asks if they are near; in the fourth the (Mid of the 
journey is discerned. 

The second extra song refers to a young man who mounts his horse 
and makes his way toward the lodge to offer the animal as a gift to 
the Fathers. Such an act gives to a man honor and I'ecognitiou 
among his people. 

FIRST SONG" 

Didiiraiii of Time 



RlH/fh in ic Rendition 

I 
Hark, the sound of their wings! Mighty birds are here now alighting, liearing 

promised good. 
Hark, the sound of their wings! Surely the Hako is coming. Children, forward 

bring your gifts. 

II 
Hark, the sound of their wings! Mighty birds are here now alighting, liearing 

promised good. 
Hark, the sound of their wings! See! The Hako has come. We children forward 

bring our gifts. 

SECOND SONS'' 

Diagram of Time 



Rlii/fhiiiie Rendition 

I 

We are thankful, thankful that now we are here 

With the Hako, beai'ing its bountiful gifts. As a son you will be, 

By the Hako bound unto lis as a Son. 

II 

I am thankful, thankful that now you are here 

With the Hako, bearing its bountiful gifts. As a son I will be. 

By the Hako bound unto you as a Son. 

'< M^^sic on page l-Wi. ^ Music on page 142. 



328 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 



EXTRA DAY SONG" 

Diagrinii iif Time 



HhytJimic Rendition 
I 

Let \is seek him. led by lier who breathes forth life. Seeking the Son 
With the Mother. Mother Corn, seeking the Son let us go. 

II 

Now we travel, led by her who breathes forth life. Seeking the Son 
With the Mother. Mother Corn, seeking the Son now we go. 

Ill 

May we find him. led by her wh(.> breathes forth life. Grant we find him. 
(T)h our Mother. Mother Corn, grant we may find, find the Son. 

IV 

We are near him. led by her who breathes forth life. Nearer we come; 
Now our Mother. Mother Corn, answers our prayer. He is here. 

EXTRA DAY SONG'' 

Diayniiii nf 'J'i'iiii' » 



Rhyth III k- Rendition 

I 

Look where yonder rides 

One who swiftly .speeding o'er the prairie takes his wayl 

Who may he be? 

Whence has he come, riding on so fast. 

He who yonder comes? 

II 
Look: He turns this way. 

He who rides so swiftly o"er the prairie turns tliis way 
Hither comes he; 

With a purpose brave within his heart 
Rides he straightway here. 

■ TWELFTH RITUAL (SECOXD XIGHT). THE RITE8 t'AME BY A VISION. 

In the ritual of this secund night the suijernatural origin of the 
ceremony is asserted, that its promises may be more fully depended 
tipon. 

<* Music on page 144. 6 Music on page 146. 



FLETCHEK] TWELFTH RITUAL 329 

In the first soug of the ritual the question is asked if the rite by 
which a Father could bind to himself a Son was prefigured in a vision? 
The affirmative answer is given in the second stanza. 

The second song has the same theme, and reiterates that, verily, all 
knowledge of the rite was given througii the vision which, the Ku'ra- 
hus stated, came down by the east. The second stanza implies the 
promise that similar visions from the same direction will descend to 
the Children. 

FIRST SONG'i 

Diiigraiii tif Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Was it, we ask. in dreams that the Fathers .saw 

Clearly the Hako. wherewith I make yoia now 

As my son. 

My own begotten':' 

Was it in dreams they learned hnw to make you thus 

My offspring? 

Truly, in dreams it was that the Fathers saw 

Clearly the Hako, wherewith I make ynn now 

As my son. 

My own begotten. 

Truly, in dreams they learned how to make you thus 

My offspring. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Diiiyrdin nf Tiiiic 



Rhythmic Rendition 

This is the teaching, this is the word sent 

Down to us from our fathers: 

All of the wise words, all of the good gifts, 

Brought unto you as a Son. 

Yerily. througii a dream all of these things, 

A'.l. by the east descended. 



a Music on page 147. !> Music on page 149. 



830 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. anx. 22 

This is the teaching, this is the word sent 
Down to ns from our fatliers: 
All of the wise words, all of the good gifts. 
Now brought to you as my Son. 
Verily, as of old. all of these things. 
All. by the east descended. 

Tlie soug addressed to the Pleiades held a peculiar place in tlie 
ceremony. It had to be substituted for the last stanza of any soug 
which was Ijeing sung when the constellation was reported as rising 
above the horizon. This right to set aside the stanza of a re.aular 
song preceding the act of laying down the Hako seems to bear out the 
e.xplauatitin of the Ku'rahus, that the song to the Pleiades belonged 
"to tlie time when the ceremony was being made," and would imply 
that it was part of a ceremony from wiiich the Hako drew autliority. 

"Tira'wa," the Ku'rahus said, "appointed tlie stars to guide their 
steps." The Pleiades not only guided luit taught the people, as by an 
ob.ject lesson, " to remain together." The song would seem to have 
been received in some locality to the south of the dwelling place of the 
Pawnees, since the man who obtained it "turned to the nortli and 
readied his country." This song is one among many indications tliat 
earlier forms of the Hako ceremony will probably be found among the 
people of the Mexican plateau. 

SONG TO THE PLEIADES ' 

l>i<i<inii)i (if Time 



Iilii/thiiiic R( iiditiiiii 

Look as they rise. \\\i rise 

Over the line where sky meets the earth: 

Pleiades! 

Lol They ascending, come to guide us. 

Leading lis safely, keeping us one: 

Pleiades. 

Us teach to be, like you. united. 

Tiie songs wliicli belong to the rituals of the night did not fill up 
the entire time, and extra songs could therefore be requested by the 
Children, provided a gift was made when the song was called for. A 
man would step up to the holy place, laj- there a small stick, repre- 
senting the gift of a hoi-se, and say, "Father, sing for us! " 

" Music on page l.')l. 



FLETCHER] TWELFTH RITUAL 331 

J'roin the first extra song we learn that the visions had a dwelling 
place called "Katasha," located just below the abode of the lesser 
powers. The visions could be sunimoned by these powers from 
Katasha and dispatched upon a mission. After its accomplishment, 
the visions returned to their dwelling place to "lie at rest" until 
again summoned by the ijowers. According to the Ku'rahus, visions 
were not transitory, called into being for some special occasion and 
then ceasing to exist, but they were of an enduring nature, retaining 
an identitj^ by which they could l)e recognized by one whom tliey had 
visited. This differentiates the vision from the dream, which would 
seem to be the memory of a vision which came while one slept. 
Waking visions are not spoken of as dreams. 

The Pawnees locate more or less definitely the powers which can 
affect man. In the above, far be.yond the light, fleecy clouds, where 
no man has been or can see, dwells Tira'wa atius, the father of all, 
the giver of life and bi'eath; in a circle below are the lesser powers, 
like a great council; beneath them is Katasha, the abode of the 
visions. The birds, the animals, and plants are intermediaries 
between man and the jiowers above and the jjowers below in the earth; 
they bring hini the life and strength which is drawn by the powers 
from Tira'wa atius. Such is the outline, but the details are complex, 
no one power or intermediary being fixed or unchangeable in func- 
tion or character. 

The second extra song, as explained by the Ku'rahus, seems to jjoint 
out that disaster is sometimes disciplinary and necessary to the 
strengthening of a man's purpose. 

The third extra song teaches that when one dreams of Mother 
Corn one should go to a shrine where the sacred corn is kept and 
there offer smoke to the power which sent the corn to him in his dream. 

EXTRA NIGHT SONG" ■ 

Dliifiram of Time 
I r 

f r 
/ / 



Rlij/fli in ic Rendition 
I 



Give heed! We tell of Katasha holy, 

Whence the dreams come down, when draweth the night time near: 

Near the gods '' is their dwelling. 

They who watch o'er men; all silently come they down. 

a Music on page 152. ^Gods, meaning powers, is used on account of the rhythm only. 



332 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ax.v. K 

II 

Give heedl The. bird of whom we are telling 

Sends the dreams to us, when draweth the night time near; 

Kawas, she that is sending 

Holy visions, bringing, silently bringing peace. 

Ill 

Give heed! The liirds of whom we are telling 

Climb with dreams to iis. when draweth the night time near; 

Down the path they are dimlring: 

Where the gods to men are traveling come they down. 

IV 

They climb, these birds: a dream each is bearing; 

Bear they dreams to lis, when draweth the night time near; 

Kawas — she that is sending 

Down the birds with dreams: so faithful the Hako birds! 

V 

Then back they speed, the bird.s that were liringing 

Down the dreams that come when draweth the night time near: 

Birds and dreams are ascending 

Where the gods are dwelling, watching there over men. 

VI 

Now this we know in truth — where are resting 

Dreams that come to us when draweth the night time near; 

True it is that he did see them; 

In a vision saw he Katasha. where they dwell. 

EXTKA NIGHT SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



lihijth III ic Hi'iiditivii 
T 

Mother Corn! Mother Corn! We pray thee. 

Be our leader, foes entrapping! 

Trusting in thee, we wander far. yet we .see no foe; 

Food is gone, hope is dead within us. 

II 

Then in dreams Mother Corn spoke to me: 

" I will lead you. foes entrapping! 

•• Testing your courage, far have I let you go astray; 

•' Rise, my child, follow me to vicfry! " 



a Music on page 157. 



FLETCHER] TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH KITHALS 333 

EXTRA NIOHT SONO i 

Difiijrain of Time 



Rlii/flimic Rendition 
I 

As I lay sleeping, as I lay dreaming. 
Out of the distance came one advancing 

One whom I ne'er had seen before, liut when her voice addressed me. straight- 
way I knew her — 
Lo! "Twas onr Mother, she whom we know. 

II 

I rose from sleeping, my dream rememb'ring 
Her words I pondered, words of our mother. 
Then I asked of each one I met. Tell me. how far may her .shrine be? When 

I found it 
Sweet smoke I offered unto our Mother. 

THIRTEENTH RITUAL (THIRD DAY). THE FEMALE ELEMENT INVOKED 

P.\RT I. The S.\crei> Feast of Corn 

On the morning of tlu' third day the ritual of the Dawn was repeated. 
The Children gatliered at the lodge before sunrise and their morning 
meal was given tliem by the Fathers. 

On the preceding day the masculine principle, the sun, had been 
"remembered." On this day the feminine, the earth, was to be 
honoi-ed. 

The ceremonies began by the sacred feast of Corn. It followed 
closelj' upon the morning meal and was wholly ceremonial and com- 
munal in form, the people taking a spoonful from bowls that were 
passed around the lodge from one group to another. 

The corn was provided and ijreparcd by the Children, they who 
were to be the recipients of the good promised by the ITako and pre- 
figured by this act — the gift of plenty that they were to receive. 

Part II. Song to the Earth 

Tlie song lo the Earth followed the rite. Its responsive liturgical 
form calls to mind the song which opens the first ritual. Its theme 
is similar. As the ceremony proceeds, its purpose, the perpetuation 
of the clan or tribe by the gift of children, is brouglit more and more 
clearly to light. 

" Music on page l.">9. 



334 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 23 

The two songs whicli prceedc the song to the earth were sung at the 
opening of tlie public cenMnony (eighth ritual) ; they fix the mind upon 
the teaching that all power is derived from the great unseen force, 
Tira'wa atius. The power of the fructifying ray of Father Sun and the 
power of Mother Earth to bring forth, the ability to generate life and 
to conserve it, come from Tira'wa atius, the father of all. 

FIRST SONG'i 

Dingritm of Time 



Rhythmic Rend Hi on 

Father, unto thee we cry; 
Father thou of gods f' and men; 
Father thou of all we hear; 
Father thou of all we see; 
Father, unto thee we cry. 

SECOND SONGf 

Diagnim of Time 



Uln/tli III if Reiidif ion 

Fatherl Thou above, father of the gods,& 
They who can come near and touch lis, 
Do thou bid them bring us help. 
Help we need. Father, hear us! 

THIRD SONGu 

DiiKjniiii of Time 



<i Music on page 1H2. 

''The word gods, meaning powers, is used solely on account of the rhythm. 

I' AIusic on page 1k:^. 



FLETCHER] THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 335 

Rlii/tliinic ReiiiJitUni 
I 

Behold: Our Mother Earth is lying here. 
Behold! She giveth of her fruitfulness. 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Give thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here. 

II 

We think of Mother Earth who lieth here: 
We know she giveth of her fruitfulness. 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Our thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here! 

Ill 

Behold on Mother Earth the growing fields! 
Behold the promise of her fruitfulness! 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Give thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here. 

IV 

We see on Mother Earth the growing fields; 
We see the promise of their fruitfiilness. 
Truly, her power gives .she us. 
Our thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here! 

V 

Behold on Mother Earth the spreading trees! 
Behold the promise of her fruitfulness! 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Give thanks to Mother Earth wlio lieth here. 

VI 

We see on Mother Earth the spreading trees: 
We see the promise of her fruitfvtlness. 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Our thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here! 

VII 

Behold on Mother Earth the running streams! 
Behold the promise of her fruitfulness! 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Give thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here. 

VIII 

We see on Mother Earth the running streams; 
We see the promise of her fruitfulness. 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Our thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here! 



336 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. asn.22 

Part III. Offering of Smoke 

This teaehiiig is further ii<^fentiiated by the offei'iiigof smoke which 
folh:)ws the song. The feathered stem, Kawas, the mother, is used as 
the pipestem for this pui-pose. The offering of smoke is the closest 
and most sacred form of direct commnnication witli the great unseen 
130 we r. 

Part IV. SoN(is of the Birds 

In the songs of tlie Ijiids, wlucli close the daj', the people are in- 
structed in their parental duties. They must take uijon themselves 
the care of providing for their children, even before they are born; 
they are to be cheerful and Ihankful for all they recei\e; they are to 
guide and protect their families, to be watchful and faithful in storm 
and in sunshine, by day and lij' night. By following these teachings 
the}' will receive in full measure, in completeness, the gifts of the 
Ilako. 

The diagram of time of each of tlie six .songs of the birds is here 
given in the order of tlie text, but no rliythmical rendition has been 
made, as the story elaborates the meaning of each song. 

THE SONG OF THE BIRD'S NESTi 

KitKirinii <if Tiiiir 



THE SONG OF THE 'WTtENi' 

r>iiigraiii <if Tiiiic 



THE SONG OF THE TURKEY AND THE WOODPECKER- 

Ditujram of TiniP 



<i Music on page 169. '' Music on page 171. <• Music ou page 172. 



FLETCHER] 



THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH RITUALS 



337 



THE SONS OF THE DtlCKti 

Diagram <//" Time 



THE SONG OP THE OWT, fi 

Diagram of Titnc 



THE SONG OF THANKFTTLNESS u 

Diagraiii of Time 



FOURTEENTH RITUAL (THIRD NIGHT). IXVOKIXO THE VISIONS OF THE 

ANCIENTS 

On the third night the visions which in the distant past liad 
taught this ceremony to the fathers were called upon and asked to 
come from their abode on liigh, to enter the lodge and recognize tlie 
man who was to be made a Son. 

The song was an appeal for supernatural sanction of the rites whicli 
had taken place and of those which were to follow. With tliis song 
the ijublic ceremony came to an end. 

SONG •' 

Diagram of Time 



«M«sio on page 174. 
22 ETH — PT 



'' Music on page 17.5. 
-04 22 



'"Music on T)age IT 



'' Music ou page 178. 



338 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.22 

Rythmic Rendition 

I 
Oh. come hither. 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
Hither come to us! 

Thanks we give unto them. They our message will hear, 
Calling them to come. 

II 
This way come they. 
Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
Come they now this way. 

Thanks we give unto them. Coming now. they draw near, 
Coming now this way. 

Ill 
They come nearer. 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
Come they now this way. 

Thanks we give unto them. On the threshold stand they, 
Holy visions stand, 

IV 
Now they enter. 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
Enter now the lodge. 

Thanks we give unto them. Enter they the lodge now, 
Enter now the lodge. 

V 
The Son they see. 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
See him now within. 

Thanks we give unto them. Entered now, they see him, 
See the Son within, 

VI 
Now they hover. 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
Hover tis above. 

Thanks we give unto them. Pausing here above us. 
Hover they above. 

VII 
Now depart they. 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew tlieni — 
Now they go away. 

Thanks we give unto them. They are passing from tis, 
Going from the lodge. 

VIII 
Above rest they. 

Holy dreams — O'lr fathers knew them — 
Rest they now above. 

Thanks we give unto them. Where they rest we send thanks, 
Thanks send far above. 



fletcher] fifteenth ritual, part i 339 

Second Division. The Secret Ceremonies 

fifteenth ritual (fourth night) 

Part I. Thk Flocking of the Birds 

The last meal given by the Fathers was eaten by the Children dur- 
ing the forenoon of the fourth day. Afterward gifts were presented 
to the Children and they went to their homes. 

The afternoon was occupied in preparation for tlie approacliing 
secret ceremonies, which began at sunset and at which no one could 
be present but the Fathers, the Son, and his near relatives — tliose 
primarily concerned in the pi'omises of the llako. 

These ceremonies opened with a song suggesting the fulfilment of 
tlie prouiises and the joy of the people. Again we note the use of 
prefiguration at the beginning of a rite. 

This song — the flocking of birds — is in three groups of two stanzas 
each. 

The first group speaks of the flock, the old birds, with their young 
now grown, moving about with strength and power, shaking the trees 
by their numbers as they alight and rise; so .shall the people increase 
and be powerful by their numbers. 

The second group speaks of Kawas as bringing from the powers 
the gift of this increase. She comes as a special messenger. Leaving 
the flock she flies direct to the people, as the eagle flies straight to its 
nest. The lodge of the Son is her nest, and she is coming to fulfil 
the i)romise of increase. 

The third group deals with the rejoicing of the people over the 
promise received through this ceremony. The joyful noise which 
they make as they bring their thank offerings to the Fathers is like 
that of a great flock of birds. 

The song not only pictures the increased power which is to come 
to tlie people through the Hako; it also refers to the immediate joyous 
influence of the ceremonj' on the iieople, in the happiness and grati- 
tude felt in the giving and receiving of the required gifts. 

The realistic whistle, made from the wing bone of the eagle, used 
to accompany the songs of these secret ceremonies, emphasizes the 
prophetic assurances of Kawas. 

SONG'i 

Didyi-diii of Time 



'• Music on page 184. 



340 THE HAKO, A TAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.23 

R]ii/fliiiiic UciiiUtiiiii 
I 

All around the Ijinls in HoL'ks art' flying; 
Dipping, rising, oircling. see them I'oming. 
See, many birds are flocking here. 
All about us now together coming, 

II 

Yonder see the birds in flocks come flying: 
Dipping, ri.sing. circling, see them gather. 
Loud is the sound their winging makes. 
Rushing come they on the trees alighting! 

Ill 

From the flock an eagle now comes flying; 
DiiJping. rising, circling, comes she hither. 
Loud screams the eagle. fl.ving swift. 
As an eagle flies, her nestlings seeking. 

IV 

It is Kawas coming. Kawas flying: 
Dipping, rising, circling, she advances. 
See! Nearer c<:)mes she, nearer comes. 
Now, alighted, she her nest is making. 



Yonder people like the birds are flocking. 
See them circling, this side, that side coming. 
Loud is the sound their moving makes. 
As together come they, onward come they. 

VI 

Toward the lodge where sits the Son they hasten. 
Bringing forward gifts with joyful shouting. 
Hark! Now they like the eagle scream. 
Glad of heart, as when her nest she seeth. 

Part II. Thk Sixteen Circuits of the Lodge 

After the .sou?;' the Ilako were laid at rest with eeremuiiial soiiir and 
iiioveuieiit. When they were next taken up it was to make tli*^ final 
circuits of tlie lodge, sixteen in number, s^'mbolic of completion. 

The soiiijs which accompaniecl these circuits are in four groups, and 
ill tliciii are suiuiiiedtij) the teacliinu' and thi^ promises of the ceremony. 

Till' two songs of the first group refer to Mother Corn, she who had 
ojieued the wa.y and led to tlie Son, breathing forth the power of 
Mother Earth in life, food, and i)lenty. Thanks and reverence are 
given to her. 

Ill tlu^ two songs of the second group the eagle, Kawas, comes to 
the Son. Her shadow, pas.sing over him, attracts his attention and 



FLETCHER] FIFTEENTH RITUAL, RAET II 341 

he watches her and her male as they guard and cherish theii' youag 
in the nest. Then he learns that Jiis lodge is the nest; that the 
powers above, through the eagle, are sending him the pi-omise of life 
that shall fill his nest and make strong tlie people. 

The two songs of the third gnnip refer to the Hako with its prom- 
ises. The second song records the prayer of an old Ku'rahus and its 
fulfilment, and gives the assurance tliat Tira'wa answers the prayer 
of man made through the Hako ceremony. 

The four songs of the fourth group had all been previously sung. 
The fir.st two were given at the opening of the public ceremony, and 
again at the close of the sacred feast of Corn. They were now 
repeated, that the thoughts of tlie people might be turned toward 
Tira'wa alius, the father of all things, the giver of life, and to his 
messengers to man, the lesser powers. The third and fourth songs 
had been sung in the first ritual, when the feathered stems M^ere 
painted to symbolize the powers above and the powers below, the 
male and female forces, which make for the perpetuation of all living 
forms. 

The secret ceremonies contain the heart of the rite, its vital center. 
In the sequence of songs through which this center was approached 
we note a reflex of the order of the ceremony itself, a turning back 
from the external leadership of the corn and of Kawas to the silent 
prayer of the Ku'rahus, the appeal to Tira'wa atius as symbolically 
present. 

At the close of the last circuit of the lodge the Ilako were laid at 
rest with ceremonial song and movement for the last time. Midnight 
had passed, and the Children went to their homes, leaving the Fathers 
alone in the lodge to watch for tlie dawn. 

FIRST SONG.i 

Dingrnm of Time 



Hi/flimic Rendition 
I 

Look on her! She who .sought far and near for a Soul 
Look on herl She who ]e<l from afar unto you! 
Look on her, Mother Corn, breathing life on us alll 

II 

Thanks we give unto }ier who came liere for a Son! 
Thanks we give unto her who has led us to you! 
Thanks we give. Mother Corn, breathing life on us all! 

>' Music on page 188. 



342 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEKEMONY [eth. akn. 23 

SECOND SONG ' 

DiiKjraiit iif Tiine 



liythmic Ri-nditiun 
I 

Rev'rent our hearts tnrn unto the one who brings to us 

Long life and children, peace, and the gifts of strength and food. 

Rev'rent our hearts turn unto our Mother Cornl 

II 

Rev"rent our hearts turn unto the source whence come to us 
Long life and children, peace, and the gifts of strength and food, 
Gifts from Tira wa, sent through our Mother Corn. 

THIRD SONO'i 

Diagram uf Time 



Ri/thmic Reiiditiun 
I 

O'er the prairie flits in ever widening circles the shadow of a bird about me as I 

walk: 
Upward turn my eyes, Kawas looks upon me. she turns with flapping wings and 

far away she flies. 

II 

Round about a tree in ever widening circles an eagle flies, alertly watching o'er 

his nest: 
Loudly whistles he, a challenge sending far. o'er the country wide it echoes, there 

defying foes. 

FOURTH BONO 

Diagram of Time 



liliytlimic Reuditivii 
I 

Kawa.s"fljang where her nestlings now are crj-ing: loudly cry they when they hear 

her wings: 
Kawas flying, cry her children, as they hear her come. 

'Tis Kawas who now homeward comesi 'Tis Kawas who now homeward comes; 
Quickly fl>'ing as she hears her young ones in the nest. 

<• Musip on page 189. 6 Music on page 191. <■ Miisio on page 19:S. 



FLETCHER] FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 343 

II 

Kawas flying, o'er us flying, we her nestlings cry for joy as now we see her come; 
Kawas flying! Glad our hearts as now we see her come. 
'Tis Kawas brings to lis good giftsi "Tis Kawas Imngs to us good gifts! 
Kawas brings gifts to us; we. like her nestlings, cry. 

FIFTH SONGi 

Dili gram of Timi' 



Rhythmic Rendition 
I 

Atira (-omes. .slie brings you life, she gives yoii joy; to her give thanks as she 

draws near. 
Now in the lodge before our eyes Atira movts; 
Look upon her who l.irings you life, who gives yoii joy. Oh, offer thanks to 

Mother Corn! 

II 

The Hako comes within the lodge, it walks within; let us give thanks as it draws 

near. 
Now in the lodge with Mother Corn the Hako moves; 
Thanks do we give for all the joy it brings to us, the children here, from realms 

above. 

SIXTH SONG'' 

Diagniiii of Ti)iic 



Rli i/fli III /(• Ren (lit ion 



I know not if the voice of man can reach to the sky; 
I know not if the mighty one will hear as I pray; 
I know not if the gifts I ask will all granted be: 
I know not if the word of old we truly can hear; 
I know not what ^vill come to pass in our futiire days; 
I hope that only good will come, my children, to you. 

" Music on page 19.5. 1^ Music on page 106. 



3-44 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ANN.aa 

II 

I iiiiw know tliat the voice of man can reach to the sky; 
I now know that the mighty one has heard as I prayed; 
I now know that the gifts I asked have all gi-anted been; 
I now know that the word of old we trnly have lieard; 
I now know that Tira wa harkens unto man's prayer; 
I know that only good has come, my children, to you. 

SEVENTH SONG " 

Diiigrain of Time 



Jill jjtii mil- Rend it inn 

Father, unto thee we cry! 
Father thon of gods and men; 
Father thou of all we hear; 
Father thou of all we see. 
Father, \into thee we cry! 

EIGHTH SONG' 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Renditmn 

Father! Thou above, father of the gods. 
They who can come near and touch us; 
Do thou bid them bring us help. 
Help we need: Father, hear iisl 

NINTH SONG'' 

Diagram if Time 



a Music on page 199. ^ Music on page 200. 



FLETiHEH] FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH RITUALS 345 

Kliythmic Rendifioit 

Take we now tlie blue paint. 

Touch with it the st»;m, irattiiii; cm tlie sacred syiiil)ol. 

Emblem of the clear sky. 

Where dwell the gods, who, desceudinf<. In-iiif? us Ki")d gifts, 

Gifts of life and plenty. 

TENTH SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



Riii/thtnic Rendition 

Take we now the green paint. 

Touch with it the stem, the mated stem; 

Putting on the emblem, the sacred and living symbol. 

Mother Earth. 

From above descending, bountiful blessing on thee. 

Mother Earth! 

SIXTEENTH RITUAL (FIFTH DAY, DAWN) 

Part I. Seeking the Child 

At the first sign of dawn the Ku rahus ami his assistants, with the 
principal men of the Ilako party, started for tlie lodge of the Son, 
there to seek his child and perforin certain rites .symbolic of birth. 
It is to be noted that these rites took place at the same hour as the 
singing- of the Dawn ritual, which celebrated the mysterious birth of 
day. 

The}- sang the flr.st song of the ritual as they started, but when they 
were nearing their destination they repeated the song they had sung 
when they were about to enter the village of the Son (sixth ritual, 
second song). 

The repetition of .songs sung in the earlier part of the ceremony 
had the effect of tying back the later acts to those which were pre- 
paratory in character, and tended to consolidate tlie entire ceremony. 
When this song was sung for the first time the Father was .seeking 
the Son, to whom he was bringing promises of good; when it was 
sung the second time the Father was seeking the child of the Son, 
that on it the promises brought might be fulfilled. 

Of this part of the ceremony not only every detail, with its special 
meaning, but the function of each article used had l)een prefigured. 

1 Music on page 20(L 



346 THE HAKO, A VAWNKE CEREMONT [kth. Ann. 28 



FIRST SONGi 



Diayrain uf Time 



Rlujtiimic liciiilifidii 

With the dawn will I seek, seek my child, 
Among the Children .seek 
One the gods '' shall here make; 
My offspring, my own child. 

SECONT) SONG ■ 

Diagram of Time 



RJii/fliiiiic lieiiilition 

I 

Where is he. the Son? 
Where his dwelling place that I seek? 
Which can be his lodge, where he sits 
Silent, waiting, waiting there for me? 

II 

Here is he. the Son. 
Here his dwelling place that I seek; 
This here is his lodge where he sits 
Silent, waiting, waiting here for me. 

Part II. Symbolic Inception 

The warriors — tlie male element — were the first to cuter the lodsje, 
in warlike fashion, as if to capture and hold it .securely. The cliild 
was first touched by the representative of Kawas, that it might be 
given endurance; then it was touched by the chief, that it might be 
wise. After the warriors had performed their part, the Ku'rahus 
entered singing the song which had been sung when the messenger 
rei)resenting the Son was received outside the village (sixth ritual, 
first song). At that time he looked upon one who was to lead him to 
the Son; now he is looking upon the child which represents the con- 
tinuation of the life of the Sou. 



a Music on page 202. 6 The word is used becauise of the i-hythm. 

'■ See sixth ritual: :nusic ou page 203. 



FLETCHER] SIXTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 347 

FIRST SONO' 

Diayrain of Time 



Rlti/fliDiic Rendition 
I 

Now oni- eyes look on him who is here: 
He is as the Son we have sought: 
He brings us again tidings of the Son: 
'■ Fatlier, come to me. here I sit 
Waiting here for thee." 

The Ku'raluis first touched tlie child with the ear of corn (second 
song), singing- the same song as when the eai- of corn made its myste- 
rious journey to the sky and received its authority to lead in the cere- 
mony (first ritual, fiftli song). The power granted at that time was 
for this ultimate purpose, to make the paths and open the way for the 
child to receive the gift of fruitfulness. 

SECONB SONG'' 

Diagnnii of Time 



Rhyth III ic Reiiditio7i 

I 

Tira wa. harkeu! Mighty one 

Above us in bhie, silent sky! 

We standing wait thy bidding here: 

The Mother Corn standing waits, 

Waits to serve thee liere: 

The Mother Corn stands waiting here. 



a See sixth ritual. Music on page 2(M. ''Music on page a)5. 



348 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. axn. 22 

II 

Tira \va, liarken! Mighty one 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

We flying seek thy dwelling there; 

The Mother Corn flying goes 

Up to seek thee there; 

Tlie Mother Corn goes flying up. 

Ill 

Tira'wa. barken! Mighty one 
Above us in blue, silent sky! 
We touch upon thy country fair; 
The Mother Corn touches there 
Upon the border land; 
The Mother Corn is touching there. 

IV 

Tira wa. harken! Mighty one 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

The path we reach leads up to thee; 

The Mother Corn enters there. 

Upward takes her way: 

The Mother Corn to thee ascends. 



Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one 
Above lis in blue, silent sky! 
Behold! We in thy dwelling stand; 
The Mother Corn, standing there, 
Leader now is made; 
The Mother Cora is leader made. 

VI 

Tira wa, harken! Mighty one 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

The downward path we take again; 

The Mother Corn, leading us. 

Doth thy symbol bear; 

The Mother Corn with power leads. 

'I'hcu the Ku'raluis united the two featliered slein.s, the male and 
the female (third song), and with them touched the cliild, following 
witli the gift of procreation tlie paths opened by the corn. 

THIRD SONG (I 



Diityriim iif Tiini' 



« Music on page 206. 



PLETCHEii] SIXTEENTH RITUAL 349 

Rlnithnilf Ri'H(Ution 

I 

Here stand we while upmi Tira wa now we wait: 

Here Kawas stands, her mate with her is standing here: 

They both are standing, waiting, bringing gifts with them. 

II 

We flying are, as on Tira wa now we wait; 

Here Kawas fiies. her mate with her is flying liere: 

They both are fl>-ing. flying with the gifts they bring. 

Ill 

We touching are. as on Tira wa now we wait: 

Now Kawas and her mate the child so gently touch: 

Its forehead touch they, there they gently touch the child. 

IV 

We ofrning are, as on Tira wa now we wait 

The four straight paths upon the child we open here. 

Where soon descending from on high shall flow new life. 



We spreading are. as on Tira wa now we wait: 

Here Kawas spreads, her mate with her is spreading here: 

New life and power, the gifts that they ai-e bringing here. 

VI 

We finished are. as on Tira wa now we wait; 
The task of Kawas with her mate accomplished is. 
And all the work they came to do is finished now. 

Pakt III. AcTicix Symbolizing Lifk. 

The child, ^^u^l•()Ullded by tlie creative forces, i.s urged to move, to 
arise as the fii'st song is sung. 

FIRST SONGd 

Dirigniiii of Time 



Rhi/tlnnir Rendition 

I am ready: come to me now, fearing nothing: come now to me here! 
Little one. come, come to me here: fearing nothing, comfl 

Tlieu it was made to take four steps, symbolic of life, of long life, 
ilui-ing the singing of the second song. 

In the symbolizing, within the lodge of the Son, of the gift of birth 
by tlie power of the Hako, brought thither bj' the Father, we get a 
glimpse of the means by which the tie between the two unrelated men, 

" Mus'c on patje 211. 



350 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

the Father and the Sou, was supiwsed to be formed; namely, the life 
of the Son was perpetuated through the gift of fruitfulness to his 
child, supernatnrally bestowed by the Hako; consequently the Father 
who brought the Hako became symbolically the father of the future 
progeny of the Son. 

SECOND SONG 11 

Ditiyrain (if Time 



Rlii/flniiir Rendition 

Stepping forward is my child, he forward steps, the four steps takes and enters 

into life: 
Forward stepping, four steps taking, enters into life. 

The child was taken upon the back of one of the party and led the 
way to the ceremonial lodge, followed by the Ku'rahus and all the 
rest singing the third song. 

THIHD SONG a 

Diayntm of Time 



Riiyflimic Rendition 

Here we go singing, looking on the child 
Borne in his father's arms, he leading us; 
Follow we .singing, looking on the child. 

SEVENTEENTH RITUAL 

Part I. TorcHixu the Child 

On reaching the lodge the child was seated at the holy place and 
suri'ounded by the Ku'rahus and his assistants with the llako, and 
guarded by a wall of warriors, while an old man prepared it for the 
further reception of the promised gifts. 

On the j)receding night water had been taken from a stream ; this 
water was now put into a bowl. Every detail of this act was symbolic. 
The time when the water was ol>tained was night, the mother of day; 
running water symbolized the contiuuity of life, one generation fol- 
lowing another; the bowl which held the water resembled in its shape 
the dome of the sky, the abode of the powers which bestowed life. 

The child was touched with the water upon X]w head and face, an 
invisible outline being made, which afterward was to become distinct. 
This first touching with water, one of the lesser powers, was to cleanse 
and give strength. 



I' Music on page 212. 



*v.. ^ % 



FLETCHER] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 351 

The souj^ (first) >vhic]i accompanied this act is in three musical 
phrases and six stanzas. Again the symbolism of number, already 
noted, is suggested. 

TTRST SONG 'I 

Diaijntiit Iff Time. 



liJn/fli lit ic Hi'ndifioH 
I 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here; 
Behold, my childl waiting here to liring the gift of strength to yon. 
Give heed, my child. Look: Water waits to bring to you gift of strength 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is flying here; 

Behold, my childl fl>-ing here to bring the gift of strength to you. 

Give heed, my child. Lciokl Water flies to bring to you gift of strength. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching here: 
Behold, my childl touching here your head, to bring the gift of strength. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Water, touching, brings to you gift of strength. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes. Ijehold the one who now follows here. 
Behold, my child! Now the paths it follows, paths where the gods descend. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Water down the four straight paths brings its gift. 



Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is spreading here; 
Behold my child! cleansing you. and spreading o"er you gift of strength. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Water spreading over you gift of strength. 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has brought you strength. 

Behold, my childl Strength you have and finished is the task. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Water now has brought to you gift of strength. 

Following the outline made Ijy the water, the head and face of the 
child were next touched with grass, the representative of Toliaru, the 
verdant covering of the earth. 

The song (second) sung during this act is in tlie ihytluu of tlie first. 

In these two acts we note that "the order in which the powers come 
near to man," .shown in the opening song of tlie first ritual, is observed 
in this rite. In that opening song, after the Winds, the Sun, and the 
Earth had brought life to man, food and drink were given that his 

a Music on page SLi. 



352 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [f.th. axx. 22 

life ]nia;ht he sustained. So, after the symbolic birth in the lodge of 
the Son, the ehild was touched liy water and the jiroduct of the earth, 
that it might receive from them sustaining power. 

SECOND SONOo 

Difigrdiii of Timi' 



Hh iitlnii ic Ri'iiilif inn 
I 

Give heed, my child, lift your eye.s. liebold the one who is standin,;; here: 

Behold, my child! waiting here to bring the gift of food to yoii. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Grass now waits to bring to you gift of food. 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift yonr eyes, behold the one who is flying here: 

Behold, my cliildl flying here to bring the gift of food to you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Grass now flies to bring to you gift of food. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, liehold the one who is touching here; 

Behold, my child! touching here ycmr head to bring the gift of fond. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Grass now touching brings to you gift of food. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one wh(_> now follows here. 
Behold, my child! Now it follows the paths where the gods descend. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Grass now down the four straight paths brings its 
gift. 

^' 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes. Ijehold the one who is spreading here: 
Behold, my child! spreading plenty o'er you, promised gift of food. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Grass is spreading o'er you gift of food. 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has brought you food. 

Behold, my child! Food you have received, and finished is the task. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Grass has now here brought you the gift of food. 

Part II. Axointix<; the Child 

Tile oi'der of tlie op(Miiiii;' song is followed still fui-rlicr in the 
anointing of tlie ehild. 

Tlie seventh stanza of the opening song speaks of Kiisliaru, the 
holy place, set apart for the observance of rites. The Ku'ralms 
exj)lained that "the first act of a man" nmst be to .set apart such a 
place, "where new life could be given." Following this order, the 
child was anointed and bj' this act of consecration set apart as tlie 
center of the rites which were to follow. 

The song of this act follows the rhythm of the two preceding. 



> Music on page 219. 



FLETfHEH] SEVENTEP^NTH RITUAL 353 

SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



Hhi/fluiiic Ri'iidition 
I 

Give heed, luy child, lift your eye.s. behold the one who is standing here. 

Behold, my child! waiting now to fit and set you here apart. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred ointment now is here come to .you. 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is flying here. 

Behold, my child! flying here to make a consecrated child. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Ointment flies to consecrate you. my cliild. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching liere, 

Behold, my child! touching here your head, as consecrating you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred ointment touches tiixm your head. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who now follows here. 
Behold, my child! Now the paths it follows, paths where the gods descend. 
Give lieeil , my child. Look ! Ointment down the four straight paths comes to you. 

V 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is spreading here. 

Behold, my child! Sacred ointment, spreading, consecrates you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred ointment over you spreads its power, 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has holy made. 

Behold, my child! Yon are set apart, and finished is the task. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred ointment now has set you apart. 

Part III. Painting thk Child 

The red paint put on tlie child's head and face .sj'nibolized the 
dawn, the rising sun. Tlie cok)r was spread over tlie entire face to 
represent "the full radiance of the sun," "giving to the child its 
vigor of life." 

The song and the rest of the songs of tliis ritual are in the same 
rliythm as the ijreceding. 

SONG '■ 

Diagram of Timi- 



" Music on page 323. I> Music on pa^^e 227. 

22 ETH — PT 2 — 04 23 



354 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 23 

Rhyth III ic Rriidifioii 
I 

Give heed, iny child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standiii.u- here, 

Behold, my child 1 waiting here to hring the gift of life to yon. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint waits, the vigor of life to bring. 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift yonr eyes, behold the one who is flying here, 

Behold, my child! flying here to bring the gift of life to yon. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint flies, the vigor of life to bring. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching here. 

Behold, my child! touching here your head to bring the gift of life. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint touches, the vigor of life to bring. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eye,s. behold the one who now follows here. 
Behold, my child! Now the path it follows, paths where gods descend. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint follows, vigor of life to bring. 



Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is spreading here. 

Behold, my child! over you is sjiread the glowing gif ; of life. 

Give heed, my child. See! Red paint brings the vigor of life to you, 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift yoiir eyes, behold the one who has brouglit yon life. 

Behold, my child! Life you have received and finished is the task. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint leaves the vigor of life witli yon. 

The next act was tlie paiiitinjj; of the child's face witli blue, the eolor 
of the sky, the abode of Tira'wa atiiis. 

The design outlined by the water, the grass, the ointment, ami the 
red paint was now clearly seen — an arch, crossing the forehead and 
resting on the cheeks, from the middle of which a line was drawn 
downward on the nose. This design was said to "picture the face 
of Tira'wa." The arch was tlie dome of the sky, his abode; the line, 
falling from the zenith, was tlie breath of Tira'wa descending on the 
child, meeting its breath. 

We are told that this design came from the constellation Corona 
Borealis and was the insignia of a chief, as he who leads does so by 
the authority of Tira'wa and must bear his sign on the face. In 
this ceremony this design, taken in connecliou with the symbols next 
placed on the child, seems to represent the presence of the power, 
"the father of all things." 



FLETCHER] SEVENTEENTH KITUAL 355 



SONG" 

Diagram nf Time 



Rhythm ic Ri'iidition 

I 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here. 

Behold, my child.' waiting here to make the sign of him above. 

Give heed, my cliild. Lookl Bine paint waits to bring to yon sign of him 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift yoiir eyes, behold the one who is flying here, 

Behold, my (-hild! flying here to make the sign of him above. 

Give heed, my child. Lookl Bine paint flies to bring to yon sign of him, 

III 

Give heed, my child, lift yoiir eyes, behold the one who is touching here. 

Behold, my child! touching here to make the sign of him above. 

Give heed, my child. Lookl Blue paint touches, bringing you sign of him. 

lY 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who now follows here. 

Behold, my child! tracing here the arching dome, his dwelling place. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Blue paint makes the line of the breath of life. 



Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is spreading here, 

Beh<:ild. my child! spreading on your face the sacred lines of lilue. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred now the jricture the blue paint makes. 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has brought the sign. 
Behold, my child! brought to you the sign. Accomplished now the task. 
Give heed, my child. Lookl Blue paint now has left with you sign of him. 

Part IV. Pl-tting ox the Symbols 

Eagle down was next put upon the head of the ehikl. Tlie down 
was taken from under the wing, "close to the heart" of "the white 
eagle, the father of the child," so representing the eagle's "breatli 
and life." It also typified the high, liglit clouds, and when the child's 
head was covered with it the Ku'rahus said : "The head of the conse- 
crated child now rests in the soft white clouds which float near the 
dwelling place of Tira'wa atius," 

It is noticeal)le that the song of this act has live stanzas, indicating 
the five motions, the four directions and the above. 

"Music on page 281. 



356 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 2S 



FIRST SONG'i 

Diagram of Time 



Rhijtli ni ic Rendition 

I 

Give lieeil. my fhild. lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here, 

Behold, my child! waiting here to bring the sign of clouds above. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Down of eagle waits with the sign of clouds. 

II 
Give heed, my child, lift your I'yes. behold the one who is flying here. 
Behold, my child! flying here to bring the sign of clouds to you. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Down of eagle flies with the sign of clouds. 

Ill 

Give lieed. niy (/hild. lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching here. 
Behold, mj' child! t:)uching here your head to bring the sign of clouds. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Down of eagle touches and brings the clouds. 

IV 
Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is dropping here. 
Behold, my child! drops ijn you the sign of fleecy tdouds al)0ve. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred symbol dropping upon your head. 

y 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has laid on you, 
BelKild. my child! sign (if fleecy clouds that near Tira wa float. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Rests on you sign of the clouds above. 

With tlie following song' a white downy featlier was tied on the head 
of the child . The Ku'rahu.s said : "This feather, which is ever moving, 
as if it were breathing, represents Tira'wa, who dwells beyond the bine 
sky which is above the soft white clouds." 

This feather was double; it had a little plume like a branch, to 
stand for the child. The larger feather symbolized Tira'wa. 

The soug has live stanzas like the preceding. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Ih'driniiii of Time 



Rliiillnnir Rendition 

I 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, Ix-liold the one wlw is standing here. 

Behold, my child! waiting here to bring the last great gift to yt>u. 

Give heed, my child. Look ! Waits to bring the emblem the Father sends. 



" Music oil pasri' ;."".."). ^ Miisir on pajje 2:38. 



FLETCHER] SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH EITUALS 357 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is ilymg here, 

Behold, my childl flying here to bring the last great gift to you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Flies to bring the emblem the Father send.s. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching you. 
Behold, my child! with the last great gift touching now your head; 
Give heed, my child. Lookl Touches with the emblem the Father sends. 

IV 
Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is placing here, 
Behold, my child! on your head is placing now the sonship sign; 
Give heed, my child. Look! Placing there the emblem the Father send.s. 

V 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has left on you. ' 

Behold, my child! left on you Tira wa's breathing feather sign. 

Give heed, my child. Look! On yon rests the emblem the Father sent. 

When the child was thus decorated, it was told to look at the reflec- 
tion of its face in the bowl of water. To quote the words of the 
Ku'rahus: "The little clii Id looks upon the water and sees its own 
likeness, as it will see tliat likeness in its children and children's 
children. Tlie face of Tira'wa is there also, giving promise that the 
life of the child shall go on, as the water flows over the land." 

After this prophetic view, a black covering was put over the child's 
head. The symbols were not for the people to see; they were holy and 
belonged only to the powers. 

In the final disposition of the water remaining in the bowl there is 
a hint of other and older rites, fragments of wiiicli appear in the 
Hako ceremony. 

EIUHTEENTH RITUAL. FULFIL.MEXT PREFIGURED 
Part I. Makinu thk Nest 

During the singing of tlie next .song the movements of the feathered 
stems simulated the flight of eagles. The white eagle passed through 
the line of warriors by the south, the masculine side of the lodge, and 
the brown eagle by the north, the feminine side. The white eagle 
flew back and forth in front of tlie warriors, enacting the protecting 
dut}' of the male, while the brown eagle flew to tlie fireplace and 
made a circle, a nest, at eacli of the four directions. 

Tlie location of these four nests, coiresponding to the four |)aths^ 
indicated a desire that the powers might descend on them. Tliis 
desire was also manifested by the outlining of the circles witli down, 
the symbol of the high clouds " which float near the abode of Tira'wa." 
The bits of fat dropped within the circles were not only a prayer for 
l)lenty. but also a jiiomisc thai the i)rayer would lie gi'aiitcd. 'I'jie 



358 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. anx.22 

oriole's uest represented security. The four circles ;uoinul the fire as 
made by the Ku'rahiis carrying the brown-feathered stem pictured to 
tlio Pawnees the promise of children, the gifts of plenty and of peace 
from the powers above. 

SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



Rlii/fhinic Rendition 



Behold where two eagles come forth! 

Now they soar high over head: 

See where one flies, watching flies, guarding he 

His mate who has gone to her nest, dropping there; 

'Tis Kawas who brings there new life. 

P.\RT II. Symbolic Fulfilment 

The little child was put within each of these prophetic circles, its 
feet touching the nest and the promised plenty. Four times it was 
taken around the fireplace and each time it touched the four circles. 
The child was covered during the act of putting its feet in the nest. 
TJiis act symbolized the birth of children, a mystery to man, as "only 
Tira'wa could know when generation would take place." 

This simulated fulfilment of tlie ])romise of the Hako completed 
the .sequence of acts in the drama of hirtli. 

SONG '■ 

Diagram of Time 



Rlii/flimic ReiitliHoti 

Within the nest the child re.sts its little feet, 
Awaiting there the gift sent by gods above: 
Descending there to him comes the ijromised life. 

Part III. Thank Offering 

The offering of sweet smoke followed immediately. As the smoke 
ascended all the articles of the llako were waved through it, the child 
was touched with it, and all the i^eojile passed their hands through it. 

The sweet smoke offering was given that the powers above might 

" Music on page 242. I' Music on page 245. 



FLETCHEK] EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH RITUALS 359 

know that the ceremony had been carried out in accordance with the 
teacliings given to the fathers in the visions. Its odor reached the 
abode of Tira'wa, bearing the touch of all faithful participants in 
the rite. 

After the offering of smoke all traces of the nests were obliterated, 
the coals nsed for the offering of smoke were returned to the fire, and 
the lodge once more was open to all the people. 

Third Division. The Dance of Thanks 

nineteenth ritual 
Part I. The Call to the Children 

The purpose of the rite was recognized l)y the important place given 
to children in this part of the ceremony. The ponies presented to the 
Fathers were each lead up by a little child; the acting out of a man's 
warlike deeds was to honor his child, and the little child with the 
black covering upon its head and the picture of Tira'wa upon its face 
I'eceived, with the chief, the .gifts as they were presented. 

In every instance the child was the tie between the two groups, the 
Fathers and the Children. 

FIRST SONGn 

Diagram of Time 



Rlii/fliiiiii: Hviiditio)L 

Harken! List! We are calling .vou. Come! Come! Children, come! 

Come! We're ready and waitius.yonr Father's waiting. Come! Children, come! 

Hear ns calling, calling yon! Children, come! 

Children, come! Come hither! 

Harken! List as we call you, call to the Children to come. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Diayram of Time 



" Music on page 249. 6 Music on page 250. 



360 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 
Rhijtli III ic Eenditioii 



[f:TH. ANX.22 



Ready and waiting, we call you, loud we call you. loudly call; 

"Come to us, Children," call we loudly, call we long: Oh, come! 

Came! Come! Come! 

Hear us calling, calling. Children! Oh, come! 

Hear us calling, come to us herel Come! 

THIRD SONG'i 

Dlagrinn nf Time 



Rlii/flimir Reiiiiitiiin 

Look, where they come, .see them, see them, young ones and old ones! 

Look! Here they come, this way, that way flocking together. 

Hither they come, shouting like eagles. 

Shouting come. 

Joyous, happy, gladly come they, gaily coming, coming hither. 

See where they come, flocking like birds, .shouting like eagles 

As they come to the Fathers. 

Part II. The Dance and the Reception of Gifts 

The two young men as they danced waved liigh above their head.s 
the feathered steni.s and simulated by their movements the Hying and 
sporting of birds. The lightness and beautj' of this final dance can 
never be forgotten by one who lias been so fortunate as to see it well 
executed. 

DANCE SONG'' 

Diagram if Tinu- 



DANCE SONG I- 

Diagram of Time 



"Music on p. 251. 



''Musio r.in p. 2-5-1. 



'■ Music on p. 2-5,5, 



fletcher] twentieth kttual 361 

Fourth Division. Presentation of the Hako 

twentieth ritual 

Part I. Blessing the Child 

At the close of the dance and the reception of gifts by tlie Fathers, 
tlie little child was again taken to the holy place and once more 
touched with the Hako upon all sides, from tlie east, the south, the 
west, and the nortli. 

The song accompanying these movements was "'a prayer to call 
down the breath of Tira'wa '' uixni t In- chi Id that had been consecrated. 

SONG 1 

Diagram of Time 



Bi/tliiiiic Rendition 

Breathe on him I 

Breathe on him I 

Life thoii alone canst give to him. 

Long life, we pray. Oh Father, give unto him! 

Part II. Presextino the Hako to the Sox axl> Thaxks to the Children 

The Father (the chief) then removed the emblems from the face of 
the child, using for the i:)urpose the fur of the wildcat, and took the 
covering and the symbols from its head. These with the Hako he 
rolled together within the wildcat skin and placed the l>undle in tlie 
arms of the child. 

The Hako, which had been tlie medium of Ijringing the promises, 
was carried l\v the recipient of these promises, the little child, to its 
father, the Son, who received them from the hands of his offspring. 

The tie had now been formed, and tlie little child was relea.sed from 
its syml)olic duties and ran out into the sunlight to join its playmates. 
Within the lodge the Fathers thjinked the Children, and the people 
departed to their daih' avocations. 

While the various articles of the Hako were generally scattered at 
the close of the ceremony, the two feathered .stems were preserved 
intact and frequently passed from tribe to tribe as long as they held 
together. Sometimes the Son was unwilling to part witli those pre- 
sented him, so, when he inaugurated a party, he had a new set made 
with the i^roper ceremony. At all times and under all conditions tlie 
feathered steins were never handled carelessly, but were treated with 
respeetand their sacred characterwas remembered. During the entire 
time Tahi'riissawichi was engaged upon this ceremony he never allowed 



a Music on p. 2.iT 



362 THK HAKC), A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.axn.22 

the feathered stems to be placed on the floor or hiid upon a chair; 
they were always cai'efnlly deposited on the wildcat skin with a 
decorum that was not once abated. 

The Hako ceremony seems to have been peculiarly adapted to 
impress the mind of the people and to win their eonfldence and affec- 
tion. It was picturesque, varied in movement, and communal in 
feeling. Its songs were rhythmic and attractive, and frequently 
choral in form, particularly tliose belonging to the public ceremony, 
where all, young and old, joined in the melodj' as the feathered stems 
were swayed over tlieir heads when the Ku'rahus and liis assistants 
made the circuits of the lodge. 

The teachings of the public ceremony were general in character. 
They emphasized, on the one haud, man's dependence ou the super- 
natural for all the gifts of life, and on the other hand, his dependence 
on the family tie for the gifts of peace and happiness. The specific 
teachings were reserved for the Son. These began in the ritual to 
tlie Dawn (tenth ritual) on the morning of the second and third days, 
which prefigured the secret ceremonies of the fifth morning, when the 
bond of the family relation was extended beyond blood kinship through 
the sjanbolic rites which recognized the common source of life in 
Tira'wa atins. 

Looking over the entire ceremony, it is interesting to note how older 
rites have had their share in the development of tlie Hako, aiid how 
the trend of thought among the native seers has borne them toward a 
conception of tlie brotherhood of man, a conception recognized as the 
noblest known to the liumaji family. 

Incidental Kituals 
comforting the child 

The incidental rituals could be called for and given during the 
lDul)lic ceremony. 

The three songs wliich belong to the first ritual have a common 
musical motive, but tliis motive is treated differently in each song 
so as to conform to the movement of the ceremony. 

The appeal of the parents to the Ku'rahus is in the first song passed 
on to Kawas. It is sung by the Ku'rahus at the holy place as he 
waves the brown-eagle feathered stenu The words are in the nature 
of a prayer, the music lias the swing of a lullaby. 

FIKST BONO a 

Diagram of Time 



" Mnsir on p. fifil. 



FLETCHER] INCIDEKTAL RITUALS 303 

Rhythmic liimdition 

Kawas. barken; thy baby is crying! 

It grieveth, walling and weeping and crying so sore. 

Ah! It cries, crieth so sorely; 

Kawas. hasten, thy little one cryetli so sore. 

Tlie second song was sung as the Ku ralms and his assistant walked 
toward the eliild. In the nmsic. one hears the coming of Tira'wa in 
the footsteps of his creatures, both great aud small. 

SECOND SONQn 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Father cometh, now he cometh; 
See him, little one; hark! his footsteps! 
With him. see! coming are the eagles. 
All are coming now to thee. 

The third song is sung as the brown-eagle feathered stem is wa^ed 
over the little child, who " looks up and smiles.'' 

The caressing, almost playful, rhythm of the mtrsic twine.s about the 
religious feeling expressed in the words like the arms of an infant 
about the neck of its thougtful, reverent parent. 

THIRD SONG!) 

Diagram of Time 



RJiythmic Rendition 

I 

Look, my child, who is coming tinto yon; 

Look np, my little one, now your trouble goes away, away: 

Look! Above you flies one who guards you, 

Whose presence brings you joy. Now your sorrow has departed. 

II 

Ah, you look! See the eagles flying over you. 

From up above they come, from the clear blue sky where Father dwells; 

They to you this peace-bringing solace give. 

A happy little child now is smiling here light-hearted. 

K Music on page 262. '' Music on page 263. 



364 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. as.n. 22 



PRAYP:R to AVERT STORMS 

EONG'i 

Jhiii/rttni uf Tiiiir 



PRAYER FOR THE (iTFT OF CiriEDREN 

FIRST SONG '■ 

J>i(i(ir<(iii (if Time and Hlii/fliin 



SECOND SONG '■ 

DiiKjrain (if Time 



THIRD SONG'' 

I)i(tijr(im (if Time 



FOURTH SONGf 

I)i(i(jram (if Time 



CHANGING A MAN S NAME 



Before the graphophone record was taken the Ku'rahus engaged in 
silent prayer, after which he eutoned the ritual. Rather a high pitch 
was taken for the recital, probalily from habit, as the ritual was 
always given in the hearing of a multitude. 

The words were sejiarated into syllables. Sometimes an entire word 
or parts of two words were represented by a single syllable, and eacli 
syllable in the ritual was uttered as though it were a complete word. 

(' Music oil page 26fi. c Music nn page 2(>9. ^ Mxisic on page 2") , 

^ Music on page 268. <' Music on page 2711. 



FLETiHEH] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 3(>5 

Mr Murie spent thrci^ days in tlie Iranslalion and study of the 
ritual, assisted by the Kuialius, who explained many points that 
were somewhat obscure, owing to elisions, the emploj'ment of a single 
word as a mnemonic to call up tiie picture of a complicated action, 
and the forcing of words to a different application from thai of ordi- 
nary speech — a not uncommon occurrence in rituals. Thv latter 
carefully watched the work lest mistakes should be made, remarking 
that the ritual "speaks of the powers above, of wliom man should l)e 
careful what he says." 

There is one aspect of the ritual, essential to its understanding, that 
was carefully explained by the Ku'rahus, and the substance of many 
conversations on the subject follows. A man's life is an onward move- 
ment. If one has within him a determined purpose and seeks the 
help of the powers his life will ■'elimb up." Here the Ku'rahus made 
a gestui'e indicating a line slanting upward; then he arrested the 
movement and, still holding his hand where he had stopped, went on 
to saj^ that as a man is climl)ing up he does something that marks a 
place in his life where the powers have given him the opportunity to 
express in acts his peculiar endowments, so this place, this act, forms 
a stage in his career, and he takes a new name to indicate that he is 
on a level different from that which he occupied previou.sly. Some 
men, he said, can rise only a little way, others live on a dead level, 
and he illustrated his words by moving his hands horizontallj'. Men 
having X30wer to advance, climb step by step, and here again he made 
his idea plain by a gesture picturing a slant, then a level, a slant, and 
a level. In this connection he called attention to the words, in line 
1359, "rutu'rahwitz pari," "to overtake walking," saying that the 
people who desire to have a name, or to change their name, must 
strive to overtake in the walk of life an upper level, such a one as 
these ancient men spoken of in tlie ritual had reached, where they 
threw away the names b.y which they had been known before. 
"Rutu'rahwitz pari," is a call to the Pawnees, bidding them emulate 
these men and overtake them by the doing of like deeds. 

Three facts connected with the Pawnee custom of taking a new 
name should l)e stated: 

First. A man was permitted to take a name only after the perform- 
ance of an act indicative of ability or strength of character. 

vSecond. The name had to be assumed openly liefore the people to 
whom the act it commemorated was known. 

Third. It was necessary that it should be announced in connection 
with such a ritual as that here given. 

These facts indicate (1) that a man's name stood for what he had 
shown himself to be in the light of hi.s actions; (-) that this was recog- 
nized by his tribesmen; and (3) that it was proclaimed by one having 
in charge the mediatory rites through which man could be approached 
by the supernatural. 



366 THE HAKO, A PAWNEK CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

The ritual is in three parts. 'I'he first gives a Ijrief narration of tlie 
institution of the custom of elianging the name in consequence of 
some new achievement. The second shows liow the man was enabled 
to accomplish tliis act. It began with his lonely vigil and fast, 
when lie cried to the powers for help. Tlie scene then shifts to the 
circle of tlie lesser powers, wlio, in council, deliberate on tlie petition 
wliich makes its way to them and gains their consent. Then the 
Winds summon the messengers, and these, gatliering at the lesser 
powers' command, are sent to earth to the man crying in lonely places, 
to grant his desire. This part closes with a few vivid words which 
set forth that only by the favor and help of the powers had tlie man 
been able to do the deed. The third deals with the man's names, the 
one to be discarded and the one now to be assumed. 

This dramatic poem is in a rhythmic form imi^ossilile to reproduce 
iu English; neither is a literal translation adeciuate to convey its 
meaning, since a single word sometimes represents a complex action, 
to the understanding of which a knowledge of the customs and beliefs 
of the tribe is essential. The terseness of expression was also intended 
to close the meaning to the uninitiated, keeping it sacred from the 
common people. Although the form of tlie following rhythmic ren- 
dition could not be determined as heretofore l\v musical phrases, the 
English version contains nothing wliicli is not in the original text 
explained and amplified by the Ku'rahus. 

Rhytlnnic Rendition of Paicncr Text 

1358 Harken! 'Twas thus it came to pass: 

In ancient days, a Leader and his men 
Walked this wide earth, man's vast abode 
Roofed by the heavens, where dwell the gods." 
They readied a place, the spot no man can tell. 
Faced dangers dread, and vanquished them; 
Then, standing as if horn anew to life. 
Each warrior threw away the name 
That had Ijeen his ere yet these deeds were done. 

1359 HarkenI The Leader and his men 

Made there the Vict ry Song, and set the mark 
Ye must o'ertake. if ye would be like them I 

l:i60 Harken! The Leader and his men 

Turned then toward home. Their Vict'ry Sung 
Proclaimed them near: the village rose. 
Looked toward the hill, where on the top 
Stood the brave men singing their Song. 
Heralding thus the favor of the gods 
By which they had surpassed all former deeds, 
Made new their claim to be accounted men. 

nGods, meaning powers, is used solely on account of the rhythm. 



FLETCHER] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 367 

13(il Harkeii! And wheuce. think ye, was l)orne 

Uuto these men courage t(i dare. 

Strength to endui-e hardsliip and war? 

Mark well my words, as I reveal 

How the gods help man's feebleness. 

The Leader of these warriors was a man 

Given to prayer. Oft he went forth 

Seeking a place no one conld find. 

There would he stand, and lift his voice 

Fraught with desire, that he might be 

Invincible, a bulwark "gainst all foes 

Threafning his tribe, causing them fear. 

Nighttime and day this cry sped on. 

Traveling far, seeking to reach — 
Harken! Those places far above — 
Harken! Within the circle vast 

Where sit the gods, watching o'er men. 

1802 Harken! This poor man's prayer went on, 

Speeding afar into the blue 

Heavens above, reached there the place — 
Harken! Where dwell the lesser gods — 
Harken! And great Tira'wa, mightier than all! 

1363 Harken! It was because a god 

Received this prayer, considered it. 

Favored its plea, and passed it on 

To him whose place was next, in that grand ring. 

Who. in his tui'n received the prayer. 

Considered it, and sent it on — 
Harken! Around that circle vast — 
Harken! Where sit the gods above. 

1364 Harken! And thus it was the prayer 

Sent by this man won the consent 

Of all the gods. For each god in his place 

Speaks oiit his thought, grants or re.iects 

Mail's suppliant cry. asking for help: 

But none can act until the Council grand 

Comes to accord, thinks as one mind. 

Has but one will, all must obey, 
Harken! The Coirncil gave consent — 
Harken! And great Tira'wa. mightier than all. 

1365 Harken! To make their purpose known. 

Succor and aid freely to give. 

Heralds were called, called by the Winds: 

Then in the west uprose the Cloiids 

Heavy and black, ladened with stonn. 

Slowly they climbed, dark'ning the skies: 

While close on every side the Thunders marched 

On their dread way. 'till all were come 

To where the gods in stately Council sat 

Waiting for them. Then, l)ade them go 

Back to the earth, carrying aid 

To him whose prayer had reached their circle vast. 

This mandate given, the Thunders turaed toward earth, 

Taking their course slant\\nse the sky. 



368 THK HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. asn-.2-2 

13(50 Harkeul Anuther followed hard — 

Lightning broke forth out of the C'lond. 
Zizzag and dart, cleaving their way 
Slantwise to earth, their goal to reach. 

18(>T Harken! For these two were not all 

That hastened to proclaim the gods' behest; 
;3wift on their wings, Swallows in flocks 
Swept in advance, ranging the path. 
Black breasts and red, yellow, and white. 
Flying about, clearing the way 
For those who bore the message of the gods 
Granting the man courage to dare. 
Strength to endure, power to stand 
Invincible, a bulwark 'gainst all foes. 

13(58 HarkenI "Twas thus it came to pass: 

The Leader grasjjed the help sent by the gods; 
Henceforth he walked steadfast and strong. 
Leading his men thrcjugh dangers drear, 
Knowing that naught could strike at him 
To whom the gods had jiromised victory. 

13(50 Attend! Once more I change his namel 

13TU Harken! Riruts katit. it was 

We used to call liim by. a name he won 

Long days ago. marking an act 

'Well done by him. but now passed by. 

1371 Harken! To-day all men shall say — 

1372 HarkenI His act has lifted him 

"Where all his tribe behold a man 

1373 Clothed with new fame, strong in new strength. 

Gained by his deeds. Iilessed by the gods. 

Harken! Shaku ru "Wa rukste shall he be called. 



INDEX 



Page 
Alphabet used in record of Hako <^ere- 

mony _ 16 

Ash wood, use of, in Hako ceremony 19 

Atara, use of name, in Hako ceremony. . 44 

Awakokshu, the holy place 283 

Bath, sweat, of Kurahus 26 

Birds, regard for, in Hako ceremony 23 

treatment of 55 

Bird's nest, symbolism of __ 170 

Blue, symbolism of, in Hako cere- 
mony 20-22,38,44 

Bowl, wooden, symbolism of 44,289,350 

use of 20,42 

Buffalo, fat of, use of in Hako ceremony. 20 

hair of, symbolism of 23,47 

use of 20 

use of rope of 26 

robe of, use of 26 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony so, 81 

Chaui band of Pawnee tribe, obtaining of 

record of Hako ceremony from 13 
Chief, sacred objects in Hako c eremony 

carried by 23 

Child, rite of anointing the 222-236 

rite of blessing the 256-259 

rite of cleansing the, with water. 216-218, 351 

rite of painting the 227-234 

rite of placing the, in the nest 244, 245 

rite of putting the symbols on the. _ 235-342 

rite of seeking the 301-2a3,345 

rite of touching the 214-222,348 

thank offering for the 246 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony . . 346 

Children, feeding of . by fathers 1U5-117 

selection and duties of 18,19 

Clay, colored, use of, in Hako ceremony 20 

See Paint. 
Corn, ear of, function of, in Hako cere- 
mony 46 

journey to the sun by 50-56 

leadership of, assertion of 68-73, 

85-89,299.306,307 

leadership of, assumption of 59 

meaning of design painted on . . 44-46 

painting of 42-46.389,290 

plate representing 44 

sacred. 156 

symbolism of... 22,23,44,289 

useof 20 

sacred feast of 161,333 

Corona Boreaiis 234 

Dakota Indians, information from, re- 
garding Hako ceremony 
among the Pawnees 13 

22 ETH— PT 2 — 04 24 



Page 
Dance, ceremonial Hako, before de- 
parture 183 

Hako 353,:it>0 

of thanks, diagram of positions 

in 248 

performance of 347-256, 'MXi 

selection of dancers for 58 

Dancers in the Hako ceremony 247,249 

Dawn, consideration of, in Hako cere- 
mony _ 58 

Pawnee conception of 124,125,320,321 

Day, child of Nightaud Tirawa ... 137 

representation of, in Hako cere- 
mony 21 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony. . . 42 
Deer, fat of, use of, in Hako ceremony. 20 
skin of, use of, in Hako ceremony . _ 31 
Doctors, part taken by, in Hako cere- 
mony - 19 

Down, eagle, symbolism of 41,236,247 

Dreams, relation of, to visions, in 

Pawnee philosophy 121, 133 

Drums, ceremonial, of the Hako 247 

Duck, heads, necks, and breasts of, use 

of, in Hako ceremony 20 

symbolism of 21,40,175 

Dwelling, treatment of, in Hako cere- 
moo^' dS/M 

Eagle, breast feather of, symbolism of. 23, 47 

use of, in Hako ceremony 26,58 

brown, identity of 20 

symbolism of-- 20, 31, 43. 173, 194, ;i;» 

treatmentof, in Hako ceremony 39 

down of, symbolism of 41. 3^^6.347 

feathers of, use of, in Hakoceremony 30 

golden. See Eagle, brown; Eagle, 

white... 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony. 40,99, 100 
treatment of, in Hakoceremony ... 111-117 

white, identity of 31 

symbolism of 31, 193. 3.'<8 

wings of. use of. in Hakoceremony. 19.30 
Earth, regard for, in Hako ceremony.. 59 

representation of 21 , 22 

treatmentof 30,31,44.46 

Fat, symbolism of 23.244 

useof 20,26 

Father, articles furnished by, in Hako 

ceremony 20 

ceremonial dress of 58 

lodge of, diagrams of, during rit- 
ual 36,49,59.63 

rituals of Hako ceremony taking 

place at 19,2tt-58 

369 



370 



INDEX 



Page 
Father, preparation of, for the journey 

to the son 60 

reqnirementsand duties of 18.19,23 

Fathers, feeding of children by. 105-117,313-317 

gift of ponies to 260 

gifts to, by outsiders U7,327 

selection and duties of 18, 19 

Feathered stem, blue, painting of 37-39,287 

symbolism of 42,99 

brown-eagle. See Feathered stem, 
blue. 

decoration of , 37-^ 

green, painting of 39, 40, 288 

symbolism of 42,99 

preparation of sticks for 35 

songs for laying down 111-117 

sy mliolism of Ill 

white-eagle. Sre Feathered stem, 
green. 
Feathered stems, construction and sym- 
bolism of.... 20.21,283-391 

names of 19, 20 

plates representing 38, 40 

reverence of many tribes for 21.279 

transfer of, from tribe to tribe... 20,21.361 

Female force, invocation of 333-330 

symbols of 42,280,288,289 

Fire, treatment of, in Hako ceremony. 34,35 
Fireplace, treatment of, in Hako cere- 
mony.. 34 

Fletcher, Alice C, paper on the Hako, 

a Pawnee ceremony, by 1-368 

Four, symbolism of. in Hako ceremony. 68, 

93,96,187,283,315 

Four times four, sy mliolism of 298 

Four times four circuits of the lodge... 187- 

2in,340,341 

Gifts, bringing of, by children K»6.117,I2l 

distribution and acknowledgment 

of Hako 183 

final, of fathers to children; 182 

presentation of, to the fathers-. 253-256,260 

Grass, brush of, symbolism of 220,352 

sweet, use of, in Hako ceremony ... 20,26 

Green, symbolism of 21,40,288 

Hako, meaning and use of the name 17, 18 

Pawnee ceremony of, paper by A. C. 

Fletcher on 1-368 

presentation of, to the son. . 256-260, 361, :362 

supernatural origin of 149,150.328 

the making of 27-48. 283-291 

Hako ceremony, antiquity and wide 

prevalence of 279,280 

arrangement of paper on 16 

diagram of the .son's lodge during,. 105 

diagram showing movements of 

father's party during 67 

exchange of commodities through . 2^1 

harmonious structure of 282 

initial rites of 27-48, 283-291 

meanmg of ...■ 24,26 

names of 17, 18 

origin of 279,330 

personnel of 18, 19 

preparation for 26-58 

preparation of, scheme of 24 

public ceremony of ia5-l83, 313-339 



Page 

Hako ceremony, purpose of 49,50,280.287 

rendition and explanation of, by the 

Kurahus .. 26 

requisites of 19-2:^ 

rhythmic exprest-:ion in 282,283 

sacred objects of, care of.. 100 

vivification of 58,59,295,296 

scheme of 24-25 

secret rites of 18;i-247. 339-359 

symbolism of 20-2:^,280,281.361,362 

time of 23, 24 

unvarying sequeuceof 282 

work of, division of, among mem- 
bers of Hako party 100 

Holy place, treatment of, in Hako cere- 
mony. .. 32,33 

Horsehair, use of, in Hako ceremony . . 21 

Kawas, regard for, in Hako ceremony . 74, ;i02 
See Eagle, brown; Feathered stem, 
blue. 
Kurahus, articles furnished by, in Hako 

ceremony _ _ 20 

ceremony and dress of 26,58,59,60.296 

duties of 19,26 

gifts to 260 

meaning of title 15 

preparation for Hako ceremony by . 26 

preparations of, for journey to the 

son 59.60 

Kusharu . a sacred place 284 

La Flesche, Francis, aid rendered to 
author of paper on the Hako 

ceremony by 13 

Lodge, entrance way to, treatment of. 

in Hakoceremony. 36,37 

the father's, diagrams of 59,62 

the son's, consecration of 309-311 

diagram of, before taking the 

child 210 

during the preparation of 

the child _... 214 

during presentation of the 

Hako 257 

treatment of, in Hako ceremony . . . 33, M 

Male force, invocation of ;i25 

symbolism of 34,285 

symbols of 34,42,280,288 

Marquette, the feathered stem called a 

calumet by _ 279 

Moon, representation of, in Hako cere- 
mony.-- 21,42 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony .. 42 

Murie, James B., aid rendered to author 
of paper on the Hako cere- 

momy by 14 

Name,changingone's,Pawnee custom of 272,365 

rite of.... - 272-278 

Nest, oriole's, treatment of. in Hako 

ceremony 20 

use of - 20 

rite of making the 242-244,^57, 3W 

symbolism of 34,243-24r.,;i58 

treatment of Ill 

Night, representation of. m Hako cere- 
mony 21 

sy m holism of 42 

North, symbolism of 42 



INDEX 



371 



1-36 



19,20 
20 



Page 
North star, ti-eatment of. in Hako cere- 
mony - 29 

Ointment, composition of, for anoint- 
ing the child 222 

sacred, used in Hako ceremony 22. 23 

Omaha Indians, influence of. among 

Pawnees i;^ 

statement of. regarding Hako cere- 
mony among the Pawnees __ 13 
witnessing of Hako ceremony 

among 13 

Oriole, nest of, use of, in Hako cere- 
mony 20 

Owl, feathers of, use of, in Hako cere- 
mony 20 

symbolism of 21,40,176 

Paint, blue, origin of 46 

symbolism of 233 

use of, iu Hako ceremony 37,42 

red, symbolism of _ 228,353 

use of, in Hako ceremony 26 

Pawnee Indians, paper on the Hako 

ceremony observed among _ 
Phonetics. See Alphabet. 

Pipe, use of, iu Hako ceremony . _ 

Pipcstems, use of, in Hako ceremony. 
Plum wood, use of, in Hako ceremony 

symbolism of 23, 42 

Ponka Indians, report of, on Hako cere- 
mony among the Pawnees . . 13 

Powers, abode of 39 

lesser, function of 27 

Pawnee idea of 283,284,285 

manner of descent of, to man . . 22 

presentation of Hako party to_ . 63-68, 
297-299 
diagram of movements made 

during 67 

symbolic steps in recognition of 68.93, 
299,309 
Rabbit, hair of, use of, in Hako cere- 
mony 21 

Rain, conjuring 167 

Rain shrine, pipe of, use of 101-104 

priest of, duties of 19, 48 

part played by, in Hako cere- 
mony 101-104 

Raristesharu society ._ 234,235 

Rattles, gourd, plate representing 46 

symbolism of 22, 47 

Ray, the sun's flrst,strengtheningpower I 

of 58,134,325 ; 

Red, symbolism of, in Hako ceremony. 20,23,38 i 

Robes, gift of, to the poor 256 j 

Shell, symbolism of, in Hako ceremony 37 

use of, in Hako ceremony 20 j 

Skidi band of Pawnee tribe, peculiari- 
ties of Hako as made by 47 

Sky. representation of, in tako cere- 1 

mony 20,22 I 

Smoke, offering of 48. 101-104. 246. 312. .336. 358, a59 

for longevity - 168 

Bon, articles furnished by - 20 j 

choice of. in Hako ceremony 49-56,292 ' 

clothingof 101 

duties of. in Hako ceremony 81 



Page 

Son, journey to 68-89,301-308 

lodge of, consecration of 97-100,310-313 

entrance of Hako party into 93-96. 

309. 310 

songs sung in 80,81.84.85 

messenger of, clothing the 89,91. :%8 

messengers sent by Hako party to. . 56. 

57,294,2a5 

lu-efiguration of journey to 49-56, ;W2 

reception of the message by the 294 

requirements and duties of 18.19 

sending of messengers to 56-58 

village of, arrival of Hako party at. H7, 308 
entrance of Hako party into_ 92,93.:^I8 
Song acknowledging that Tii-awa an- 
swers prayer _ _ _ 196, 197. M-i 

asking the way of the ear of corn - . 70,:^) 

at the crossing of streams 75.303,304 

enjoining the Hako pai-ty to follow 

the ear of corn 68.:^00 

extra, acknowledging the gift of a 

pony 146 

invoking the earth to give 

plenty _ 144 

of the abode of visiims 155, ■^^l.iH^Z 

of the consecrated ear of corn . _ 159, 
160. a33 

of a talismanic ear of corn 157.:S32 

Hako dance, of gifts 255 

of thanks 254 

incidental, to avert a threatening 

storm ..-- 266 

in praise of lesser powers _ 108, 

163.199.314,334.344 

invoking visions 118, 319, 320 

invoking the visions of the ancients . 178. 

179.338 

of anointing the child-. 223,224.1^3 

of appeal of the son to the powers, . 101 , 312 
of approaching the son's village 
under the leadership of the 

ear of com y6.;i07 

of blessing the child 2.57. :i61 

of blue paint for the feathered stem, 37, 

38,200,288,:W5 

of carrying the child 212, 213. 350 

of cleansing and strengthening the 

child with water 215,;i51 

of coaxing the child 211,349 

of dawn 123,124,322 

of daylight 131.324 

of dreams of Hako coming from the 

east -,-. 149,329,^^1 

of earth 16:^335 

of finding the son 50.51,293.294 

of gratitude for Hako in the sixteen 

circuits of the lodge 195,:i43 

of gratitude in the sixteen circuits 

of the lodge... 189 

of gratitude of the children for 

Hako 142.327 

of green paint for the feathered 

stem 39,200,201. 289,:^> 

of greeting to the son 90. 204, 308, :iI7 

of greeting to the son's messengers. 90, ;^08 
of making the nest 242.358 



372 



INDEX 



Page 

Song of painting the ear of corn 43,205 

of paintingthechildwithbluepaint- 3:^1.355 
of painting the child with red paint. 227. 354 
of praise toTirawa bofure feeding 

the children . 107. Hi3. 199. 314. :m, 344 
of putting eagle down on the child. 235. 

236,350 

of seeking the child . _ 202, 346 

of seeking the son's lodge 92.203,309,346 

of sending the messengers 56, 295 

of thanks for Hako 177 

of the arrival at the son's village. . . 88, 307 

of the ascent of the ear of corn 43. 

2t)5.291,347.348 

of the bird's nest _. 169 

of tho brown eagle covering her 

young _ n(v317 

of the brown eagle entering the 

son's lodge 98.311 

of the brown eagle flyingto her nest. 114. 317 
of the brown eagle in the sixteen 

circuits of the lodge 193.342,343 

of the call to the children 249. 250, a59 

of the child in the nest 245.246 

of the child taking the symbolic 

steps _ 212,350 

of the coming of the children . . 251.252,360 

of the duck 174 

of the eagle hovering over the nest. 111. 

112,316 
of the eaglets crying to the mother 

bird 113.316 

of the ear of corn asserting au- 

. thority 71.301 

of the ear of corn entering the son's 

lodge 94. 310 

of the ear of cfjm resuming leader- 
ship... 60.61,297 

of the flocking of birds 184.340 

of the gathering of the children 250.360 

of theowL- - - 175,176 

uf the promise of buffalo 80, 305 

of t he smoke < )ff er ing of the sou . laS. 312. 313 

. )f the son's lodge 90. 309 

of the vision of Hako 147,329 

of the white eagle in the sixteen 

circuits of the lodge __ 191,::i42 

of the woodpecker and the turkey. 173 

of the wren 171 

of touching the child with the brush 

of grass _ 219,352 

of touching the child with the 

feathered stems 206, 207. :i49 

of tying the eagle's feather on the 

child - 23S,rS^9.;^7 

on feathering the feathered stem ., 41.289 
.summoning the children to send 

gifts 140,327 

to awaken the children VS2, 324 

to the buffalo 79,305 

to the ear of corn before feeding 

the children 109.314 

to the ear of corn in the sixteen cir- 
cuits of the lodge 188.341 



Page 

Song to the lesser powers 27-37, 281^286 

to the mesas 84, 306 

to the morning star 128,323 

to the mountains 82,305, :»6 

to the Pleiades 151, aSO 

to the powers (S, 398, 299 

to the sun 1.35,336 

to the wind 77.304 

to Tirawa before setting out 63, 64. 298 

to trees and streams _ _ 73. 303 

Songs, incidental, on changing a man's 

name 272,273,366-368 

to quiet the child 261-263,363 

South, symbolism of, in Hako cere- 
mony 42 

Spirit, Pawnee belief concerning 52 

Pawnee conception of 290 

Steps, four symbolic 349 

Sun. representation of, in Hako cere- 
mony - 21,42 

symbolism, of, in Hako ceremony . . 43 

treatment of, in Hako ceremony ... 30 

Sweat lodge, use of, in Hako ceremony. 26 

Tahirussawichi, Hako ceremony as 

given and explained by 2*>-278 

sketch of 14.15 

Tirawa. abode of _ _ _ 28 

belief in answer to prayer by 198 

father of all 162.284 

mediation between man and 27 

Pawnee ideas concerning 107. 109 

symbol cf..-- 23:^.:54 

diagi'am of the 233 

tracing of image of 67.68 

Tobacco, offering (jf, to the powers 102-104 

11 so of, in Hako ceremony _ .56-58 

Toharu, the living covering of the 

earth 220 

Tracy, Edwin S . ti-anscriptionof Hako 

music by 15. 16 

Veget-ation. treatment of, in Hako cere- 
mony - - 31 

Visions, abode of _ _ . 155, 156. 331 

invocation of 117-12:^,317-320.337 

Pawnee beliefs concerning 119. 318 

Water, running, use of, in Hako cere- 
mony 39.42,44 

symbolism of 1^50 

treatment of. in Hako ceremony . _ . 3:?. 

74,77.302 
Whistle, making of, of eagle's wing 

bone 185,193 

iise of, to imitate eagle's scream 183. 339 

Wild-cat. skin ttf, plate representing.. 48 
symbolism of. in Hako cere- 
mony... 47,48 

use of, in Hako ceremony 23 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony. . . :ii. Ill 
Wind, regard for, in Hako ceremony . . 59 

treatment of 29,30 

Woodpecker, head of, used in Hako 

ceremony 20 

j^y mbolism of 21 . 4<), 173 

Wren, symbolism of 172 



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